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Machining For Dummies


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Table of Contents

Introduction 1 About This Book 2 Foolish Assumptions 2 Icons Used in This Book 3 Beyond the Book 4 Where to Go from Here 4 Part 1: Turning Cranks and Pulling Handles 5 Chapter 1: Climbing the Manufacturing Ropes 7 Going Caveman: A World without Machining 8 Why it's called chipmaking 9 What's your job title? 11 Meeting Our Founding Fathers 11 Who got the machining ball rolling? 12 The other tools in the toolbox 15 Grappling with Machine Basics 16 Motoring about 17 Ways and means 19 Pulleys and gears 20 Turrets and tool changers 21 Spindle time 22 Bearing down 23 The nuts and bolts of motion 24 Chapter 2: Demystifying Machine Tools 25 Making Machine Tools Automatic 27 Screwing around with cam-operated machines 27 Multispindle madness 28 Mill-o-matic 28 The path to numerical control 28 Cutting through the red tape 29 Computer control 30 Halfway there 31 Milling About: Mills and Machining Centers 32 Taking the stand-up tour 33 Looking at it from all sides 35 Gantrification 37 Going horizontal 38 Sorry, this part's boring 39 Turning It Up: Exploring Lathes 39 Engine lathes 40 Turret lathes 41 Twice as nice 41 Looking up 42 Going gangsta'43 Sliding about 43 It's a Mill, It's a Lathe It's Supermachine! 44 Mill turn, or turn mill 44 Multitaskers 45 Chapter 3: Rounding Out the Rest of the Machining Processes 47 Touring Toolmaking 47 Cutting without cutters: EDM 48 Grinding 51 Sawing 53 Honing 54 Hobbing, shaving, and milling gears 55 Gun drilling 55 Peering into the Niches 57 Electron beam machining 57 From ECM to PECM 57 Ultrasonics 58 Appreciating the Alternatives 58 When we were fab 59 Welding 101 61 Chapter 4: Being Materialistic 63 Grappling with the Elements 64 Meditating on Metal Removal 66 Machinability according to AISI 66 Like cutting sandpaper 66 Harder than the dickens 67 Stringy like spaghetti 67 Gummier than Juicy Fruit 68 Exploring Metals 68 Ironing things out 68 Segueing to steel 70 Surveying the superalloys 74 Wrapping It Up with the Easy Stuff 76 From superchargers to soda cans 76 Red metals 77 Magnesium and zinc 77 Peeking at the polymers 78 Part 2: Tooling Up 81 Chapter 5: The Cutting Edge: Staying Sharp 83 Facing the Hard Facts 84 Getting Tough with High-Speed Steel 85 Going Fast and Furious: Carbide 87 Meet PEG 87 Micrograin marvels 88 Getting technical with ceramics 88 Coating conundrums 89 Round Tools: Notating on Rotating 90 Holemaking 101 90 All about drills 91 Selecting the right drill 92 Being productive 94 Holes need help, too 95 Tapping, tapping, at the door 96 Milling cutters 97 Staying put 100 Sticking with Stick Tools 100 The heavy lifters 101 Get in the groove 102 Nice threads 103 Not so boring 104 Cutting Advice 105 Chapter 6: Hanging on Tight with Workholding 107 Chucking Up on Lathes 108 Deciding how many and what type of jaws are needed 110 Collets, ho! 111 Making sense of shafts 113 It's Not Spelled Vice: Going Orthogonal with Workholding 114 Doubling down 116 Not so fast 117 Five ways better 117 Holding horizontally 118 Hanging on to the Weird Ones 119 Chapter 7: Entering the Toolholding No Spin Zone 123 Hanging around with Rotary Tools 124 It's taper time 125 Why 7/24 isn't a date in the calendar 126 Faster, faster! 127 Cruising through the Toolholding Catalog 128 Hit me sideways 129 Meet Chuck's little brother 129 Preventing pullout 130 The incredible shrinking toolholder 132 A few toolholding odds and ends 133 Turning about Is Fair Play 135 Giving lathe tools a wedgie 136 A bit about bushings and sleeves 137 Going Faster with Quick-Change 138 Chapter 8: Accessorizing for Success 141 Palletizing Your Parts 142 Buying a pallet changer-equipped machining center 142 Adding a pallet changer to an existing machine 143 Putting pallets on pallets 143 Giving Rotary Tables a Whirl 144 Viva, la difference 145 Round and round we go 146 Trunnion time 146 Raising the Bar with Bar Feeders 147 Step on up to the bar 148 Rattling about 149 Happiness through hydraulics 149 Collaborating with R2D2 151 Measuring Up 152 Touching off 153 Finding home 154 Taking It Offline 155 Presetting particulars 155 Achieving a nice balance 157 Going soft 158 Vending machines 158 Choosing the Right Machine Options 159 Cooling Down with High Pressure 161 Making Your Job Easier (and Safer) 162 Chip conveyors 162 It's called smog for a reason 163 Part 3: Putting It All Together: Making Parts 165 Chapter 9: Succeeding with Software 167 Deciphering Software Acronyms 168 Here's to Being a CAD 170 Playing with Models 171 Wondrous wireframes 172 Doing me a solid 172 CAMming It Up 173 Simulating Reality 175 Having Meaningful Conversations 176 Exploring File Formats 177 Making It Manufacturable 178 DFM and DFMA 179 FEA 180 Managing the Shop Floor 180 MES 181 TMS 181 Chapter 10: Measuring Up 183 Drawing Pretty Pictures 185 Tolerance is a good thing 185 Enter GD&T 186 Characterizing characteristics 188 Blocking and Tackling: Hard Gages 189 Playing with your blocks 190 Pinned down 191 Gages, gages, everywhere 192 Meeting Mic(rometer) 192 Filling the Shopping Cart 194 Touching the surface 195 Checking holes 196 Jumping at shadows 197 Checking around 198 Measuring with Machines 199 Hitting the Quality Road 200 Chapter 11: Demystifying G-Code 203 Eating the CNC Alphabet Soup 204 Moving along with G-Codes 206 Giddyup! 207 Straightening out 207 Round the clock 208 Coordinating Coordinates 209 Homing the machine 210 Thinking in absolutes 211 Compensating for Size (and Location) 212 Offset success 212 Go left, or right? 213 Cycling About: Canned and Multiple Repetitive Cycles 215 One line, or two 215 Best of both worlds 215 Don't forget to cancel 216 Switching On with M-Codes 217 Making It with Macros 219 Chapter 12: Touring Some Machining Operations 221 Happy Holemaking 223 Threading the Needle 224 Internal threads 224 External threads 226 Taking the Right Turn 227 Facing About 228 Milling Madness 229 Face milling 229 Pocket milling 230 Surfacing 230 Slotting 231 Boring Better 232 Taming Interpolation 233 Getting the Burrs Off 234 Bouncing about 234 A charged situation 235 Chapter 13: Looking toward Tomorrow 237 Turning Out the Lights 238 Embracing an FMS 239 Getting cellular 241 Monitoring machines remotely 241 Unplugging Along 243 Staying Bug-Free 243 Making Tools Smarter 245 Busting chatter 246 Tagging along 247 Part 4: The Part of Tens 249 Chapter 14: Ten Ways to Make Processes Predictable 251 Thinking Scientifically 252 Learning Your Feeds and Speeds 253 Cutting speeds 254 Feed rates 256 Depth of cut 256 Watching for Tool Wear 257 Writing It Down 259 Staying Cool 259 Keeping Machines Healthy 260 Getting Torqued 261 Poka-yoking 262 Buying Right 262 Standardizing Everything 263 Chapter 15: Ten Terrific Tools, Tips, and Technologies 265 Adding It Up with Additive 266 Surfing the Internet of Things 267 Looking to the Cloud 269 Automating Everything 270 Riding Virtual Rollercoasters 271 Becoming Sustainable 272 Lightweighting the World 273 Losing the Paper Trail 274 Having Fun with Hybrids 275 Getting Small: MEMS Devices and Other Lilliputian Parts 277 Chapter 16: Ten Tips for Successful Machining 279 Machining Is Not a Dirty Word 280 Returning to School: Certification 281 Staying Lean 282 Developing Vertical Markets 283 Taking Tools Faster and Farther 284 Keeping Parts and Tools Put 285 Keeping Things (and People) Cool, Clean, and Safe 287 Setting Up Successfully 289 Taking Off the Gloves (and Putting On the Safety Glasses) 290 Embracing Change 292 Index 293

About the Author

Kip Hanson finished school in 1979 and got a job at a small machine shop in Minneapolis. Over the next thirty years, he worked his way up and eventually moved into manufacturing consulting and freelance writing. Today he has nearly 600 published articles across dozens of magazines and websites, covering everything from machinery and tooling to metrology and 3D printing.

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