Methods in Behavioral Research


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ContentsPreface xiiAbout the Authors xix1 SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING OF BEHAVIOR 1Importance of Research Methods 2Ways of Knowing 4Goals of Behavioral Science 8Basic and Applied Research 12Study Terms 18Review Questions 18Activities 18Answers 192 WHERE TO START 20Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Predictions 21Sources of Ideas 22Types of Research Reports 28Exploring Past Research 35Study Terms 44Review Questions 44Answers 443 ETHICS IN BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH 45Milgram's Obedience Experiment 46Historical Context of Current Ethical Standards 48APA Ethics Code 49Assessment of Risks and Benefits 51Informed Consent 54The Importance of Debriefing 59Institutional Review Boards 60Research with Nonhuman Animal Subjects 62Being an Ethical Researcher: The Issue ofMisrepresentation 64Conclusion: Risks and Benefits Revisited 68Study Terms 71Review Questions 71Activities 71Answers 734 FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH ISSUES 74Validity: An Introduction 75Variables 75Operational Definitions of Variables 76Relationships Between Variables 78Nonexperimental Versus Experimental Methods 83Experimental Methods: Additional Considerations 92Evaluating Research: Summary of the Three Validities 96Study Terms 97Review Questions 98Activities 98Answers 1005 MEASUREMENT CONCEPTS 101Reliability of Measures 102Construct Validity of Measures 107Reactivity of Measures 110Variables and Measurement Scales 111Study Terms 117Review Questions 117Activities 117Answers 1186 OBSERVATIONAL METHODS 119Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches 120Naturalistic Observation 121Systematic Observation 124Case Studies 127Archival Research 128Study Terms 133Review Questions 134Activities 134Answers 1357 ASKING PEOPLE ABOUT THEMSELVES: SURVEY RESEARCH 136Why Conduct Surveys? 137Constructing Questions to Ask 139Responses to Questions 143Finalizing the Survey Instrument 146Administering Surveys 147Survey Designs to Study Changes Over Time 150Sampling From a Population 151Sampling Techniques 153Evaluating Samples 156Reasons for Using Convenience Samples 159Study Terms 161Review Questions 162Activities 162Answers 1638 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 164Confounding and Internal Validity 165Basic Experiments 166Assigning Participants to Experimental Conditions 171Study Terms 180Review Questions 180Activities 180Answers 1819 CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS 182Selecting Research Participants 183Manipulating the Independent Variable 184Measuring the Dependent Variable 190Additional Controls 194Final Planning Considerations 197Analyzing and Interpreting Results 200Communicating Research to Others 200Study Terms 202Review Questions 202Activities 203Answers 20410 COMPLEX EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS 205Increasing the Number of Levels of an Independent Variable 206Increasing the Number of Independent Variables: Factorial Designs 208Outcomes of a 2 x 2 Factorial Design 213Assignment Procedures and Factorial Designs 216Increasing the Number of Levels of an Independent Variable 218Factorial Designs with Three or More Independent Variables 219Study Terms 222Review Questions 222Activities 223Answers 22311 SINGLE-CASE, QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL, AND DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH 224Single-Case Experimental Designs 225Quasi-Experimental Designs 229Developmental Research Designs 238Study Terms 243Review Questions 243Activities 24412 UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH RESULTS: DESCRIPTION AND CORRELATION 246Scales of Measurement: A Review 247Describing Results 248Frequency Distributions 250Descriptive Statistics 252Graphing Relationships 253Correlation Coefficients: Describing the Strength of Relationships 255Effect Size 260Regression Equations 261Multiple Correlation/Regression 262The Third-Variable Problem 264Structural Equation Modeling 265Study Terms 267Review Questions 267Activities 268Answers 26913 UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH RESULTS: STATISTICAL INFERENCE 270Samples and Populations 271Inferential Statistics 272Null and Research Hypotheses 272Probability and Sampling Distributions 273Group Differences: The t and F Tests 276Type I and Type II Errors 282Choosing a Significance Level 285Interpreting Nonsignificant Results 286Choosing a Sample Size: Power Analysis 288The Importance of Replications 289Significance of a Pearson r Correlation Coefficient 289Computer Analysis of Data 289Selecting the Appropriate Statistical Test 290Study Terms 293Review Questions 294Activities 294Answers 29514 GENERALIZATION 296Generalizing to Other Populations 297Generalizing Across Methods 303Supporting Good External Validity 305The Importance of Replications 306Evaluating Generalizations via Literature Reviews and Meta-analyses 310Using Research to Improve Lives 312Study Terms 313Review Questions 314Activities 314APPENDIX A: REPORTING RESEARCH 315Introduction 315Writing Your Report 316Formatting Your Report 322Organization of the Report 324The Use of Headings 335Citing and Referencing Sources 336Abbreviations 345Reporting Numbers and Statistics 346Conclusion: Written Reports 348Paper and Poster Presentations 348Sample Paper 352APPENDIX B: ETHICAL PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGISTSAND CODE OF CONDUCT 371Preamble 371General Principles 372Standard 8: Research and Publication 374APPENDIX C: STATISTICAL TESTS 378Descriptive Statistics 378Statistical Significance and Effect Size 381Glossary 399References 407Index 419

About the Author

Paul C. Cozby is Professor of Psychology at California State University, Fullerton, and Northcentral University. Dr. Cozby was an undergraduate at the University of California, Riverside, and received his Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Minnesota. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association, member of the Association for Psychological Science, and has served as officer of the Society for Computers in Psychology. He is Executive Officer of the Western Psychological Association. He is the author of Using Computers in the Behavioral Sciences and co-editor with Daniel Perlman of Social Psychology. Scott C. Bates is a Professor of Psychology, Associate Dean of the School of Graduate Studies, and Associate Vice President for Research at Utah State University. He earned a B.S. in Psychology from Whitman College, an M.S. in Psychology from Western Washington University, and a Ph.D. in social psychology from Colorado State University. His research interests and experiences are varied. He has conducted research in areas as wide-ranging as adolescent problem behavior and problem-behavior prevention, teaching and learning in higher education, and the psychology consequences of growing and tending plants in outer space.

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