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Marine Fisheries Ecology
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Table of Contents

Preface ix Acknowledgements xii 1 Marine fisheries ecology: an introduction 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Fisheries of the world 1 1.2.1 History of fisheries 1 1.2.2 Fishery science 6 1.2.3 Diversity of fisheries 7 1.3 Patterns of exploitation 9 1.3.1 Boom and bust 9 1.3.2 Conservation and ecosystem concerns 14 1.4 Why manage fisheries? 14 1.5 Objectives of management 15 1.5.1 Range of objectives 15 1.5.2 Balancing objectives 16 1.5.3 From objective to action 17 1.6 Meeting management objectives 17 1.7 Structure of this book 18 Summary 20 2 Marine ecology and production processes 21 2.1 Introduction 21 2.2 Primary production: sources and magnitude 21 2.3 Phytoplanktonic production 22 2.3.1 Links between production and physical processes 22 2.3.2 Upwellings and fronts 24 2.3.3 Rates of phytoplanktonic production 25 2.4 Non-phytoplanktonic production 28 2.4.1 Macroalgae 28 2.4.2 Mangroves 29 2.4.3 Coral reef algae 29 2.4.4 Seagrasses and marsh plants 30 2.4.5 Microphytobenthos 31 2.5 Heterotrophic production 31 2.5.1 The fate of primary production 31 2.5.2 Transfer along the food chain 32 2.5.3 Production of fished species 34 2.5.4 Linking primary production and landings 37 Summary 38 3 Fished species life histories and distribution 39 3.1 Introduction 39 3.2 Fishes 39 3.3 Invertebrates 41 3.4 Life histories 55 3.4.1 Sex sex reversal and sex ratios 55 3.4.2 Growth maturity and longevity 56 3.4.3 Egg size fecundity and reproduction 59 3.5 Distribution in space and time 62 3.5.1 Geographical ranges and stock structures 62 3.5.2 Migration 62 3.5.3 Larval transport retention and dispersal 65 3.5.4 Metapopulations 68 Summary 69 4 Population structure in space and time 70 4.1 Introduction 70 4.2 Recruitment 70 4.2.1 Spawner and recruit relationships 71 4.2.2 Mortality during the early life history 78 4.2.3 Depensation 83 4.2.4 Regulation in fish populations 85 4.3 Density-dependent habitat use 86 Summary 88 5 Fishing gears and techniques 90 5.1 Introduction 90 5.2 From shoreline gathering to satellites 90 5.3 Modern commercial fishing gears 94 5.3.1 Towed fishing gear 95 5.3.2 Static fishing gear 103 5.4 Other fishing techniques 106 5.5 Conservation methods 108 Summary 111 6 Fishers: socioeconomics and human ecology 112 6.1 Introduction 112 6.2 Motivations for fishing 112 6.2.1 Food 112 6.2.2 Income 113 6.3 Modifications to fishing behaviour 115 6.3.1 Social 115 6.3.2 Religion 117 6.4 Conflicts and conflict resolution 118 6.4.1 Competing for fish 118 6.4.2 Fish wars 121 6.4.3 Fishers in the political process 122 6.4.4 Traditional management systems 123 6.4.5 Customary marine tenure 124 6.4.6 Co-management 125 Summary 126 7 Single-species stock assessment 127 7.1 Introduction 127 7.2 Balancing birth and death 127 7.3 Surplus production models 128 7.3.1 Stability 128 7.3.2 Models of population growth 130 7.3.3 Fitting models to data 130 7.3.4 Surplus production models in action 132 7.4 Delay-difference models 135 7.4.1 Delay-difference models in action 137 7.5 Virtual population analysis 138 7.5.1 Age-based cohort analysis 140 7.5.2 Length-based cohort analysis 143 7.6 Statistical catch-at-age methods 144 7.7 Yield-per-recruit models 145 7.7.1 Yield-per-recruit models in action 146 7.8 Incorporating recruitment 149 7.8.1 Replacement lines 149 7.8.2 Replacement lines in action 150 7.9 Confronting risk and uncertainty 152 7.9.1 Bayesian analysis 153 7.9.2 Resampling methods 154 7.10 Biological reference points 155 Summary 157 8 Multispecies assessment and ecosystem modelling 159 8.1 Introduction 159 8.2 Multispecies surplus production 159 8.2.1 Multispecies surplus production in action 160 8.3 Multispecies yield per recruit 162 8.3.1 Multispecies yield per recruit in action 162 8.4 Multispecies virtual population analysis 162 8.4.1 Multispecies VPA in action 164 8.4.2 Applying MSVPA data to single-species model 169 8.5 Predators prey and competitors 169 8.5.1 Predator-prey dynamics 169 8.5.2 Competition an unexpected result 170 8.5.3 Management implications 171 8.6 Size spectra 171 8.7 Ecosystem models 173 8.7.1 Ecosystem models in action 174 Summary 177 9 Getting the data: stock identity and dynamics 178 9.1 Introduction 178 9.2 Stock identification 178 9.2.1 The stock concept 178 9.2.2 Methods of stock identification 178 9.3 Stock dynamics 184 9.3.1 Sampling 184 9.3.2 Length weight and age 189 9.3.3 Growth 195 9.3.4 Maturity 199 9.3.5 Fecundity 199 9.3.6 Mortality 201 9.4 The impact of errors 203 Summary 204 10 Getting the data: abundance catch and effort 205 10.1 Introduction 205 10.2 Abundance 205 10.2.1 Survey design 205 10.2.2 Visual census methods 206 10.2.3 Acoustic methods 209 10.2.4 Trawl surveys 210 10.2.5 Depletion methods 213 10.2.6 Mark-recapture methods 214 10.2.7 Egg production methods 214 10.3 The fishery 219 Summary 221 11 Bioeconomics 223 11.1 Introduction 223 11.2 The value of fisheries 223 11.2.1 Trade in fished species 223 11.2.2 Catch values and employment 224 11.3 Bioeconomic models 225 11.3.1 Descriptive bioeconomics 226 11.3.2 Optimal fishing strategies 230 11.3.3 Bayesian methods 235 11.4 Economic vs. social management objectives 237 11.4.1 Subsidies 237 11.4.2 The case for economic efficiency 237 Summary 238 12 Fishing effects on populations and communities 239 12.1 Introduction 239 12.2 Vulnerability to fishing 239 12.2.1 Behaviour 239 12.2.2 Life histories 241 12.3 Intraspecific effects 242 12.3.1 Age and size structure 242 12.3.2 Reproduction 243 12.3.3 Genetic structure 244 12.4 Community effects 245 12.4.1 Diversity 245 12.4.2 Community structure 250 12.4.3 Size structure 251 12.4.4 Competition and trophic interactions 252 Summary 256 13 Bycatches and discards 258 13.1 Introduction 258 13.2 Catches discards and bycatches 258 13.2.1 Definitions 258 13.2.2 Reasons for discarding 258 13.3 Alternatives to discarding 260 13.4 Fisheries and bycatches 260 13.5 Incidental captures 262 13.5.1 Seabirds 262 13.5.2 Sea turtles 264 13.5.3 Sea snakes 265 13.5.4 Marine mammals 265 13.6 Methods to reduce bycatches 267 13.7 Ghost fishing 267 13.8 Sociocultural differences 270 Summary 271 14 Impacts on benthic communities habitats and coral reefs 272 14.1 Introduction 272 14.2 Fishing disturbance 272 14.2.1 Fishing vs. natural disturbance 272 14.2.2 Distribution of fishing disturbance 273 14.3 Direct effects of fishing gear on the seabed 276 14.3.1 Towed fishing gear 276 14.3.2 Direct effects on the substratum 277 14.3.3 Effects on infauna 277 14.3.4 Effects on epifauna 281 14.3.5 Meta-analysis 284 14.4 Effects of static fishing gears 284 14.5 Long-term effects 285 14.6 Fishing as a source of energy subsidies 288 14.6.1 Have population changes occurred? 290 14.7 Indirect effects on habitats 290 14.7.1 Loose seabeds 290 14.7.2 Coral reefs 291 Summary 293 15 Fishery interactions with birds and mammals 294 15.1 Introduction 294 15.2 Birds 294 15.2.1 Competition between birds and fisheries 296 15.2.2 Benefits of discarding 300 15.2.3 Waders and shellfish 301 15.3 Mammals 303 15.3.1 Competition between mammals and fisheries 304 15.3.2 Prey release 307 Summary 309 16 A role for aquaculture? 310 16.1 Introduction 310 16.2 Aquaculture past and present 310 16.3 What is cultivated? 312 16.4 Production systems 313 16.5 Feeding constraints 314 16.6 Prospects for expansion 314 16.6.1 Cage cultivation 316 16.6.2 Stock enhancement and ranching 318 16.7 Case studies 319 16.7.1 Shrimp farming 319 16.7.2 Bivalve mariculture 322 Summary 326 17 Management and conservation options 327 17.1 Introduction 327 17.2 Management objectives strategies and actions 327 17.2.1 From objective to action 327 17.2.2 Catch control 328 17.2.3 Effort control 331 17.2.4 Technical measures 331 17.2.5 Management in action 332 17.3 Improving management 335 17.3.1 Enforcement and compliance 335 17.3.2 Co-management 337 17.3.3 Ownership of resources and harvesting rights 338 17.3.4 Uncertainty and the precautionary approach 338 17.3.5 Role of science 339 17.4 Multispecies and ecosystem-based management 341 17.4.1 What are the objectives? 341 17.4.2 What can be achieved? 341 17.5 Managing fisheries for conservation 342 17.5.1 Endangered species 342 17.5.2 Habitats 343 17.5.3 Protected areas and no-take zones 344 17.6 Future trends 346 17.6.1 Fisheries science 346 17.6.2 Fisheries management 346 Summary 347 References 348 Appendices 1 List of symbols 380 2 Fisheries websites 385 3 Geographic index 389 Index 393

Reviews

"The book is indeed a boon to both the student and teaching communities." Pashudhan "...this book, better than any other single volume I know at present, covers topics that will be important in future ecosystem-based management of fisheries." Fish and Fisheries "Well-written and thoughtfully put together" Professor Terry Quinn (Alaska, Fairbanks) "This book will be widely read and cited" Professor Jeremy Collie (Rhode Island) "Marine Fisheries Ecology is a work of art that provides a broad, ecosystem-level understanding of the biological, economic, and social factors affecting and motivating diverse fisheries at global scales. This "must-read" is an extremely well-written and expertly organized treatise. It will have significant appeal for the established fisheries professional and the student and lecturer alike, including informed members of the public interested in marine ecology and production processes, patterns of fisheries exploitation, socioeconomics, and the complexities of aquatic resource politics and decisionmaking..." Carl V. Burger Past President, American Fisheries Society -and- Chair of the Executive Committee, 4th World Fisheries Congress, Vancouver, B.C. Canada

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