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Moral Philosophy
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Table of Contents

1. MORALITY AND MORAL REASONING. Kinds of Moral Judgment. Moral Judgments and Moral Reasons. Evaluating Moral Arguments. The Concept of Moral Judgment. Moral Disagreement. Morality and Law. Basic Moral Principles. Basic Moral Principles are Neither True Nor Justified. Agreement on Basic Moral Principles. Duties to Ourselves? 2. NATURAL LAW AND DIVINE COMMANDS. Stoicism. Thomas Aquinas. Hobbes. Philippa Foot. The Divine Command Theory. Problems for the Divine Command Theory. Religion and a Meaningful Life. 3. REALISM, NIHILISM, SUBJECTIVISM AND RELATIVISM. Moral Realism. Moral Nihilism. Moral Subjectivism. Moral Relativism. 4. PSYCHOLOGICAL EGOISM AND MORAL EGOISM. Commonsense Morality. Psychological Egoism. Moral Egoism. 5. UTILITARIANISM. Act Utilitarianism. Rule Utilitarianism. Problems for All Versions of Utilitarianism. 6. KANTIAN MORAL THEORY. Kant and the Good Will. Actions and Maxims. The Categorical Imperative. 7. VIRTUE AND VICE. Which Are the Virtues, Which Are the Vices? Aristotle on Virtue. the Unity of Virtue. Epicureans. Stoicism. Hobbes and Hume. The Seven Deadly Sins. Virtues as Dispositions to Obey Moral Rules. Virtue and Vice in Hinduism: Ahimsa. Virtue and Vice in Buddhism. Character and Freedom. 8. HUMAN RIGHTS. Assaults on Human Dignity. Rights. The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Classification of Rights. John Stuart Mill and the Harm Principle. Feinberg: Four Possible Principles Legitimating Coercion. Seven Basic Freedoms. Subsistence Rights. 9. FEMINISM AND SEXUAL EQUALITY. Patriarchy. First Wave Feminism in the United States. Second Wave Feminism in the United States. The Current State of Women in the United States. Women Outside the United States. Contemporary Feminist Theory: The Third Wave. Liberal Feminism. The Ideal of Androgyny. International Documents on Women''s Rights. Male Justice versus Female Care Approaches to Moral Decision Making. Are Justice and Care Approaches Incompatible? INTERLUDE: MORAL DECISION MAKING. INTERLUDE: THINKING ABOUT CASE STUDIES. McWane, Inc. Death and Tobacco. Allegations of Unethical Pharmaceutical Studies in Nigeria. Terrorism, Interrogation, and Torture. Insurance Fraud. Police Brutality in New York City. Prosecutor Withholds Evidence from the Defense. Florida Ban on Gay Adoptions. Tainted Evidence? The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Nancy Cruzan. The Philadelphia Head-Injury Studies on Primates. 10. MORALITY AND SEX. Sex Without Marriage. Sex and Happiness. Moral Duties within Sexual Relationships. The Double Standard. Pornography. Adultery. Prostitution. Homosexuality. 11. LIFE AND DEATH ISSUES. Abortion. Suicide. Euthanasia. 12. ECONOMIC INEQUALITY, POVERTY AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY. Is Too Much Economic Inequality Morally Wrong? Is Poverty in the Midst of Affluence Morally Wrong? Equal Opportunity. Justice, Fairness, and Taxes. 13. RACISM AND AFFIRMATIVE ACTION. Solutions to Racism. 14. PUNISHMENT. Social Protection. Desert. Competence: Age, Mental Health, and Intelligence. 15. WAR AND PEACE. Peace. The Just War Tradition. Justice in Waging War. Justice in the Aftermath of War. Unconventional Weapons. Deterrence. 16. ETHICS AND ENVIRONMENT. Environmental Threats. International Declarations and Agreements on the Environment. Creating a Sustainable Society. Environmental Racism and Justice. Life-Centered vs. Human-Centered Environmental Ethics.

About the Author

Emmett Barcalow, who received a Ph.D. from Columbia University, is a Professor of Philosophy and English and Chair of the Department of Communication and Humanities at Western New England College. He is also the author of MORAL PHILOSOPHY: THEORIES AND ISSUES (Wadsworth) and OPEN QUESTIONS: AN INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY (Oxford University Press).

Reviews

1. MORALITY AND MORAL REASONING. Kinds of Moral Judgment. Moral Judgments and Moral Reasons. Evaluating Moral Arguments. The Concept of Moral Judgment. Moral Disagreement. Morality and Law. Basic Moral Principles. Basic Moral Principles are Neither True Nor Justified. Agreement on Basic Moral Principles. Duties to Ourselves? 2. NATURAL LAW AND DIVINE COMMANDS. Stoicism. Thomas Aquinas. Hobbes. Philippa Foot. The Divine Command Theory. Problems for the Divine Command Theory. Religion and a Meaningful Life. 3. REALISM, NIHILISM, SUBJECTIVISM AND RELATIVISM. Moral Realism. Moral Nihilism. Moral Subjectivism. Moral Relativism. 4. PSYCHOLOGICAL EGOISM AND MORAL EGOISM. Commonsense Morality. Psychological Egoism. Moral Egoism. 5. UTILITARIANISM. Act Utilitarianism. Rule Utilitarianism. Problems for All Versions of Utilitarianism. 6. KANTIAN MORAL THEORY. Kant and the Good Will. Actions and Maxims. The Categorical Imperative. 7. VIRTUE AND VICE. Which Are the Virtues, Which Are the Vices? Aristotle on Virtue. the Unity of Virtue. Epicureans. Stoicism. Hobbes and Hume. The Seven Deadly Sins. Virtues as Dispositions to Obey Moral Rules. Virtue and Vice in Hinduism: Ahimsa. Virtue and Vice in Buddhism. Character and Freedom. 8. HUMAN RIGHTS. Assaults on Human Dignity. Rights. The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Classification of Rights. John Stuart Mill and the Harm Principle. Feinberg: Four Possible Principles Legitimating Coercion. Seven Basic Freedoms. Subsistence Rights. 9. FEMINISM AND SEXUAL EQUALITY. Patriarchy. First Wave Feminism in the United States. Second Wave Feminism in the United States. The Current State of Women in the United States. Women Outside the United States. Contemporary Feminist Theory: The Third Wave. Liberal Feminism. The Ideal of Androgyny. International Documents on Women's Rights. Male Justice versus Female Care Approaches to Moral Decision Making. Are Justice and Care Approaches Incompatible? INTERLUDE: MORAL DECISION MAKING. INTERLUDE: THINKING ABOUT CASE STUDIES. McWane, Inc. Death and Tobacco. Allegations of Unethical Pharmaceutical Studies in Nigeria. Terrorism, Interrogation, and Torture. Insurance Fraud. Police Brutality in New York City. Prosecutor Withholds Evidence from the Defense. Florida Ban on Gay Adoptions. Tainted Evidence? The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Nancy Cruzan. The Philadelphia Head-Injury Studies on Primates. 10. MORALITY AND SEX. Sex Without Marriage. Sex and Happiness. Moral Duties within Sexual Relationships. The Double Standard. Pornography. Adultery. Prostitution. Homosexuality. 11. LIFE AND DEATH ISSUES. Abortion. Suicide. Euthanasia. 12. ECONOMIC INEQUALITY, POVERTY AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY. Is Too Much Economic Inequality Morally Wrong? Is Poverty in the Midst of Affluence Morally Wrong? Equal Opportunity. Justice, Fairness, and Taxes. 13. RACISM AND AFFIRMATIVE ACTION. Solutions to Racism. 14. PUNISHMENT. Social Protection. Desert. Competence: Age, Mental Health, and Intelligence. 15. WAR AND PEACE. Peace. The Just War Tradition. Justice in Waging War. Justice in the Aftermath of War. Unconventional Weapons. Deterrence. 16. ETHICS AND ENVIRONMENT. Environmental Threats. International Declarations and Agreements on the Environment. Creating a Sustainable Society. Environmental Racism and Justice. Life-Centered vs. Human-Centered Environmental Ethics.

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