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Our Posthuman Future


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Francis Fukuyama is the author of The End of History, Trust and The Great Disruption. All have been international bestsellers and hugely influential. Fukuyama is in constant demand around the world in the media and as a speaker. He is Professor of International Political Economy at John Hopkins University.


Fukuyama (The End of History and the Last Man; Trust) is no stranger to controversial theses, and here he advances two: that there are sound nonreligious reasons to put limits on biotechnology, and that such limits can be enforced. Fukuyama argues that "the most significant threat" from biotechnology is "the possibility that it will alter human nature and thereby move us into a `posthuman' stage of history." The most obvious way that might happen is through the achievement of genetically engineered "designer babies," but he presents other, imminent routes as well: research on the genetic basis of behavior; neuropharmacology, which has already begun to reshape human behavior through drugs like Prozac and Ritalin; and the prolongation of life, to the extent that society might come "to resemble a giant nursing home." Fukuyama then draws on Aristotle and the concept of "natural right" to argue against unfettered development of biotechnology. His claim is that a substantive human nature exists, that basic ethical principles and political rights such as equality are based on judgments about that nature, and therefore that human dignity itself could be lost if human nature is altered. Finally, he argues that state power, possibly in the form of new regulatory institutions, should be used to regulate biotechnology, and that pessimism about the ability of the global community to do this is unwarranted. Throughout, Fukuyama avoids ideological straitjackets and articulates a position that is neither Luddite nor laissez-faire. The result is a well-written, carefully reasoned assessment of the perils and promise of biotechnology, and of the possible safeguards against its misuse. (Apr.) Forecast: As the FSG publicity material notes, Fukuyama famously declared in the wake of communism's collapse that "the major alternatives to liberal democracy" had "exhausted themselves." This less dramatic assessment should still win a hearing, if not among scientists then among a public concerned about science's growing power. Copyright 2001 Cahners Business Information.

'Deep and searching...explores human nature with his customary brilliance' Michael Gove, the Times

In his dense, well-researched new book, political scientist Fukuyama (The End of History) correctly predicts monumental forthcoming changes through biotechnology, raising challenging social, political, and economic issues. Drawing on behavioral genetics, "cosmetic" psychopharmacology, life prolongation, and the prospects for germline enhancement, he also tackles such hot-button issues as eugenics, embryonic stem-cell research, the overuse/misuse of psychotropic drugs, ageism, human cloning, and "designer babies." Discussing these and other topics, he calls for less polarized, more nuanced debates, acknowledging the global nature of technology and coherently arguing that the incomplete regulation of technology shouldn't discourage ongoing attempts at regulation. However, in claiming that "biotechnology will alter human nature, and thereby move us into a `posthuman' stage of history," Fukuyama overemphasizes genetics while underestimating genomics and the extent to which people will soon be faced with more, not less, uncertainty. Biological homeostasis is incredibly powerful, and new disease diagnoses, treatments, and concepts of disease are far closer to becoming reality than are genetic enhancements. Not the final word on this subject but a worthy addition to almost any library. [Previewed in Prepub Alert, LJ 12/01.] Mary Chitty, Cambridge Healthtech Inst., MA Copyright 2002 Cahners Business Information.

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