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Open Pit Mine Planning and Design: v. 1-2
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Table of Contents

1 MINE PLANNING 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 The meaning of ore 1.1.2 Some important definitions 1.2 Mine development phases 1.3 An initial data collection checklist 1.4 The planning phase 1.4.1 Introduction 1.4.2 The content of an intermediate valuation report 1.4.3 The content of the feasibility report 1.5 Planning costs 1.6 Accuracy of estimates 1.6.1 Tonnage and grade 1.6.2 Performance 1.6.3 Costs 1.6.4 Price and revenue 1.7 Feasibility study preparation 1.8 Critical path representation 1.9 Mine reclamation 1.9.1 Introduction 1.9.2 Multiple-use management 1.9.3 Reclamation plan purpose 1.9.4 Reclamation plan content 1.9.5 Reclamation standards 1.9.6 Surface and ground water management 1.9.7 Mine waste management 1.9.8 Tailings and slime ponds 1.9.9 Cyanide heap and vat leach systems 1.9.10 Landform reclamation 1.10 Environmental planning procedures 1.10.1 Initial project evaluation 1.10.2 The strategic plan 1.10.3 The environmental planning team 1.11 A sample list of project permits and approvals References and bibliography Review questions and exercises 2 MINING REVENUES AND COSTS 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Economic concepts including cash flow 2.2.1 Future worth 2.2.2 Present value 2.2.3 Present value of a series of uniform contributions 2.2.4 Payback period 2.2.5 Rate of return on an investment 2.2.6 Cash flow (CF) 2.2.7 Discounted cash flow (DCF) 2.2.8 Discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFROR) 2.2.9 Cash flows, DCF and DCFROR including depreciation 2.2.10 Depletion 2.2.11 Cash flows, including depletion 2.3 Estimating revenues 2.3.1 Current mineral prices 2.3.2 Historical price data 2.3.3 Trend analysis 2.3.4 Econometric models 2.3.5 Net smelter return 2.3.6 Price-cost relationships 2.4 Estimating costs 2.4.1 Types of costs 2.4.2 Costs from actual operations 2.4.3 Escalation of older costs 2.4.4 The original O'Hara cost estimator 2.4.5 The updated O'Hara cost estimator 2.4.6 Detailed cost calculations 2.4.7 Quick-and-dirty mining cost estimates 2.4.8 Current equipment, supplies and labor costs References and bibliography Review questions and exercises 3 OREBODY DESCRIPTION 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Mine maps 3.3 Geologic information 3.4 Compositing and tonnage factor calculations 3.4.1 Compositing 3.4.2 Tonnage factors 3.5 Method of vertical sections 3.5.1 Introduction 3.5.2 Procedures 3.5.3 Construction of a cross-section 3.5.4 Calculation of tonnage and average grade for a pit 3.6 Method of vertical sections (grade contours) 3.7 The method of horizontal sections 3.7.1 Introduction 3.7.2 Triangles 3.7.3 Polygons 3.8 Block models 3.8.1 Introduction 3.8.2 Rule-of-nearest points 3.8.3 Constant distance weighting techniques 3.9 Statistical basis for grade assignment 3.9.1 Some statistics on the orebody 3.9.2 Range of sample influence 3.9.3 Illustrative example 3.9.4 Describing variograms by mathematical models 3.9.5 Quantification of a deposit through variograms 3.10 Kriging 3.10.1 Introduction 3.10.2 Concept development 3.10.3 Kriging example 3.10.4 Example of estimation for a level 3.10.5 Block kriging 3.10.6 Common problems associated with the use of the kriging technique 3.10.7 Comparison of results using several techniques References and bibliography Review questions and exercises 4 GEOMETRICAL CONSIDERATIONS 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Basic bench geometry 4.3 Ore access 4.4 The pit expansion process 4.4.1 Introduction 4.4.2 Frontal cuts 4.4.3 Drive-by cuts 4.4.4 Parallel cuts 4.4.5 Minimum required operating room for parallel cuts 4.4.6 Cut sequencing 4.5 Pit slope geometry 4.6 Final pit slope angles 4.6.1 Introduction 4.6.2 Geomechanical background 4.6.3 Planar failure 4.6.4 Circular failure 4.6.5 Stability of curved wall sections 4.6.6 Slope stability data presentation 4.6.7 Slope analysis example 4.6.8 Economic aspects of final slope angles 4.7 Plan representation of bench geometry 4.8 Addition of a road 4.8.1 Introduction 4.8.2 Design of a spiral road - inside the wall 4.8.3 Design of a spiral ramp - outside the wall 4.8.4 Design of a switchback 4.8.5 The volume represented by a road 4.9 Road construction 4.9.1 Introduction 4.9.2 Road section design 4.9.3 Straight segment design 4.9.4 Curve design 4.9.5 Conventional parallel berm design 4.9.6 Median berm design 4.9.7 Haulage road gradients 4.9.8 Practical road building and maintenance tips 4.10 Stripping ratios 4.11 Geometric sequencing 4.12 Summary References and bibliography Review questions and exercises 5 PIT LIMITS 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Hand methods 5.2.1 The basic concept 5.2.2 The net value calculation 5.2.3 Location of pit limits - pit bottom in waste 5.2.4 Location of pit limits - pit bottom in ore 5.2.5 Location of pit limits - one side plus pit bottom in ore 5.2.6 Radial sections 5.2.7 Generating a final pit outline 5.2.8 Destinations for in-pit materials 5.3 Economic block models 5.4 The floating cone technique 5.5 The Lerchs-Grossmann 2-D algorithm 5.6 Modification of the Lerchs-Grossmann 2-D algorithm to a 21/2-D algorithm 5.7 The Lerchs-Grossmann 3-D algorithm 5.7.1 Introduction 5.7.2 Definition of some important terms and concepts 5.7.3 Two approaches to tree construction 5.7.4 The arbitrary tree approach (Approach 1) 5.7.5 The all root connection approach (Approach 2) 5.7.6 The tree `cutting' process 5.7.7 A more complicated example 5.8 Computer assisted methods 5.8.1 The RTZ open-pit generator 5.8.2 Computer assisted pit design based upon sections References and bibliography Review questions and exercises 6 PRODUCTION PLANNING 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Some basic mine life - plant size concepts 6.3 Taylor's mine life rule 6.4 Sequencing by nested pits 6.5 Cash flow calculations 6.6 Mine and mill plant sizing 6.6.1 Ore reserves supporting the plant size decision 6.6.2 Incremental financial analysis principles 6.6.3 Plant sizing example 6.7 Lane's algorithm 6.7.1 Introduction 6.7.2 Model definition 6.7.3 The basic equations 6.7.4 An illustrative example 6.7.5 Cutoff grade for maximum profit 6.7.6 Net present value maximization 6.8 Material destination considerations 6.8.1 Introduction 6.8.2 The leach dump alternative 6.8.3 The stockpile alternative 6.9 Production scheduling 6.9.1 Introduction 6.9.2 Phase scheduling 6.9.3 Block sequencing using set dynamic programming 6.9.4 Some scheduling examples 6.10 Push back design 6.10.1 Introduction 6.10.2 The basic manual steps 6.10.3 Manual push back design example 6.10.4 Time period plans 6.10.5 Equipment fleet requirements 6.10.6 Other planning considerations 6.11 The mine planning and design process - summary and closing remarks References and bibliography Review questions and exercises 7 REPORTING OF MINERAL RESOURCES AND ORE RESERVES 7.1 Introduction 7.2 The JORC code - 2004 edition 7.2.1 Preamble 7.2.2 Foreword 7.2.3 Introduction 7.2.4 Scope 7.2.5 Competence and responsibility 7.2.6 Reporting terminology 7.2.7 Reporting - General 7.2.8 Reporting of exploration results 7.2.9 Reporting of mineral resources 7.2.10 Reporting of ore reserves 7.2.11 Reporting of mineralized stope fill, stockpiles, remnants, pillars, low grade mineralization and tailings 7.3 The CIM best practice guidelines for the estimation of mineral resources and mineral reserves - general guidelines 7.3.1 Preamble 7.3.2 Foreword 7.3.3 The resource database 7.3.4 Geological interpretation and modeling 7.3.5 Mineral resource estimation 7.3.6 Quantifying elements to convert a Mineral Resource to a Mineral Reserve 7.3.7 Mineral reserve estimation 7.3.8 Reporting 7.3.9 Reconciliation of mineral reserves 7.3.10 Selected references References and bibliography Review questions and exercises 8 RESPONSIBLE MINING 8.1 Introduction 8.2 The 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment 8.3 TheWorld Conservation Strategy (WCS) - 1980 8.4 World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) 8.5 The `Earth Summit' 8.5.1 The Rio Declaration 8.5.2 Agenda 21 8.6 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) 8.7 Mining industry and mining industry-related initiatives 8.7.1 Introduction 8.7.2 The Global Mining Initiative (GMI) 8.7.3 International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) 8.7.4 Mining, Minerals, and Sustainable Development (MMSD) 8.7.5 The U.S. Government and federal land management 8.7.6 The position of the U.S. National Mining Association (NMA) 8.7.7 The view of one mining company executive 8.8 `Responsible Mining' - the way forward is good engineering 8.8.1 Introduction 8.8.2 The Milos Statement 8.9 Concluding remarks References and bibliography Review questions and exercises 9 ROCK BLASTING 9.1 General introduction to mining unit operations 9.2 Rock blasting 9.2.1 Rock fragmentation 9.2.2 Blast design flowsheet 9.2.3 Explosives as a source of fragmentation energy 9.2.4 Pressure-volume curves 9.2.5 Explosive strength 9.2.6 Energy use 9.2.7 Preliminary blast layout guidelines 9.2.8 Blast design rationale 9.2.9 Ratios for initial design 9.2.10 Ratio based blast design example 9.2.11 Determination of KB 9.2.12 Energy coverage 9.2.13 Concluding remarks References and bibliography Review questions and exercises 10 ROTARY DRILLING 10.1 Brief history of rotary drill bits 10.2 Rock removal action 10.3 Rock bit components 10.4 Roller bit nomenclature 10.5 The rotary blasthole drill machine 10.6 The drill selection process 10.7 The drill string 10.8 Penetration rate - early fundamental studies 10.9 Penetration rate - field experience 10.10 Pulldown force 10.11 Rotation rate 10.12 Bit life estimates 10.13 Technical tips for best bit performance 10.14 Cuttings removal and bearing cooling 10.15 Production time factors 10.16 Cost calculations 10.17 Drill automation References and bibliography Review questions and exercises 11 SHOVEL LOADING 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Operational practices 11.3 Dipper capacity 11.4 Some typical shovel dimensions, layouts and specifications 11.5 Ballast/counterbalance requirements 11.6 Shovel production per cycle 11.7 Cycle time 11.8 Cycles per shift 11.9 Shovel productivity example 11.10 Design guidance from regulations References and bibliography Review questions and exercises 12 HAULAGE TRUCKS 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Sizing the container 12.3 Powering the container 12.4 Propeling the container - mechanical drive systems 12.4.1 Introduction 12.4.2 Performance curves 12.4.3 Rimpull utilization 12.4.4 Retardation systems 12.4.5 Specifications for a modern mechanical drive truck 12.4.6 Braking systems 12.5 Propelling the container - electrical drive systems 12.5.1 Introduction 12.5.2 Application of the AC-drive option to a large mining truck 12.5.3 Specifications of a large AC-drive mining truck 12.5.4 Calculation of truck travel time 12.6 Propelling the container - trolley assist 12.6.1 Introduction 12.6.2 Trolley-equipped Komatsu 860E truck 12.6.3 Cycle time calculation for the Komatsu 860E truck with trolley assist 12.7 Calculation of truck travel time - hand methods 12.7.1 Introduction 12.7.2 Approach 1 - Equation of motion method 12.7.3 Approach 2 - Speed factor method 12.8 Calculation of truck travel time - computer methods 12.8.1 Caterpillar haulage simulator 12.8.2 Speed-factor based simulator 12.9 Autonomous haulage References and bibliography Review questions and exercises 13 MACHINE AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Time flow 13.3 Availability - node 1 13.4 Utilization - node 2 13.5 Working efficiency - node 3 13.6 Job efficiency - node 4 13.7 Maintenance efficiency - node 5 13.8 Estimating annual operating time and production capacity 13.9 Estimating shift operating time and production capacity 13.10 Annual time flow in rotary drilling 13.11 Application in prefeasibility work References and bibliography Review questions and exercises 14 THE CSMine TUTORIAL 14.1 Getting started 14.1.1 Hardware requirements 14.1.2 Installing CSMine 14.1.3 Running CSMine 14.2 The Arizona Copper property description 14.3 Steps needed to create a block model 14.4 Data files required for creating a block model 14.5 CSMine program design overview 14.6 Executing commands with CSMine 14.7 Starting the tutorial 14.8 The drill hole mode 14.8.1 Reading the drill hole file 14.8.2 Defining the block grid 14.8.3 Creating a drill hole plan map 14.8.4 Creating a drill hole section map 14.9 The composite mode 14.9.1 Calculating composites 14.9.2 Storing and loading composite files 14.9.3 Drill hole section plots with composites 14.10 The block mode 14.10.1 Calculating block grades 14.10.2 Creating block value plots 14.10.3 Creating contour maps 14.10.4 Assigning economic values to the blocks 14.10.5 The Restrictions command 14.10.6 Pit plots 14.10.7 The Slopes command 14.10.8 The Save and Print commands 14.11 Conclusion 14.12 Suggested exercises 15 CSMine USER'S GUIDE 15.1 Basics 15.1.1 File types 15.1.2 The project file 15.1.3 Changing modes 15.1.4 Formatting the data screen 15.1.5 Sorting data 15.1.6 Printing data 15.1.7 Coordinate system description 15.2 Drill hole mode 15.2.1 Drill hole data file description 15.2.2 Reading a drill hole file 15.2.3 Plotting a drill hole plan map 15.2.4 Plotting a drill hole section map 15.3 Composite mode 15.3.1 How composites are calculated 15.3.2 Creating composites 15.3.3 Saving composite files 15.3.4 Reading composite files 15.3.5 Composite file description 15.4 Block model mode 15.4.1 Defining the block model grid 15.4.2 Surface topography 15.4.3 Assigning block values 15.4.4 Creating a block model 15.4.5 Saving a block file 15.4.6 Reading a block file 15.4.7 Block file description 15.5 Economic block values 15.5.1 How economic values are calculated 15.5.2 Evaluation of the default formulas 15.5.3 Creating an economic block model 15.6 Pit modeling 15.6.1 Surface topography restrictions 15.6.2 Geometric pit limit restriction and pit slopes 15.6.3 Positive apexed cone limits 15.6.4 Three-dimensional floating cone 15.6.5 Entering pit slopes 15.6.6 Turning pit restrictions on and off 15.7 Block plots 15.7.1 The Configure command 15.7.2 The Next command 15.7.3 The Previous command 15.7.4 The Return command 15.7.5 Controlling which blocks are plotted 15.8 Contour plot 15.8.1 The Configure command 15.8.2 The Next command 15.8.3 The Previous command 15.8.4 The Return command 15.9 Plotting pit profiles 15.9.1 The Configure command 15.9.2 The Surface command 15.9.3 The Geometric command 15.9.4 The Outer_Economic command 15.9.5 The Floating_Cone command 15.9.6 The Return command 15.10 Block reports 15.10.1 The Restrictions command 15.10.2 The Configure command 15.10.3 The Return command 15.11 Summary statistics 15.11.1 The EX1.CMP data set 15.11.2 The EX2.CMP data set 15.11.3 Summary statistics description 15.11.4 Is a distribution normal? 15.11.5 Is a distribution lognormal? 15.11.6 The Transform command 15.11.7 The Statistics command 15.12 Variogram modeling 15.12.1 Introduction 15.12.2 Experimental variogram modeling 15.12.3 Anisotropy 15.12.4 The Variogram command Reference 16 THE MicroMODEL V8.1 MINE DESIGN SOFTWARE 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Program overview 16.2.1 Introduction 16.2.2 Data Entry Module overview 16.2.3 Surface Modeling Module overview 16.2.4 Rock Modeling Module overview 16.2.5 Drill Hole Compositing Module overview 16.2.6 Grade Modeling Module overview 16.2.7 Pit Generation and Reserves Evaluation Module overview 16.3 Data Entry Tutorial 16.3.1 Introduction 16.3.2 Some notes on input files 16.3.3 Getting started 16.3.4 Starting a demo project 16.3.5 Some special considerations 16.3.6 Constructing the Ariz_Cu model 16.4 Pit Generation tutorial 16.4.1 Introduction 16.4.2 Surface topography 16.4.3 Rock modeling 16.4.4 Compositing 16.4.5 Grade modeling 16.4.6 Pit creation 16.4.7 File manager 16.4.8 Happy times 16.5 Other data sets - Continuation 17 Orebody case examples 17.1 Introduction 17.2 The Arizona Copper property 17.2.1 Introduction 17.2.2 Historical background 17.2.3 Property topography 17.2.4 Geologic description 17.2.5 Mineralization 17.2.6 Drill hole data 17.2.7 Mining considerations 17.3 The Minnesota Natural Iron property 17.3.1 Introduction 17.3.2 Access 17.3.3 Climatic conditions 17.3.4 Historical background 17.3.5 Topography 17.3.6 General geologic setting 17.3.7 Mine-specific geology 17.3.8 An initial hand design 17.3.9 Economic basis 17.4 The Utah Iron property 17.4.1 Background 17.4.2 Mining history of the district 17.4.3 Property topography and surface vegetation 17.4.4 Climate 17.4.5 General geology 17.4.6 Mineralization 17.4.7 Mineral processing 17.4.8 Pit slopes 17.4.9 Initial cost estimates 17.4.10 Other considerations 17.5 The Minnesota Taconite property 17.5.1 Introduction 17.5.2 Location 17.5.3 History 17.5.4 Topography and surface conditions 17.5.5 General geology 17.5.6 Structural data 17.5.7 Mining data 17.5.8 Ore processing 17.6 The Kennecott Barneys Canyon Gold property 17.6.1 Introduction 17.6.2 Geologic setting 17.6.3 Resource definition 17.6.4 Geotechnical data 17.6.5 Topography and surface conditions 17.6.6 Climate 17.6.7 Ore processing 17.6.8 Mining data 17.7 The Newmont Gold property 17.7.1 Introduction 17.7.2 Property location 17.7.3 General geologic setting 17.7.4 Deposit mineralization 17.7.5 Topography and surface conditions 17.7.6 Local climatic conditions 17.7.7 Initial pit modeling parameters 17.8 The Codelco Andina Copper property 17.8.1 Introduction 17.8.2 Background information 17.8.3 Geology 17.8.4 Structural geology 17.8.5 Geotechnical slope analysis and design 17.8.6 Unit operations and initial costs for generating a pit 17.9 The Codelco Norte Copper property 17.9.1 Introduction 17.9.2 Location and access 17.9.3 Geology 17.9.4 Geotechnical information 17.9.5 Open pit geometry 17.9.6 Material handling systems 17.9.7 Metallurgical testing/process development 17.9.8 Leach pad design and operation 17.9.9 Mine design and plan 17.9.10 Unit operations and manpower 17.9.11 Economic analysis References Index

About the Author

William Hustrulid studied Minerals Engineering at the University of Minnesota. After obtaining his Ph.D. degree in 1968, his career has included responsible roles in both mining academia and in the mining business itself. He has served as Professor of Mining Engineering at the University of Utah and at the Colorado School of Mines and as a Guest Professor at theTechnical University in Lulea, Sweden. In addition, he has held mining R&D positions for companies in the USA, Sweden, and the former Republic of Zaire. He is a Member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and a Foreign Member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA). He currently holds the rank of Professor Emeritus at the University of Utah and manages Hustrulid Mining Services in Spokane,Washington. Mark Kuchta studied Mining Engineering at the Colorado School of Mines and received his Ph.D. degree from the Technical University in Lulea, Sweden. He has had a wide-ranging career in the mining business. This has included working as a contract miner in the uranium mines of western Colorado and 10 years of experience in various positions with LKAB in northern Sweden. At present, Mark is an Associate Professor of Mining Engineering at the Colorado School of Mines. He is actively involved in the education of future mining engineers at both undergraduate and graduate levels and conducts a very active research program. His professional interests include the use of high-pressure waterjets for rock scaling applications in underground mines, strategic mine planning, advanced mine production scheduling and the development of user-friendly mine software. Randall K. "Randy" Martin studied Metallurgical Engineering at the Colorado School of Mines and later received a Master of Science in Mineral Economics from Mines. He has over thirty years of experience as a geologic modeler and mine planner, having worked for Amax Mining, Pincock, Allen & Holt, and Tetratech. Currently he serves as President of R.K. Martin and Associates, Inc. His company performs consulting services, and also markets and supports a variety of software packages which are used in the mining industry. He is the principal author of the MicroMODEL (R) software included with this textbook.

Reviews

The two volumes [...] make up a comprehensive guidebook of all aspects related to mine planning and design and are an excellent reference for aspects such as the economic evaluation of `surface' ore deposits, statistical analysis of mineralization data, open-pit mining procedures and issues such as sustainability. Each chapter ends with a detailed list of hundreds of references and bibliography, followed by a series of `Review combined questions and exercises' that would assist any mining engineering lecturer in setting assignments, tests and examinations. As a handbook for any aspiring mining engineer, there is no doubt that this is a very valuable document and package. Phil Paige-Green, Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, Vol. 48, 2015, pp. 264 Appropriate for diverse audiences, this book is an outstanding technical reference that provides the reader with an understanding of the fundamental principles associated with the design and planning of modern surface open-pit mines. The book is well-written and addresses topical subjects in a manner highly conducive for use in undergraduate and graduate education, as well as by a wide range of professionals interested in the subject. The text emphasizes the influence of economic and environmental considerations in mine design and planning, where applied engineering principles and approaches are effectively introduced through numerous examples and exercises. While the book is ideally suited for students in mineral related disciplines, seasoned professionals will also find it extremely useful as a technical reference. Overall, it is an excellent book that successfully introduces the interdisciplinary aspects of surface design and planning in a straight-forward, easy to understand manner that challenges the reader to think in a broader context about the subject. Hugh B. Miller, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Mining Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA Over the years, attempts have been made to capture the essence of open pit engineering. Past volumes have been organized by assembling papers and chapters written by experts and practitioners. These works contain valuable information but often digress into specialized areas and frequently repeat introductory material. Students who are trying to put all this information into a practical context find the repetition tedious and often are overwhelmed by esoteric subtopics. In this two-volume treatise, Dr.Hustrulid and his coauthors have captured the essence of ore body modeling, open pit planning, unit operations, and responsible mining in an organized and succinct manner. This work is especially valuable for mining students who are eager to learn about open pit mining and for the faculty tasked to teach the topic. The software included with the volumes provides an excellent introduction to computerized planning and a logical transition to more complicated programs. M. K. McCarter, Ph.D., P.E., Professor of Mining Engineering, Malcolm N. McKinnon Endowed Chair, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Open Pit Mine Planning and Design is an ideal textbook for courses in surface mine design, open pit design, geological and excavation engineering, and in advanced open pit mine planning and design, and can also be a priceless reference resource for active professionals around the world. Australian Journal of Mining, October 30, 2014

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