1. Reconstruction, 1865-1877 DOCUMENTS 1. African Americans Recall Personal Experiences of Newfound Freedom, c. 1865 2. Louisiana Black Codes Reinstate Provisions of the Slave Era, 1865 3. President Andrew Johnson Denounces Changes in His Program of Reconstruction, 1867 4. Congressman Thaddeus Stevens Demands a Radical Reconstruction, 1867 5. Representative Benjamin Butler Argues That President Andrew Johnson Be Impeached, 1868 6. Elizabeth Cady Stanton Questions Abolitionist Support for Female Enfranchisement, 1868 7. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments Grant Citizenship and Due Process of Law to African Americans and Suffrage to African American Men, 1868, 1870 8. Elias Hill, an African American Man, Recounts a Nighttime Visit from the Ku Klux Klan, 1871 9. Confederate General Jubal Early Memorializes the Lost Cause," 1894 ESSAYS Steven Hahn, Continuing the War: White and Black Violence During Reconstruction David W. Blight, Ending the War: The Push for National Reconciliation 2. Western Settlement and the Frontier DOCUMENTS 1. The Governor of Missouri Orders the Militia to Exterminate Mormons, 1838 2. The Homestead Act Provides Free Land to Settlers, 1862 3. Pioneer Mary Barnard Aguirre Marries into the Spanish West, 1863 4. The Federal Government Punishes Confederate Indians, 1865 5. Katie Bighead (Cheyenne) Remembers Custer and the Battle of Little Big Horn, 1876 6. Chief Joseph (Nez Perce) Surrenders, 1877 7. Southern Freedmen Resolve to Move West, 1879 8. Wyoming Gunfight: An Attack on Chinatown, 1885 9. Historian Frederick Jackson Turner Articulates the "Frontier Thesis," 1893 ESSAYS Ray Allen Billington, The Frontier as a Cradle of Liberty Patricia Nelson Limerick, The Frontier as a Place of Conquest and Conflict 3. Industrialization, Workers, and the New Immigration DOCUMENTS 1. Chinese Immigrant Lee Chew Denounces Prejudice in America, 1882 2. Poet Emma Lazurus Praises The New Colossus, 1883 3. Immigrant Thomas O''Donnell Describes the Worker''s Plight, 1883 4. Steel Magnate Andrew Carnegie Preaches a Gospel of Wealth, 1889 5. Unionist Samuel Gompers Asks "What Does the Working Man Want?" 1890 6. Jurgis Rudkus Discovers Drink in The Jungle, 1905 7. A Slovenian Boy Recounts Tales of the Golden Country, 1909 8. Engineer Frederick Winslow Taylor Manufactures the Ideal Worker, 1910 ESSAYS Oscar Handlin, Uprooted and Trapped: The One-Way Route to Modernity Mark Wyman, Coming and Going: Round Trip to America 4. Imperialism and World Power DOCUMENTS 1. President William McKinley Asks for War to Liberate Cuba, 1898 2. Governor Theodore Roosevelt Praises the Manly Virtues of Imperialism, 1899 3. Filipino Leader Emilio Aguinaldo Rallies His People to Arms, 1899 4. The American Anti-Imperialist League Denounces U.S. Policy, 1899 5. Mark Twain Satirizes "The Battle Hymn of the Republic," 1900 6. A Soldier Criticizes American Racism in the Philippines, 1902 7. The Roosevelt Corollary Makes the U.S. the Police of Latin America, 1904 8. President Woodrow Wilson Disavows Territorial Conquest, 1913 ESSAYS Gail Bederman, Gendering Imperialism: Theodore Roosevelt''s Quest for Manhood and Empire Anders Stephanson, Global Competition and Manifest Destiny on the Cusp of the Twentieth Century 5. The Progressive Movement DOCUMENTS 1. W.C.T.U. Blasts Drinking and Smoking, and Demands the Power to Protect, 1893 2. Philosopher John Dewey Advocates Democracy Through Education, 1899 3. NAACP Founder W.E.B. DuBois Denounces Compromise on Negro Education and Civil Rights, 1903 4. Journalist Lincoln Steffens Exposes the Shame of Corruption, 1904 5. Political Boss George Washington Plunkitt Defends "Honest" Graft, 1905 6. Social Worker Jane Addams Advocates Civic Housekeeping, 1906 7. President Theodore Roosevelt Preaches Conservation and Efficiency, 1908 8. Sociologist William Graham Sumner Denounces Reformers'' Fanaticism, 1913 9. Rewriting the Constitution: Amendments on Income Tax, Election of Senators, Prohibition, and the Vote for Women, 1913-1920 ESSAYS Daniel T. Rodgers, American Progressivism in the Wider Atlantic World Eric Rauchway, A Distinctive American Progressivism: Women, Immigrants, and Education 6. America in World War I DOCUMENTS 1. President Woodrow Wilson Asks Congress to Declare War, 1917 2. Senator Robert M. LaFollette Passionately Dissents, 1917 3. A Union Organizer Testifies to Vigilante Attack, 1917 4. The U.S. Government Punishes War Protestors: The Espionage Act, 1918 5. Wilson Proposes a New World Order in the "Fourteen Points," 1918 6. Broadway Showman George M. Cohan Sings About Patriotism, 1918 7. An Ambulance Surgeon Describes What It Was Like "Over There," 1918 8. Publicist George Creel Recalls Selling the War, 1920 9. Cartoons for and Against the League of Nations, 1920 ESSAYS Walter McDougall, Woodrow Wilson: Egocentric Crusader Robert A. Pastor, Woodrow Wilson: Father of the Future 7. Crossing a Cultural Divide: The Twenties DOCUMENTS 1. The Governor of California Tells of the Japanese "Problem, "1920 2. Reverend Amzi Clarence Dixon Preaches on the Evils of Darwinism and Evolution, 1922 3. A Survey of the Morals of High School Students, 1924 4. Defense Attorney Clarence Darrow Interrogates Prosecutor William Jennings Bryan in the Monkey Trial, 1925 5. Novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald Reveals Attitudes About Gender and Race in The Great Gatsby, 1925 6. The Ku Klux Klan Defines Americanism, 1926 7. The Automobile Comes to Middletown, U.S.A., 1929 8. Langston Hughes: Poet of the 1920s Harlem Renaissance ESSAYS Paula S. Fass, Sex and Youth in the Jazz Age Edward J. Larson, Religious Traditionalists Battle Modernism (and Evolution) in the Roaring Twenties 8. The Depression, the New Deal, and Franklin D. Roosevelt DOCUMENTS 1. President Herbert Hoover Applauds Limited Government, 1931 2. The Nation Asks "Is It to Be Murder, Mr. Hoover?" 1932 3. Business Leader Henry Ford Advocates Self-Help, 1932 4. President Franklin Roosevelt Seeks Justice for "One-Third of a Nation," "1937 5. Nelson Rockefeller Lectures Standard Oil on Social Responsibility, 1937 6. Social Security Advisers Consider Male and Female Pensioners, 1938 7. A Union Man Gets His Job Back Under the New Labor Law, 1938 8. John Steinbeck Portrays the Outcast Poor in The Grapes of Wrath, 1939 9. Woody Guthrie Sings "This Land Is Your Land," 1940 ESSAYS David M. Kennedy, FDR: Advocate for the American People Robert Higgs, FDR: Opportunistic Architect of Big Government 9. The Ordeal of World War II DOCUMENTS 1. Nazi Leader Adolf Hitler Links Race and Nationality, 1927 2. President Franklin D. Roosevelt Asks Congress to Declare War, 1941 3. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill Reacts to Pearl Harbor, 1941 4. Roosevelt Identifies the "Four Freedoms" at Stake in the War, 1941 5. A Japanese American Recalls the Effect of Internment on Family Unity, 1942 6. Roosevelt and Soviet Premier Josef Stalin Plan the United Nations, 1943 7. An African American Soldier Notes the "Strange Paradox" of the War, 1944 8. An American Officer Worries About His Wife''s Loyalty, 1944 9. Dwight Eisenhower Reports to General George Marshall on the German Concentration Camps, 1945 ESSAYS John Morton Blum, G.I. Joe: Fighting for Home Alan Brinkley, American Liberals: Fighting for a Better World 10. The Cold War and the Nuclear Age DOCUMENTS 1. Diplomat George Kennan Advocates Containment, 1946 2. Secretary of Commerce Henry A. Wallace Questions the "Get Tough" Policy, 1946 3. Soviet Ambassador Nikolai Novikov Sees a U.S. Bid for World Supremacy, 1946 4. The Truman Doctrine Calls for the United States to Become World''s Police, 1947 5. The Marshall Plan Seeks to Rebuild Europe, 1948 6. Senator Joseph McCarthy Describes the Internal Communist Menace, 1950 7. The Federal Loyalty-Security Program Expels a Postal Clerk, 1954 8. Life Magazine Reassures Americans "We Won''t All Be Dead" After Nuclear War, 1959 ESSAYS Walter LaFeber, Truman''s Hard Line Prompted the Cold War John Lewis Gaddis, Stalin''s Hard Line Prompted a Defensive Response in the United States and Europe 11. The 1950s "Boom": Affluence and Anxiety DOCUMENTS 1. Congress Passes the G.I. Bill of Rights, 1944 2. A Young American Is "Born on the Fourth of July," 1946 3. Science News Letter Reports a Baby Boom, 1954 4. Parental Indulgence Is Criticized in Rebel Without a Cause, 1955 5. Governor Adlai Stevenson Tells College Women About Their Place in Life, 1955 6. Author Paul Goodman Describes Growing Up Absurd, 1956 7. Life Magazine Identifies the New Teen-age Market, 1959 8. Feminist Betty Friedan Describes the Problem That Has No Name, 1959 9. New Yorker Cartoon, 1963 ESSAYS John Patrick Diggins, A Decade to Make One Proud Stephanie Coontz, Families in the Fifties: The Way We Never Were 12. Making the Great Society: Civil Rights DOCUMENTS 1. The United Nations Approves a Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 2. The Supreme Court Rules on Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 3. Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., Defends Seamstress Rosa Parks, 1955 4. Author Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Remembers Civil Rights on TV, 1957 5. Congress Outlaws Segregation with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 6. Black Muslim Malcolm X Warns: The Ballot or the Bullet, 1964 7. The National Organization for Women Calls for Equality, 1966 8. Mexican Americans Form La Raza Unida, 1968 9. A Proclamation from the Indians of All Tribes, Alcatraz Island, 1969 10. Congress Guarantees Rights of Americans with Disabilities, 1990 ESSAYS David J. Garrow, Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Emergence of a Grassroots Leader John D. Skrentny, The Minority Rights Revolution: Top Down and Bottom Up 13. The Sixties: Left, Right, and the Culture Wars DOCUMENTS 1. Young Americans for Freedom Draft a Conservative Manifesto, 1960 2. President John Kennedy Tells Americans to Ask "What You Can Do," 1961 3. Bill Moyers Remembers Kennedy''s Effect on His Generation (1961), 1988 4. Students for a Democratic Society Advance a Reform Agenda, 1962 5. Folk Singer Malvina Reynolds Sees Young People in "Little Boxes," 1963 6. Alabama Governor George Wallace Denounces Top-Down Reform and Pledges "Segregation Forever," 1963 7. President Lyndon B. Johnson Declares a Federal War on Poverty, 1964 8. A Protestor at Columbia University Defends Long Hair and Revolution, 1969 9. Vice President Spiro Agnew Warns of the Threat to America, 1969 10. Psychologist Carl Rogers Emphasizes Being "Real" in Encounter Groups, 1970 ESSAYS Kenneth Cmiel, Triumph of the Left: Sixties Revolution and the Revolution in Manners Dan T. Carter, Triumph of the Right: George Wallace, Richard Nixon, and the Critique of Federal Activism 14. Vietnam and the Downfall of Presidents DOCUMENTS 1. Independence Leader Ho Chi Minh Pleads with Harry Truman for Support, 1946 2. President Dwight Eisenhower Warns of Falling Dominoes, 1954 3. Defense Analyst John McNaughton Advises Robert McNamara on War Aims, 1965 4. Undersecretary of State George Ball Urges Withdrawal from Vietnam, 1965 5. A Marine Remembers His Idealism of 1965 (1977) 6. Students for a Democratic Society Oppose the War, 1965 7. White House Counsel John W. Dean III Presents the "Enemies List," 1971 8. Senator Sam J. Ervin on the Watergate Crimes, 1974 ESSAYS Robert McNamara, James Blight, and Robert Brigham, Cold War Mindsets and the "Mistake" of Vietnam Robert Buzzanco, Anti-Democratic "Containment," No Mistake 15. End of the Cold War and New International Challenges: Globalization and Terrorism DOCUMENTS 1. President Ronald Regan Sees a Revitalized America, 1985 2. A Unionist Blasts the Export of Jobs, 1987 3. President George H. W. Bush Declares the Cold War Over, 1990 4. Campaign Adviser Condoleezza Rice Cautions Against Humanitarian Interventions, 2000 5. Two Workers Flee the Inferno in the Twin Towers, 2001 6. A New York Immigrant Weeps as the Twin Towers Fall, 2001 7. Journalist David Brooks Sees Basic Unity Between "Red" and "Blue" Americans, 2001 8. Senator Robert Byrd Condemns Post-9/11 Foreign Policy, 2003 9. President George W. Bush Ranks Freedom Above Stability, 2005 ESSAYS Bernard Lewis, Clash of Civilizations Thomas Friedman, Clash of Economies"