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Microsoft Visual C# Step by Step

Your hands-on guide to Microsoft Visual C# fundamentals with Visual Studio 2015 Expand your expertise--and teach yourself the fundamentals of programming with the latest version of Visual C# with Visual Studio 2015. If you are an experienced software developer, you'll get all the guidance, exercises, and code you need to start building responsive, scalable Windows 10 and Universal Windows Platform applications with Visual C#. Discover how to: Quickly start creating Visual C# code and projects with Visual Studio 2015 Work with variables, operators, expressions, and methods Control program flow with decision and iteration statements Build more robust apps with error, exception, and resource management Master the essentials of Visual C# object-oriented programming Use enumerations, structures, generics, collections, indexers, and other advanced features Create in-memory data queries with LINQ query expressions Improve application throughput and response time with asynchronous methods Decouple application logic and event handling Streamline development with new app templates Implement the Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) pattern Build Universal Windows Platform apps that smoothly adapt to PCs, tablets, and Windows phones Integrate Microsoft Azure cloud databases and RESTful web services About You For software developers who are new to Visual C# or who are upgrading from older versions Readers should have experience with at least one programming language No prior Microsoft .NET or Visual Studio development experience required
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Table of Contents

Introduction xix PART I: INTRODUCING MICROSOFT VISUAL C# AND MICROSOFT VISUAL STUDIO 2015 Chapter 1: Welcome to C# 3 Beginning programming with the Visual Studio 2015 environment 3 Writing your first program 8 Using namespaces 14 Creating a graphical application 17 Examining the Universal Windows Platform app 26 Adding code to the graphical application 29 Summary 32 Quick Reference 32 Chapter 2: Working with variables, operators, and expressions 33 Understanding statements 33 Using identifiers 34 Identifying keywords 34 Using variables 36 Naming variables 36 Declaring variables 37 Working with primitive data types 37 Unassigned local variables 38 Displaying primitive data type values 38 Using arithmetic operators 45 Operators and types 45 Examining arithmetic operators 47 Controlling precedence 52 Using associativity to evaluate expressions 53 Associativity and the assignment operator 53 Incrementing and decrementing variables 54 Prefix and postfix 55 Declaring implicitly typed local variables 56 Summary 57 Quick Reference 58 Chapter 3: Writing methods and applying scope 59 Creating methods 59 Declaring a method 60 Returning data from a method 61 Using expression-bodied methods 62 Calling methods 63 Applying scope 66 Defining local scope 66 Defining class scope 67 Overloading methods 68 Writing methods 68 Using optional parameters and named arguments 77 Defining optional parameters 79 Passing named arguments 79 Resolving ambiguities with optional parameters and named arguments 80 Summary 85 Quick reference 86 Chapter 4: Using decision statements 87 Declaring Boolean variables 87 Using Boolean operators 88 Understanding equality and relational operators 88 Understanding conditional logical operators 89 Short circuiting 90 Summarizing operator precedence and associativity 90 Using if statements to make decisions 91 Understanding if statement syntax 91 Using blocks to group statements 93 Cascading if statements 94 Using switch statements 99 Understanding switch statement syntax 100 Following the switch statement rules 101 Summary 104 Quick reference 105 Chapter 5: Using compound assignment and iteration statements 107 Using compound assignment operators 107 Writing while statements 108 Writing for statements 114 Understanding for statement scope 115 Writing do statements 116 Summary 125 Quick reference 125 Chapter 6: Managing errors and exceptions 127 Coping with errors 127 Trying code and catching exceptions 128 Unhandled exceptions 129 Using multiple catch handlers 130 Catching multiple exceptions 131 Propagating exceptions 136 Using checked and unchecked integer arithmetic 138 Writing checked statements 139 Writing checked expressions 140 Throwing exceptions 143 Using a finally block 148 Summary 149 Quick reference 150 PART II: UNDERSTANDING THE C# OBJECT MODEL Chapter 7: Creating and managing classes and objects 153 Understanding classification 153 The purpose of encapsulation 154 Defining and using a class 154 Controlling accessibility 156 Working with constructors 157 Overloading constructors 158 Understanding static methods and data 167 Creating a shared field 168 Creating a static field by using the const keyword 169 Understanding static classes 169 Static using statements 170 Anonymous classes 172 Summary 174 Quick reference 174 Chapter 8: Understanding values and references 177 Copying value type variables and classes 177 Understanding null values and nullable types 183 Using nullable types 185 Understanding the properties of nullable types 186 Using ref and out parameters 187 Creating ref parameters 188 Creating out parameters 188 How computer memory is organized 190 Using the stack and the heap 192 The System.Object class 193 Boxing 194 Unboxing 194 Casting data safely 196 The is operator 196 The as operator 197 Summary 199 Quick reference 199 Chapter 9: Creating value types with enumerations and structures 201 Working with enumerations 201 Declaring an enumeration 202 Using an enumeration 202 Choosing enumeration literal values 203 Choosing an enumeration's underlying type 204 Working with structures 206 Declaring a structure 208 Understanding differences between structures and classes 209 Declaring structure variables 210 Understanding structure initialization 211 Copying structure variables 215 Summary 219 Quick reference 219 Chapter 10: Using arrays 221 Declaring and creating an array 221 Declaring array variables 221 Creating an array instance 222 Populating and using an array 223 Creating an implicitly typed array 224 Accessing an individual array element 225 Iterating through an array 225 Passing arrays as parameters and return values for a method 227 Copying arrays 228 Using multidimensional arrays 230 Creating jagged arrays 231 Summary 241 Quick reference 242 Chapter 11: Understanding parameter arrays 243 Overloading-a recap 243 Using array arguments 244 Declaring a params array 245 Using params object[ ] 247 Using a params array 249 Comparing parameter arrays and optional parameters 252 Summary 254 Quick reference 254 Chapter 12: Working with inheritance 255 What is inheritance? 255 Using inheritance 256 The System.Object class revisited 258 Calling base-class constructors 258 Assigning classes 259 Declaring new methods 261 Declaring virtual methods 262 Declaring override methods 263 Understanding protected access 265 Understanding extension methods 271 Summary 275 Quick reference 276 Chapter 13: Creating interfaces and defining abstract classes 277 Understanding interfaces 277 Defining an interface 278 Implementing an interface 279 Referencing a class through its interface 280 Working with multiple interfaces 281 Explicitly implementing an interface 282 Interface restrictions 283 Defining and using interfaces 284 Abstract classes 293 Abstract methods 295 Sealed classes 295 Sealed methods 295 Implementing and using an abstract class 296 Summary 302 Quick reference 303 Chapter 14: Using garbage collection and resource management 305 The life and times of an object 305 Writing destructors 306 Why use the garbage collector? 308 How does the garbage collector work? 310 Recommendations 310 Resource management 311 Disposal methods 311 Exception-safe disposal 312 The using statement and the IDisposable interface 312 Calling the Dispose method from a destructor 314 Implementing exception-safe disposal 316 Summary 325 Quick reference 325 PART III: DEFINING EXTENSIBLE TYPES WITH C# Chapter 15: Implementing properties to access fields 329 Implementing encapsulation by using methods 329 What are properties? 331 Using properties 333 Read-only properties 334 Write-only properties 334 Property accessibility 335 Understanding the property restrictions 336 Declaring interface properties 337 Replacing methods with properties 339 Generating automatic properties 343 Initializing objects by using properties 345 Summary 349 Quick reference 350 Chapter 16: Using indexers 353 What is an indexer? 353 An example that doesn't use indexers 353 The same example using indexers 355 Understanding indexer accessors 357 Comparing indexers and arrays 358 Indexers in interfaces 360 Using indexers in a Windows application 361 Summary 367 Quick reference 368 Chapter 17: Introducing generics 369 The problem with the object type 369 The generics solution 373 Generics vs. generalized classes 375 Generics and constraints 375 Creating a generic class 376 The theory of binary trees 376 Building a binary tree class by using generics 379 Creating a generic method 389 Defining a generic method to build a binary tree 389 Variance and generic interfaces 391 Covariant interfaces 393 Contravariant interfaces 395 Summary 397 Quick reference 397 Chapter 18: Using collections 399 What are collection classes? 399 The List collection class 401 The LinkedList collection class 403 The Queue collection class 404 The Stack collection class 405 The Dictionary collection class 407 The SortedList collection class 408 The HashSet collection class 409 Using collection initializers 411 The Find methods, predicates, and lambda expressions 411 The forms of lambda expressions 413 Comparing arrays and collections 415 Using collection classes to play cards 416 Summary 420 Quick reference 420 Chapter 19: Enumerating collections 423 Enumerating the elements in a collection 423 Manually implementing an enumerator 425 Implementing the IEnumerable interface 429 Implementing an enumerator by using an iterator 431 A simple iterator 432 Defining an enumerator for the Tree class by using an iterator 434 Summary 436 Quick reference 437 Chapter 20: Decoupling application logic and handling events 439 Understanding delegates 440 Examples of delegates in the .NET Framework class library 441 The automated factory scenario 443 Implementing the factory control system without using delegates 443 Implementing the factory by using a delegate 444 Declaring and using delegates 447 Lambda expressions and delegates 455 Creating a method adapter 455 Enabling notifications by using events 456 Declaring an event 456 Subscribing to an event 457 Unsubscribing from an event 457 Raising an event 458 Understanding user interface events 458 Using events 460 Summary 466 Quick reference 466 Chapter 21: Querying in-memory data by using query expressions 469 What is LINQ? 469 Using LINQ in a C# application 470 Selecting data 472 Filtering data 474 Ordering, grouping, and aggregating data 475 Joining data 477 Using query operators 479 Querying data in Tree objects 481 LINQ and deferred evaluation 487 Summary 491 Quick reference 491 Chapter 22: Operator overloading 493 Understanding operators 493 Operator constraints 494 Overloaded operators 494 Creating symmetric operators 496 Understanding compound assignment evaluation 498 Declaring increment and decrement operators 499 Comparing operators in structures and classes 500 Defining operator pairs 500 Implementing operators 501 Understanding conversion operators 508 Providing built-in conversions 508 Implementing user-defined conversion operators 509 Creating symmetric operators, revisited 510 Writing conversion operators 511 Summary 513 Quick reference 514 PART IV: BUILDING UNIVERSAL WINDOWS PLATFORM APPLICATIONS WITH C# Chapter 23: Improving throughput by using tasks 517 Why perform multitasking by using parallel processing? 517 The rise of the multicore processor 518 Implementing multitasking by using the Microsoft .NET Framework 519 Tasks, threads, and the ThreadPool 520 Creating, running, and controlling tasks 521 Using the Task class to implement parallelism 524 Abstracting tasks by using the Parallel class 536 When not to use the Parallel class 541 Canceling tasks and handling exceptions 543 The mechanics of cooperative cancellation 543 Using continuations with canceled and faulted tasks 556 Summary 557 Quick reference 557 Chapter 24: Improving response time by performing asynchronous operations 559 Implementing asynchronous methods 560 Defining asynchronous methods: The problem 560 Defining asynchronous methods: The solution 564 Defining asynchronous methods that return values 569 Asynchronous method gotchas 570 Asynchronous methods and the Windows Runtime APIs 572 Using PLINQ to parallelize declarative data access 575 Using PLINQ to improve performance while iterating through a collection 576 Canceling a PLINQ query 580 Synchronizing concurrent access to data 581 Locking data 584 Synchronization primitives for coordinating tasks 584 Canceling synchronization 587 The concurrent collection classes 587 Using a concurrent collection and a lock to implement thread-safe data access 588 Summary 598 Quick reference 599 Chapter 25: Implementing the user interface for a Universal Windows Platform app 601 Features of a Universal Windows Platform app 602 Using the Blank App template to build a Universal Windows Platform app 605 Implementing a scalable user interface 607 Applying styles to a UI 638 Summary 649 Quick reference 649 Chapter 26: Displaying and searching for data in a Universal Windows Platform app 651 Implementing the Model-View-ViewModel pattern 651 Displaying data by using data binding 652 Modifying data by using data binding 659 Using data binding with a ComboBox control 663 Creating a ViewModel 665 Adding commands to a ViewModel 669 Searching for data using Cortana 680 Providing a vocal response to voice commands 692 Summary 695 Quick reference 696 Chapter 27: Accessing a remote database from a Universal Windows Platform app 697 Retrieving data from a database 698 Creating an entity model 703 Creating and using a REST web service 712 Inserting, updating, and deleting data through a REST web service 728 Reporting errors and updating the UI 738 Summary 746 Quick reference 747 Index 749

About the Author

John Sharp is a principal technologist at Content Master, part of CM Group Ltd., a technical authoring and consulting company based in Gloucester, in the UK. An expert on developing Microsoft .NET applications, he has created many tutorials, white papers, and presentations on distributed systems, web services, cloud applications, and the C# language. He is the author of Windows Communication Foundation Step by Step and helped develop Microsoft Certification Course 70-480: Programming in HTML5 with JavaScript and CSS3.

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