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Marine Biology
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Table of Contents

PREFACE PRINCIPLES OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND MARINE ECOLOGY CHAPTER 1: Sounding the Deep Marine Biology as a Discipline Historical Background of Marine Biology Observation and Hypothesis Testing Habitats and Life Habits: Some Definitions Chapter Summary Review Questions CHAPTER 2: The Oceanic Environment The Open Oceans and Marginal Seas Topography and Structure of the Ocean Floor The Ocean Above the Seabed Circulation in the Open Sea: Patterns and Causes Seawater Density and Vertical Ocean Circulation The Edge of the Sea Chapter Summary Review Questions CHAPTER 3: Climate Oscillations and Climate Change Climate change: Oscillations and Long-Term Trends Climate Oscillations Going Deeper 3.1 The Triple Key to Ocean Climate Understanding The Greenhouse Effect and Changing Ocean Climate Effects of Climate Change on Sea Level, Circulation, Ocean Chemistry and Biological Factors Going Deeper 3.2 Solubility Chapter Summary Review Questions CHAPTER 4: Ecological and Evolutionary Principles of Marine Biology Ecological Interactions The Ecological Hierarchy Interactions on the Scale of Individuals The Population Level The Community Level: Structure and Interspecies Interactions The Ecosystem Level Species, Genetic Variation, Evolution, and Biogeography Chapter Summary Review Questions MARINE ORGANISMS: FUNCTION AND ENVIRONMENT CHAPTER 5: The Chemical and Physical Environment Measures of Physiological Performance Temperature Hot Topics In Marine Biology 5.1 Keeping Your Legs Warm: A Sea Turtle Tale Salinity Oxygen Going Deeper 5.1 Quantifying the Relationship Between Body Size and Oxygen Consumption Rate Light Hot Topics in Marine Biology 5.2: Crystal Eyes, Past and Present Chapter Summary Review Questions CHAPTER 6: Life in a Fluid Medium Introduction Density, Viscosity, and Reynolds Number Going Deeper 6.1 Is Seawater Always Seawater? A Tale from the Regions of Intermediate Reynolds Number Moving Water Water Moving over Surfaces and Obstructions, Such as Organisms Using Water Motion for Biological Advantage Chapter Summary Review Questions CHAPTER 7: Reproduction, Dispersal, and Migration Ecological and Evolutionary Factors in Sex Hot Topics In Marine Biology 7.1 A Lover and a Fighter Reproduction, Demography, and Life Cycles Hot Topics In Marine Biology 7.2 Sharks Find Their Way Home Larval Dispersal: The Long and the Short Haul Planktonic Larvae: Getting through Major Obstacles to the Final Destination The Macroscale: Major Separations Lead to Biogeographic Structure Planktonic Dispersal: Why Do They Do It? Chapter Summary Review Questions ORGANISMS OF THE OPEN SEA CHAPTER 8: Plankton Introduction and Definitions Marine Viruses Marine Bacteria and Archaea Eukaryotic Phytoplankton Zooplankton Gelatinous Zooplankton Molecular Techniques to Identify Planktonic Microorganismal Diversity Chapter Summary Review Questions CHAPTER 9: Marine Vertebrates and Other Nekton Cephalopods Fish Mammals Hot Topics In Marine Biology 9.1 Whales and Wonder Dogs Marine Birds Marine Reptiles Chapter Summary Review Questions CHAPTER 10: The Open Sea: Distributions and Adaptations Spatial Processes that Create Plankton Patches in the Open Sea Hot Topics in Marine Biology 10.1 Blue Whale Diving: Balancing Food and Energy Needs Movement of Nekton on Local and Ocean-Level Scales Descending to the Depths - Organic Matter Transfer and Adaptations to Infrequent Meals and Low Light The Big Picture: Scales of Processes in Time and Space Chapter Summary Review Questions PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE WATER COLUMN CHAPTER 11: Processes in the Water Column Critical Factors in Plankton Abundance The Seasonal Pattern of Plankton Abundance Water Column Parameters and the Spring Diatom Increase Light Going Deeper 11.1 The Basics of Photosynthesis Nutrients Required by Phytoplankton Rate of Nutrient Uptake Harmful Algal Blooms Phytoplankton Succession and the Paradox of Phytoplankton Coexistence Hot Topics In Marine Biology 11.1 Angry Birds and Lost Seals: Solution of the Effects of a Mysterious Poison The Microbial Loop: Nutrient Cycling by Viruses, Heterotrophs, and Chemoautotrophs Zooplankton Grazing in the Sea Going Deeper 11.2 Quantification of the Effect of Grazing Chapter Summary Review Questions CHAPTER 12: Productivity, Food Webs, and Global Climate Change Productivity and Biomass Food Webs and Food Chains Measuring Primary Productivity Going Deeper 12.1 How to Calculate Productivity Using the Oxygen Technique Going Deeper 12.2 Using the Radiocarbon Technique to Estimate Productivity Geographic Distribution of Primary Productivity Global Climate Change and the Global Carbon Pump Chapter Summary Review Questions ORGANISMS OF THE SEABED CHAPTER 13: Benthic Microorganisms, Seaweeds, and Sea Grasses The Big Picture: Domains of Life Bacteria Eukarya Sea Grasses Chapter Summary Review Questions CHAPTER 14: The Diversity of Benthic Marine Invertebrates Hot Topics In Marine Biology 14.1 Where Did All This Invertebrate Diversity Come From? Kingdom Protista: Single-Celled Organisms Phylum Porifera: Sponges, Simplest of Animals Phylum Cnidaria: Hydrozoans, Jellyfish, Anemones, and Corals Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms Phylum Nemertea: Ribbon Worms Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms Phylum Annelida: Segmented Worms Phylum Sipuncula: Peanut Worms Phylum Pogonophora: Gutless Wonders Phylum Mollusca: Shelled Invertebrates (Mostly) Phylum Arthropoda: Jointed Appendages The Lophophorate Phyla Phylum Bryozoa: Moss Animals Phylum Brachiopoda: Lingulas and Lampshells Phylum Phoronida: Wormlike Animals with a Lophophore Phylum Echinodermata: Animals with Fivefold Symmetry Phylum Chordata: The Sea Squirts Chapter Summary Review Questions CHAPTER 15: Benthic Life Habits Introduction Life in Mud and Sand Going Deeper 15.1 Measuring Grain Size of Sediments Deposit Feeding in Soft Sediments Suspension Feeding Benthic Carnivores Benthic Herbivores Chapter Summary Review Questions COASTAL BENTHIC ENVRIONMENTS CHAPTER 16: The Tidelands: Rocky Shores, Soft-Substratum Shores, Marshes, Mangroves, Estuaries, and Oyster Reefs Rocky Shores and Exposed Beaches Soft-Sediment Interactions in Protected Intertidal Areas Invasions and the Reorganization of Intertidal Communities Hot Topics In Marine Biology 16.1 Seastar Catastrophe: Disease, Its Spread and Its Diagnosis Spartina Salt Marshes Mangrove Forests Estuaries Oyster Reefs Chapter Summary Review Questions CHAPTER 17: The Shallow Coastal Subtidal: Sea Grass Beds, Rocky Reefs, Kelp Forests, and Coral Reefs Sea Grass Beds The Rocky Reef-Kelp Forest System Subtidal Rocky Reefs Hot Topics In Marine Biology 17.1 Reorganization of a Rocky Subtidal Ecosystem: A Cod and Lobster Tale Kelp Forests Coral Reefs Chapter Summary Review Questions FROM THE SHELF TO THE DEEP SEA CHAPTER 18: Benthos from the Continental Shelf to the Deep Sea The Subtidal Landscape Sampling the Subtidal Soft-Bottom Benthos Sediment Type and Benthic Distribution The Deep-Sea Gradient The Shelf-Deep-Sea Gradient Deep-Sea Island Hotspots of High Diversity Pressure Change Chapter Summary Review Questions CHAPTER 19: Polar Marine Biology Introduction Arctic Marine Systems Antarctic Marine Systems Chapter Summary Review Questions CHAPTER 20: Biodiversity and Conservation of the Ocean Diversity, Speciation, Extinction, and Biogeographic Factors Major Gradients of Species Diversity Going Deeper 20.1 Measuring Biodiversity in Terms of Species Number and Relative Distribution Explanations of Regional Diversity Differences Conserving Marine Biodiversity Marine Invasions Chapter Summary Review Questions HUMAN IMPACT ON THE SEA CHAPTER 21: Fisheries and Food from the Sea The Fishery Stock and Its Variability Stocks and Markers Fishing Techniques and Their Effects Life History and Stock Size Stock Health and Production Going Deeper 21.1 A Simple Model to Explain the Stock-Recruitment Model and Maximum Sustainable Yield Going Deeper 21.2 Age-Based or Life-History Stage-Based Population Models Fisheries Impact and Management Hot Topics in Marine Biology 21.1 Fin-Ale for Sharks? Causes and Cures of Stock Reduction Overexploitation of Whales: A Case History Other Types of Loss Disease as a Major Danger to Coastal Fisheries Mariculture Hot Topics in Marine Biology 21.2 Shellfisheries: Which Will Fall to Ocean Acidification? Drugs from the Sea: Marine Natural Products Chapter Summary Review Questions CHAPTER 22: Environmental Impacts of Industrial Activities and Human Populations Human Effects on the Marine Environment Measuring the Impact of Pollutants on Populations and Communities Toxic Substances Hot Topics In Marine Biology 22.1 Is the Gulf of Mexico Adapted to Oil? Nutrient Input and Eutrophication Thermal Pollution and Power Station Fish Mortality Global Environmental Change and the Ocean Chapter Summary Review Questions BONUS MOLECULAR TOOLS CHAPTER ONLINE Introductions and Definitions Genomics Biodiversity Through Metagenomics Proteomics Chapter Summary Review Questions GLOSSARY MARINE BIOLOGY JOURNALS INDEX

About the Author

Jeffrey S. Levinton is Distinguished Professor of Ecology and Evolution at Stony Brook University.

Reviews

"Levinton does an excellent job in introducing fundamental concepts and then exploring them using recent scientific literature."--Tara Duffy, Northeastern University Marine Biology been extremely useful in bridging the gap between students that lacked expertise in the marine field and gaining valuable insights to be successful in my classes. This is one of the few texts that has allowed me a more direct pathway for teaching students that have a limited background in the subject matter. -- Michael Franklin, California State University Northridge "This text approaches the eclectic topic of marine biology as a combination of functional biology of organisms and ecology. Marine Biology, Fifth Edition, succeeds in covering the topic in a comprehensive manner, while neither oversimplifying it nor adding too many specialized details."--Gail B. Hartnett , University of of New Haven Marine Biology is an effective teaching and learning treatise. This wonderfully illustrated book is comprehensive, has revealing coverage of specific sub-topics (Going Deeper) and current events (Hot Topics) on the oceans that make it both attractive and useful at the same time for both the teacher and the student. -- Bopi Biddanda, Grand Valley State University "Marine Biology, Fifth Edition, is the only book right now that is suitable for majors and non-majors who want a rigorous introduction to marine biology."--Erik Scully, Towson University

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