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Medical Instrumentation Application and Design
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Preface v List of Symbols ix 1 BASIC CONCEPTS OF MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION 1 Walter H. Olson 1.1 Terminology of Medicine and Medical Devices 4 1.2 Generalized Medical Instrumentation System 5 1.3 Alternative Operational Modes 7 1.4 Medical Measurement Constraints 9 1.5 Classifications of Biomedical Instruments 12 1.6 Interfering and Modifying Inputs 12 1.7 Compensation Techniques 13 1.8 Biostatistics 16 1.9 Generalized Static Characteristics 19 1.10 Generalized Dynamic Characteristics 25 1.11 Design Criteria 35 1.12 Commercial Medical Instrumentation Development Process 37 1.13 Regulation of Medical Devices 39 Problems 42 References 43 2 BASIC SENSORS AND PRINCIPLES 45 Robert A. Peura and John G. Webster 2.1 Displacement Measurements 45 2.2 Resistive Sensors 46 2.3 Bridge Circuits 53 2.4 Inductive Sensors 53 2.5 Capacitive Sensors 56 2.6 Piezoelectric Sensors 58 2.7 Temperature Measurements 62 2.8 Thermocouples 63 2.9 Thermistors 66 2.10 Radiation Thermometry 69 2.11 Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensors 74 2.12 Optical Measurements 74 2.13 Radiation Sources 75 2.14 Geometrical and Fiber Optics 79 2.15 Optical Filters 82 2.16 Radiation Sensors 83 2.17 Optical Combinations 86 Problems 87 References 88 3 AMPLIFIERS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING 91 John G. Webster 3.1 Ideal Op Amps 91 3.2 Inverting Amplifiers 93 3.3 Noninverting Amplifiers 96 3.4 Differential Amplifiers 97 3.5 Comparators 100 3.6 Rectifiers 102 3.7 Logarithmic Amplifiers 103 3.8 Integrators 104 3.9 Differentiators 107 3.10 Active Filters 108 3.11 Frequency Response 110 3.12 Offset Voltage 112 3.13 Bias Current 114 3.14 Input and Output Resistance 115 3.15 Phase-Sensitive Demodulators 117 3.16 Timers 120 3.17 Microcomputers in Medical Instrumentation 122 Problems 123 References 125 4 THE ORIGIN OF BIOPOTENTIALS 126 John W. Clark, Jr. 4.1 Electrical Activity of Excitable Cells 126 4.2 Volume-Conductor Fields 135 4.3 Functional Organization of the Peripheral Nervous System 138 4.4 The Electroneurogram 140 4.5 The Electromyogram 144 4.6 The Electrocardiogram 147 4.7 The Electroretinogram 158 4.8 The Electroencephalogram 163 4.9 The Magnetoencephalogram 181 Problems 182 References 186 5 BIOPOTENTIAL ELECTRODES 189 Michael R. Neuman 5.1 The Electrode-Electrolyte Interface 189 5.2 Polarization 192 5.3 Polarizable and Nonpolarizable Electrodes 196 5.4 Electrode Behavior and Circuit Models 202 5.5 The Electrode-Skin Interface and Motion Artifact 205 5.6 Body-Surface Recording Electrodes 209 5.7 Internal Electrodes 215 5.8 Electrode Arrays 220 5.9 Microelectrodes 222 5.10 Electrodes for Electric Stimulation of Tissue 231 5.11 Practical Hints in Using Electrodes 233 Problems 235 References 239 6 BIOPOTENTIAL AMPLIFIERS 241 Michael R. Neuman 6.1 Basic Requirements 241 6.2 The Electrocardiograph 243 6.3 Problems Frequently Encountered 254 6.4 Transient Protection 264 6.5 Common-Mode and Other Interference-Reduction Circuits 266 6.6 Amplifiers for Other Biopotential Signals 269 6.7 Example of a Biopotential Preamplifier 274 6.8 Other Biopotential Signal Processors 275 6.9 Cardiac Monitors 282 6.10 Biotelemetry 287 Problems 288 References 291 7 BLOOD PRESSURE AND SOUND 293 Robert A. Peura 7.1 Direct Measurements 295 7.2 Harmonic Analysis of Blood-Pressure Waveforms 300 7.3 Dynamic Properties of Pressure-Measurement Systems 301 7.4 Measurement of System Response 308 7.5 Effects of System Parameters on Response 310 7.6 Bandwidth Requirements for Measuring Blood Pressure 311 7.7 Typical Pressure-Waveform Distortion 311 7.8 Systems for Measuring Venous Pressure 313 7.9 Heart Sounds 314 7.10 Phonocardiography 318 7.11 Cardiac Catheterization 318 7.12 Effects of Potential and Kinetic Energy on Pressure Measurements 323 7.13 Indirect Measurements of Blood Pressure 325 7.14 Tonometry 330 Problems 335 References 336 8 MEASUREMENT OF FLOW AND VOLUME OF BLOOD 338 John G. Webster 8.1 Indicator-Dilution Method That Uses Continuous Infusion 338 8.2 Indicator-Dilution Method That Uses Rapid Injection 341 8.3 Electromagnetic Flowmeters 344 8.4 Ultrasonic Flowmeters 350 8.5 Thermal-Convection Velocity Sensors 361 8.6 Chamber Plethysmography 364 8.7 Electrical-Impedance Plethysmography 366 8.8 Photoplethysmography 372 Problems 374 References 375 9 MEASUREMENTS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 377 Frank P. Primiano, Jr. 9.1 Modeling the Respiratory System 378 9.2 Measurement of Pressure 385 9.3 Measurement of Gas-Flow 388 9.4 Lung Volume 396 9.5 Respiratory Plethysmography 404 9.6 Some Tests of Respiratory Mechanics 411 9.7 Measurement of Gas Concentration 425 9.8 Some Tests of Gas Transport 436 Problems 443 References 446 10 CHEMICAL BIOSENSORS 449 Robert A. Peura 10.1 Blood-Gas and Acid-Base Physiology 451 10.2 Electrochemical Sensors 453 10.3 Chemical Fibrosensors 461 10.4 Ion-Selective Field-Effect Transistor 475 10.5 Immunologically Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor 478 10.6 Noninvasive Blood-Gas Monitoring 479 10.7 Blood-Glucose Sensors 486 10.8 Electronic Noses 492 10.9 Lab-on-a-Chip 493 10.10 Summary 494 Problems 495 References 495 11 CLINICAL LABORATORY INSTRUMENTATION 498 Lawrence A. Wheeler 11.1 Spectrophotometry 499 11.2 Automated Chemical Analyzers 508 11.3 Chromatology 512 11.4 Electrophoresis 515 11.5 Hematology 517 Problems 526 References 527 12 MEDICAL IMAGING SYSTEMS 528 Melvin P. Siedband 12.1 Information Content of an Image 528 12.2 Modulation Transfer Function 535 12.3 Noise-Equivalent Bandwidth 536 12.4 Television Systems 537 12.5 Radiography 540 12.6 Computed Radiography 549 12.7 Computed Tomography 553 12.8 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 561 12.9 Nuclear Medicine 566 12.10 Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography 572 12.11 Positron Emission Tomography 573 12.12 Ultrasonography 576 12.13 Contrast Agents 585 Problems 587 References 589 13 THERAPEUTIC AND PROSTHETIC DEVICES 590 Michael R. Neuman 13.1 Cardiac Pacemakers and Other Electric Stimulators 590 13.2 Defibrillators and Cardioverters 606 13.3 Mechanical Cardiovascular Orthotic and Prosthetic Devices 611 13.4 Hemodialysis 615 13.5 Lithotripsy 618 13.6 Ventilators 619 13.7 Infant Incubators 622 13.8 Drug Delivery Devices 624 13.9 Surgical Instruments 629 13.10 Therapeutic Applications of the Laser 632 Problems 633 References 635 14 ELECTRICAL SAFETY 638 Walter H. Olson 14.1 Physiological Effects of Electricity 639 14.2 Important Susceptibility Parameters 641 14.3 Distribution of Electric Power 646 14.4 Macroshock Hazards 650 14.5 Microshock Hazards 653 14.6 Electrical-Safety Codes and Standards 658 14.7 Basic Approaches to Protection Against Shock 659 14.8 Protection: Power Distribution 660 14.9 Protection: Equipment Design 663 14.10 Electrical-Safety Analyzers 667 14.11 Testing the Electric System 667 14.12 Tests of Electric Appliances 669 Conclusion 673 Problems 673 References 674 Appendix 676 A.1 Physical Constants 676 A.2 International System of Units (SI) Prefixes (Thompson and Taylor, 2008) 676 A.3 International System of Units (Thompson and Taylor, 2008) 677 A.4 Abbreviations 678 A.5 Chemical Elements 681 Index 683

About the Author

John G. Webster is Professor Emeritus at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

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