IntroductionA Tragic Century . . ."Every Earth Zone . . ."Earth . . . the Progenitor of all ThingsPart I. The Steppe Belt in the Mega-Structure of the Eurasian WorldChapter 1. The Formation of the Eurasian World Structure and Mega-Structure in Eurasian GeoecologyCulture and Subsistence StrategyThe Long Road to a Continental Mega-StructureFour Continental "Enclaves"Chapter 2. Transitions from North to South: Geoecology, Subsistence and the Eurasian Steppe BeltNorth-South, East-West The Geoecological "Cake" of Eurasia Differences between the DomainsThe Geoecology of the Eurasian Steppe BeltThe West-Eurasian Steppe and Its BordersThe Dzungarian Gate and Mongolian Mountain SteppeArabian Desert PlateausThe Domain of Nomadic CultureChapter 3. Transitions from East to West: Across the Layers of the Eurasian GeoecologyThe East in Eurocentric PerspectiveDividing Lines and Defining Borders: The Mountains between East and WestThe Line between Asia and EuropeWest and East Beyond the Geoecological FrameworkAnthropologyLinguisticsIdeological SystemsPart II. The Archaeology of Nomadic Cultures Chapter 4. Archaeology and History: Sources of DifferenceArchaeology and History: Pre-Literate and Literate Understanding Differences in Method and ApproachInterpreting Archaeological SourcesThe Complexity of Burial StructuresArchaeologists as the Denizens of the AfterworldThe "Mongolian Syndrome" of Nomadic CulturesChapter 5. "Gifts" from the Nomads: Pastoral Contributions to World History Self-Perception and the Perception of OthersPerception of the Steppe NomadsHorse RidingMonotheismMounds and Mausoleums The "Bridge" between East and WestThe Tides of Cultural InfluenceChapter 6. Nomadic Cultures in the Early Metal Age: Archaeological Time, Technology, and Territor The Duration of Archaeological TimeRiders and MetalMetal and the "Ages" of PrehistoryAt the Origins of MetallurgyOther Innovations of the Early Metal AgeAccepted Norms and Acceptable Industries Early Metal Age as a Eurasian PhenomenonTerritorial "Leaps" of Early Metal Age CulturesThe Problem of Spatial StagnationChapter 7. The "Proto-Metal" Age in EurasiaThe Roots of the Early Metal AgeEastern Anatolia: Cayoenu Tepesi, Tell Halula, Nevali Cori and Goebekli Tepe, Koertik TepeCentral Anatolia: Asikli-Hoeyuk, Catal-HoeyukThe Levant: Jericho and Tell AswadThe End of the "Proto-Metal" AgeChapter 8. Metallurgical Revolution in the Carpatho-Balkan RegionBeginning of the Metal Age: Chalcolithic/EneolithicThe Balkan NeolithicThe Structure of the Carpatho-Balkan Metallurgical ProvinceThe Central Block: The Varna Necropolis, the Ai Bunar Copper MineThe Second Block: The Tripolye CommunityThe Third Block: Herders in the Steppe Cultural Continuity in the SteppeDriving ChangeChapter 9. The Origins of the Circumpontic Metallurgical ProvinceThe Emergence of a New Province and the Start of the Early Bronze AgeThe Mounds of the "Maykop""Maykop" Settlements and EconomyThe Mysteries of the "Maykop"Chapter 10. The Circumpontic Metallurgical Province and Caucasian "Corridor" The Turn of the Middle Bronze Age in the Southern DomainThe "Occupation" of the Carpatho-Balkan ZoneArslantepe: The "Hall of Weapons" and the "Royal Tomb"The Metal in Arslantepe and Its Parallels Traces of the South in the "Maykop" NorthFrom the Proto-Circumpontic to the Circumpontic Metallurgical ProvinceThe Drift of Gold around the Black SeaNorthern Axes in the SouthChapter 11. The Circumpontic Province and the Nomads of the Steppe Belt The Middle Bronze Age in the Northern Domain Three Groups of North-Caucasian CulturesAn Impulse to the North: The Steppe Kurgan Cultures The "Yamna" Archaeological Community The "Pioneers" of Mining-Metallurgical Industries in the Steppe The First Wave of Nomadic Migration from West to East The Catacomb Archaeological Community The Radiocarbon Chronology of Steppe Cultures Montelius's Morphological Paradigm and the Steppe CommunitiesChapter 12. Great Leap and Great Stagnation The Late Bronze Age A Genie, Bursting out of the FurnaceDefining the Great Stagnation The Cultural Core of EurasiaChapter 13. The Second Millennium: Revolutionary Changes in the Eurasian Steppe From the Ruins of the Circumpontic ProvinceThe West-Asian (Eurasian) Metallurgical Province: Change in the Character of CulturesThe "Democratic" Character of the Steppe Cultures The Dawn of the West-Asian ProvinceThe West-Asian Province: The Period of Stabilization The Kargaly Mining-Metallurgical Center PhenomenonThe Disintegration of the West-Asian ProvinceThe Second and Third Waves from the West to the EastThe Peculiarities of the West-Asian Province and a Number of Unanswerable Questions Chapter 14. The Neighbours of the West-Asian Metallurgical ProvinceThe Formation of New SystemsThe European Metallurgical Province The Caucasian Metallurgical ProvinceThe West-Asian, European and Caucasian Provinces: The Differences in Focus The Iranian-Anatolian Metallurgical Province The Hyksos-Manetho-Josephus Flavius Chapter 15. From the Center of Asia to the West: The Forerunners of Genghis Khan?The Seima-Turbino Transcultural Phenomenon Cemeteries or Memorial Sanctuaries? The Metal of "Seima-Turbino" Chemical-Metallurgical Groups Animal Images on the "Seima-Turbino" MetalworkA Caravan of Animals: The "Hallmarks" of Strangers from the East The Cultures of Central Asia and the "Mongolian Syndrome" Foreign WarriorsThe End of the Seima-Turbino Phenomenon Chapter 16. East Asian Steppe and Ancient Chinese Metallurgical ProvincesIn Search of "Seima-Turbino" HeritageThe Karasuk Culture and the East Asian Steppe Metallurgical ProvinceThe Ancient Chinese (Shang-Zhou) Metallurgical ProvinceChapter 17. At the Roots of the Age of IronThe Fifth Age of MetalThe Spatial and Chronological Framework of the Iron AgeThe Periodization of Technological and Social Development: The Problem of CoordinationChapter 18. The Scythian World through the Eyes of HerodotusThe Scythians: Who Are They?The Origins of the Scythians According to Herodotus On the Funerals of KingsThe Scythians and the Hellenes: Inter-PerceptionsChapter 19. The Scythian World through the Eyes of ArchaeologistsThe Scythians: Who Are They (Archaeologically)?Two Thousand Years On: The Heirs of the "Maykop" CultureThe Greatness of Scythian Burial MoundsThe Royal Kurgans and Their GeographyScythian Metals and Their SourcesScythian GoldThe Rejection of the Old WorldThe Irrational Aspect of CultureThe Sarmatians Replace the ScythiansPart III. Nomadic Culture in Historical ContextChapter 20. The Transformation of the Pastoralists of ArabiaOn the Sources of RevelationThe Battle of Badr and the Beginning of the Muslim ConquestsFirst Wave of ConquestsSecond Wave of Conquests: Iberian PeninsulaBattle of Talas and Dzungarian GateChapter 21. A Collision of Worlds: Islam and CatholicismIntellectual Rise in Arab CaliphatesGeographical Lore in EuropeEurope Aims at PalestineThe People's CrusadeThe Capture of JerusalemThe Further Adventures of the CrossChapter 22. The First Wave from the East: the HunsCollapse of the Pillars of StabilityThe Huns in the West Attila the HunAfter AttilaChapter 23. The "Huns" in the EastWhere Are Their Roots? The Xiongnu and the Han: The Reliability of Chinese Texts A Pendulum of Victory and DefeatWeak Han, Strong "Huns"A Telling Exchange between Chanyu and EmperorEnticing the Xiongnu: The Advice of Jia YiThe Importance of Military Organization: The Advice of Chao CuoStrong Han, Weak "Huns"The Tombs of the Eastern "Huns"Chapter 24. A Second Wave from the East: The TurksChaos in Peoples, Chaos in ChroniclesThe Successors of the Xiongnu: Rouran and XianbeiTurkic KhanatesRhythms of Victory and DefeatThe Turkic WorldIn Search of Correspondence between Written and Archaeological RecordsChapter 25. The Heirs of the Western Turkic KhanateWho are the Bulgars? Khazars and Their KhanateThe OghuzChapter 26. The Third Wave from the East: China and the MongolsThe "Secret History" of the MongolsMengda BeiluDynastic Histories and ChroniclesChildhood and Adolescence of TemujinThe First Steps of Genghis KhanThe Year of the TigerThe Conquest of Tangut: The Western Xia Dynasty and the Death of Genghis KhanThe Defeat of the Jurchen Jin The Demise of the Song DynastyThe Mongols in TibetCentaurs with BallistaeThe Great Wall of ChinaChapter 27. Third Wave from the East: The Mongols and the World of IslamBeginning: The First Mongol Campaign to the WestThe Fall of KhwarezmFrom Samarkand to Kalka and Back to MongoliaFrom Hatred to FlatteryChapter 28. A Third Wave from the East: The Mongols and the Christian WorldUnexpected StrangersThe Second Expedition to the West: A Decision to Conquer the WorldEndangered Rus'The Catholic World AlertedAttempts to Organize Collective ResistanceCatholics Take a More Rationalized ApproachWilliam of Rubruck and Marco PoloChapter 29. The Fall of the Great Mongol EmpireThe Apogee of an EmpireMicroscopic PolygonThree Generations of Conquerors Defeats without BattlesAntaeus and Odysseus The Softening of Brutal SoulsChapter 30. An Eastern MillenniumThree Eastern Waves: Similarities and DifferencesWritten Sources and Their Advantages and DisadvantagesHistorical Realities and the "Mongolian Syndrome"Great Silk Way and ArcheologyThe Fate of Mongolian CitiesPart IV. Rus', Russia, and the Nomadic WorldChapter 31. Why Only Rus'?History and Archaeology RevisitedThe Historians of the Kievan Rus'"Bad Environment, Bad Neighbours"Chapter 32. From the Avars to the Time of TroublesAvars, Khazars, and PechenegsThe CumansThe Mongols: The Kalka RiverFour Years and Four Waves of Batu Khan's ConquestsThe Mongol Yoke and the Russian PrincesThe Kulikovo BattleThe Weakening of the HordeFrom the Great Standoff on the Ugra River to Ivan the Terrible From Ivan the Terrible to the Time of TroublesChapter 33. The Early Modern Period: Rupturing of the Borders of the Eurasian NucleusClimatic Centuries in the Transition to the Early Modern PeriodA Rupture in the WestThe Iberian Wave and the Dream of the IndiesAmerigo Vespucci and AmericaThe Gold of South AmericaThe British Wave and the Global DreamCaptain Hudson and New Amsterdam Thirteen British Colonies and the Origins of the Independence of AmericaThe British Empire Chapter 34. Sarmatia Asiatica and Sarmatia EuropeanaEvaluation of the Events of Two Centuries AgoThe "Barrier" of KazanFrom the Urals to Cape DezhnyovEncounters on the Amur: The Manchus Peaceful Assimilation?Furs Instead of GoldThe Steppe Belt and ChinaThe Colonization of Northern Eurasia and the Blockade of the Steppe BeltChapter 35. Breaking Borders: Colonization in Principle and PracticeThe Burden of "Civilization" New Worlds, New OpportunitiesSources of PleasureThe Modes of Russian ColonizationCrossing Continents: Russian AmericaThe Fate of the Colonized Chapter 36. An Assault on the SteppeThe Crimean Thorn: The "Fortress" of the Southwestern SteppeThe Prince of TaurisAn Ural FootholdKirilov's WindowRychkov: Ethnographer, Historian, and AccountantInto the Kazakh SteppesThe Last Days of the Kazakh KhanateAt the Gates of Bukhara "Zheltorossii": The Manchurian ProjectThe End of the Insuperable Steppe World?Chapter 37. The Soviet Steppe A Short Road to the Soviet Empire"Unbreakable Union of Freeborn Republics . . ."The Immediate Tasks of the Soviet GovernmentSuccesses and AchievementsSetbacks and Failures"Bulwark of Peoples in Brotherhood Strong . . ."Central Asia: A Century LaterImpressions of Mongolia: 60 Years LaterThe Field and the Harvest of Sorrow The SteppePart V. In Place of an Epilogue: Difficult Questions and Complex ProblemsChapter 38. Reflections on Life among Complex Problems Thirty Years on . . .On the Periodization of the Early Metal Age Radiocarbon-Based Chronology and the Paradigm of the Contemporary ArchaeologyModels of Development: TransformationBlows to Montelius's IdeasModels of Development: Leaps, Surges, and ExplosionsIn Search of the Origins of Technological Innovations and the Issue of MigrationChapter 39. Ideology and Culture The Normative FactorThe Normative Factor and the Religious Principles of the East and the WestThe Normative Factor and Funerary Rites Chapter 40. Self-Sufficency and Historical DevelopmentMetallurgy as a Marker of TransformationSelf-SufficiencyEurasia and Africa: The Fate of the Ancestral Homeland of Humankind The Colonization and Re-Colonization of Australia Appendix 1. Radiocarbon Chronology of the Early Metal Cultures in Western EurasiaAppendix 2. In Thirst of Immortality: Genghis Khan and the Mission of Changchun the MonkAppendix 3. Marriott Hotel and Batu KhanAppendix 4. The Last Descendant of Genghis Khan?Appendix 5. The Great Silk Road and the Secret Mission of Chokan ValikhanovHistorical SourcesBibliography
Evgenij N. Chernykh is a Russian archaeologist. A Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, he is the Head of the Laboratory of the Scientific Methods of the Institute of Archaeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow. Professor Chernykh is the author of more than 400 scholarly publications primarily focusing on the scientific methodology in archaeological studies; the development of metallurgy in the ancient cultures of Eurasia; the economic structure of ancient Eurasian world.