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&> BRIEF CONTENTS FICTION 1. Reading a Story 2. Point of View 3. Character 4. Setting 5. Tone and Style 6. Theme 7. Symbol 8. Reading Long Stories and Novels 9. Genre Fiction 10. Critical Casebook: Two Stories in Depth POETRY Talking with Kay Ryan. 12. Reading a Poem 13. Listening to a Voice 14. Words 15. Saying and Suggesting 16. Imagery 17. Figures of Speech 18. Song 19. Sound 20. Rhythm 21. Closed Form 22. Open Form 23. Symbol 24. Myth and Narrative 25. Poetry and Personal Identity 26. Poetry in Spanish: Literature of Latin America 27. Recognizing Excellence 28. What is Poetry? 29. Three Critical Casebooks: Emily Dickinson, Langston Hughes, and Robert Frost 30. Critical Casebook: T.S. Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" 31. Poems for Further Reading DRAMA Talking with David Ives 32. Reading a Play 33. Tragedy and Comedy 34. Critical Casebook: Sophocles 35. Critical Casebook: Shakespeare 36. The Modern Theater 37. Evaluating a Play 38. Plays for Further Reading WRITING 39. Writing About Literature 40. Writing About a Story 41. Writing About a Poem 42. Writing About a Play 43. Writing a Research Paper 44. Writing an Essay Exam 45. Critical Approaches to Literature Glossary of Literary Terms Literary Credits Photo Credits Index of Major Themes Index of First Lines of Poetry Index of Authors and Titles Index of Literary Terms COMPREHENSIVE CONTENTS FICTION 1 READING A STORY THE ART OF FICTION TYPES OF SHORT FICTION Sufi Legend, Death Has an Appointment in Samarra A student tries to flee from Death in this brief, sardonic fable. Aesop, The North Wind and the Sun The North Wind and the Sun argue who is stronger and decide to try their powers on an unsuspecting traveler. Bidpai, The Tortoise and the Geese A fable that gives another dimension to Andrew Lang's quip, "He missed an invaluable opportunity to hold his tongue." Chuang Tzu, Independence The Prince of Ch'u asks the philosopher Chuang Tzu to become his advisor and gets a surprising reply in this classic Chinese fable. Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, Godfather Death Neither God nor the Devil came to the christening. In this stark folktale, a young man receives magical powers with a string attached. PLOT THE SHORT STORY John Updike, A & P In walk three girls in nothing but bathing suits, and Sammy finds himself no longer an aproned checkout clerk but an armored knight. WRITING EFFECTIVELY Wilhelm Grimm on Writing, On the Nature of Fairy Tales THINKING ABOUT PLOT CHECKLIST: Writing About Plot TOPICS FOR WRITING on plot TERMS FOR REVIEW 2 POINT OF VIEW IDENTIFYING POINT OF VIEW TYPES OF NARRATORS how much does a narrator know? STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily Proud, imperious Emily Grierson defied the town from the fortress of her mansion. Who could have guessed the secret that lay within? Edgar Allan Poe, The Tell-Tale Heart The smoldering eye at last extinguished, a murderer finds that, despite all his attempts at a cover-up, his victim will be heard. Eudora Welty, Why I Live at the P.O. Since no one appreciates Sister, she decides to live at the Post Office. After meeting her family, you won't blame her. James Baldwin, Sonny's Blues Two brothers in Harlem see life differently. The older brother is the sensible family man, but Sonny wants to be a jazz musician. WRITING EFFECTIVELY James Baldwin on Writing, Race and the African American Writer THINKING ABOUT POINT OF VIEW CHECKLIST: Writing About Point of View topics for writing ON POINT OF VIEW TERMS FOR REVIEW 3 CHARACTER CHARACTERization Motivation Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall For sixty years Ellen Weatherall has fought back the memory of that terrible day, but now once more the priest waits in the house. Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? Alone in the house, Connie finds herself helpless before the advances of Arnold Friend, a spellbinding imitation teenager. Neil Gaiman, How to Talk to Girls at Parties Two teenage boys try to navigate their way through a party filled with exotic, mysterious girls. Raymond Carver, Cathedral He had never expected to find himself trying to describe a cathedral to a blind man. He hadn't even wanted to meet this odd, old friend of his wife. WRITING EFFECTIVELY Raymond Carver on Writing, Commonplace but Precise Language THINKING ABOUT CHARACTER CHECKLIST: Writing About Character topics for writing ON CHARACTER TERMS FOR REVIEW 4 SETTING ELEMENTS OF SETTING HISTORICAL FICTION REGIONALISM NATURALISM Kate Chopin, The Storm Even with her husband away, Calixta feels happily, securely married. Why then should she not shelter an old admirer from the rain? Jack London, To Build a Fire Seventy-five degrees below zero. Alone except for one mistrustful wolf dog, a man finds himself battling a relentless force. Jorge Luis Borges, The Gospel According to Mark A young man from Buenos Aires is trapped by a flood on an isolated ranch. To pass the time, he reads the Gospel to a family with unforeseen results. Amy Tan, A Pair of Tickets A young woman flies with her father to China to meet two half sisters she never knew existed. WRITING EFFECTIVELY Amy Tan on Writing, Developing a Setting THINKING ABOUT SETTING CHECKLIST: Writing About Setting TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SETTING TERMS FOR REVIEW 5 TONE AND STYLE TONE STYLE DICTION Ernest Hemingway, A Clean, Well-Lighted Place All by himself each night, the old man lingers in the bright cafe. What does he need more than brandy? William Faulkner, Barn Burning This time when Ab Snopes wields his blazing torch, his son Sarty faces a dilemma: whether to obey or defy the vengeful old man. IRONY O. Henry, The Gift of the Magi A young husband and wife find ingenious ways to buy each other Christmas presents, in the classic story that defines the word "irony." Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour "There was something coming to her and she was waiting for it, fearfully. What was it? She did not know; it was too subtle and elusive to name." WRITING EFFECTIVELY Ernest Hemingway on Writing, The Direct Style THINKING ABOUT TONE AND STYLE CHECKLIST: Writing About Tone and Style TOPICS FOR WRITING ON TONE AND STYLE TERMS FOR REVIEW 6 THEME PLOT VERSUS THEME summarizing the THEME FINDING THE THEME Chinua Achebe, Dead Men's Path The new headmaster of the village school was determined to fight superstition, but the villagers did not agree. Sandra Cisneros, The House on Mango Street Does where we live tell what we are? A little girl dreams of a new house, but things don't always turn out the way we want them to. Luke, The Parable of the Prodigal Son A father has two sons. One demands his inheritance now and leaves to spend it with ruinous results. Kurt Vonnegut Jr., Harrison Bergeron Are you handsome? Off with your eyebrows! Are you brainy? Let a transmitter sound thought-shattering beeps inside your ear. WRITING EFFECTIVELY Kurt Vonnegut Jr. on Writing, The Themes of Science Fiction THINKING ABOUT THEME CHECKLIST: Writing About Theme TOPICS FOR WRITING ON THEME TERMS FOR REVIEW 7 SYMBOL ALLEGORY SYMBOLS RECOGNIZING SYMBOLS John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums Fenced-in Elisa feels emotionally starved-then her life promises to blossom with the arrival of the scissors-grinding man. Tobias Wolff, Bullet in the Brain Anders is in line when armed robbers enter the bank, and he can't help but get involved. Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas Omelas is the perfect city. All of its inhabitants are happy. But everyone's prosperity depends on a hidden evil. Shirley Jackson, The Lottery Splintered and faded, the sinister black box had worked its annual terror for longer than anyone in town could remember. WRITING EFFECTIVELY Shirley Jackson on Writing, Biography of a Story THINKING ABOUT SYMBOLS CHECKLIST: Writing About Symbols Sample Student Paper on Symbols, An Analysis of the Symbolism in Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums" TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SYMBOLS TERMS FOR REVIEW 8 READING LONG STORIES AND NOVELS ORIGINS OF THE NOVEL NOVELISTIC METHODS READING NOVELS Franz Kafka, The Metamorphosis "When Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from troubled dreams, he found himself transformed in his bed into a monstrous insect." Kafka's famous opening sentence introduces one of the most chilling stories in world literature. WRITING EFFECTIVELY Franz Kafka on Writing, Discussing The Metamorphosis THINKING ABOUT LONG STORIES AND NOVELS CHECKLIST: Writing About Long Stories and Novels TOPICS FOR WRITING on long stories and novels TERMS FOR REVIEW 9 GENRE FICTION ROMANCE VERSUS REALISM WHAT IS GENRE? TYPES OF GENRE FICTION GENRE AND POPULAR CULTURE Ray Bradbury, A Sound of Thunder In 2055, you can go on a Time Safari to hunt dinosaurs 60 million years ago. But put one foot wrong, and suddenly the future's not what it used to be. Ursula K. Le Guin, The Wife's Story Another full moon, and another terrible transformation-a surprising reversal of a familiar story. H. P. Lovecraft, The Outsider He had been locked in a gothic castle for his entire life, until the day he escaped, but what he discovered outside sent him running back to his dark captivity. Dashiell Hammett, One Hour Someone killed a man named Newhouse in broad daylight on a San Francisco street. Our detective is on the case. WRITING EFFECTIVELY Ray Bradbury on Writing, Falling in Love at the Library TOPICS FOR WRITING TERMS FOR REVIEW 10 CRITICAL CASEBOOK Two Stories in Depth Charlotte Perkins Gilman The Yellow Wallpaper A doctor prescribes a "rest cure" for his wife after the birth of their child. The new mother tries to settle in to life in the isolated and mysterious country house they have rented for the summer. The cure proves worse than the disease in this Gothic classic. CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN ON WRITING Why I Wrote "The Yellow Wallpaper" Whatever Is The Nervous Breakdown of Women CRITICS ON "THE YELLOW WALLPAPER" Juliann Fleenor, Gender and Pathology in "The Yellow Wallpaper" Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, Imprisonment and Escape: The Psychology of Confinement ALICE WALKER Everyday Use When successful Dee visits from the city, she has changed her name to reflect her African roots. Her mother and sister notice other things have changed, too. ALICE WALKER ON WRITING Reflections on Writing and Women's Lives CRITICS ON "EVERYDAY USE" Barbara T. Christian, "Everyday Use" and the Black Power Movement Mary Helen Washington, "Everyday Use" as a Portrait of the Artist Houston A. Baker and Charlotte Pierce-Baker, Stylish vs. Sacred in "Everyday Use" WRITING EFFECTIVELY TOPICS FOR WRITING 11 STORIES FOR FURTHER READING Sherman Alexie, This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona The only one who can help Victor when his father dies is a childhood friend he's been avoiding for years. Margaret Atwood, Happy Endings John and Mary meet. What happens next? This witty experimental story offers five different outcomes. Ambrose Bierce, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge At last, Peyton Farquhar's neck is in the noose. Reality mingles with dream in this classic story of the American Civil War. T. Coraghessan Boyle, Greasy Lake Murky and strewn with beer cans, the lake appears a wasteland. On its shore three "dangerous characters" learn a lesson one grim night. Willa Cather, Paul's Case Paul's teachers can't understand the boy. Then one day, with stolen cash, he boards a train for New York and the life of his dreams. Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown Urged on through deepening woods, a young Puritan sees-or dreams he sees-good villagers hasten toward a diabolic rite. Zora Neale Hurston, Sweat Delia's hard work paid for her small house. Now her drunken husband Sykes has promised it to another woman. Ha Jin, Saboteur When the police unfairly arrest Mr. Chiu, he hopes for justice. After witnessing their brutality, he quietly plans revenge. James Joyce, Araby If only he can find her a token, she might love him in return. As night falls, a Dublin boy hurries to make his dream come true. Jamaica Kincaid, Girl "Try to walk like a lady, and not like the slut you are so bent on becoming." An old-fashioned mother tells her daughter how to live. Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill Sundays had long brought joy to solitary Miss Brill, until one fateful day when she happened to share a bench with two lovers in the park. Guy de Maupassant, The Necklace A woman enjoys one night of luxury-and then spends years of her life paying for it. Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried What each soldier carried into the combat zone was largely determined by necessity, but each man's necessities differed. Flannery O'Connor, A Good Man Is Hard to Find Wanted: The Misfit, a cold-blooded killer. An ordinary family vacation leads to horror-and one moment of redeeming grace. Juan Rulfo, Tell Them Not to Kill Me! A violent episode from decades past catches up with an old man. Will he be saved from the firing squad? Virginia Woolf, A Haunted House Whatever hour you woke, a door was shutting. From room to room the ghostly couple walked, hand in hand. POETRY Talking with Kay Ryan 12 READING A POEM POETRY OR VERSE HOW TO READ A POEM Paraphrase William Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree Lyric Poetry Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer's Tigers Narrative Poetry Anonymous, Sir Patrick Spence Robert Frost, "Out, Out-" DRAMATIC POETRY Robert Browning, My Last Duchess DIDACTIC POETRY WRITING EFFECTIVELY Adrienne Rich on Writing, Recalling "Aunt Jennifer's Tigers" THINKING ABOUT PARAPHRASING William Stafford, Ask Me William Stafford, A Paraphrase of "Ask Me" CHECKLIST: Writing a Paraphrase TOPICS FOR WRITING ON PARAPHRASING TERMS FOR REVIEW 13 LISTENING TO A VOICE TONE Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz Stephen Crane, The Wayfarer Anne Bradstreet, The Author to Her Book Walt Whitman, To a Locomotive in Winter Emily Dickinson, I like to see it lap the Miles Gwendolyn Brooks, Speech to the Young. Speech to the Progress-Toward Weldon Kees, For My Daughter THE SPEAKER IN THE POEM Natasha Trethewey, White Lies Edwin Arlington Robinson, Luke Havergal Anonymous, Dog Haiku William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud Dorothy Wordsworth, Journal Entry Charlotte Mew, The Farmer's Bride William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow IRONY Robert Creeley, Oh No W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen Sharon Olds, Rite of Passage Edna St. Vincent Millay, Second Fig Thomas Hardy, The Workbox FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper Amy Uyematsu, Deliberate Richard Lovelace, To Lucasta Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est WRITING EFFECTIVELY Wilfred Owen on Writing, War Poetry THINKING ABOUT TONE CHECKLIST: Writing About Tone TOPICS FOR WRITING ON TONE Sample Student Paper, Word Choice, Tone, and Point of View in Roethke's "My Papa's Waltz" TERMS FOR REVIEW 14 WORDS LITERAL MEANING: WHAT A POEM SAYS FIRST William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say DICTION John Masefield, Cargoes Robert Graves, Down, Wanton, Down! John Donne, Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You THE VALUE OF A DICTIONARY Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Aftermath J. V. Cunningham, Friend, on this scaffold Thomas More lies dead Samuel Menashe, Bread Carl Sandburg, Grass WORD CHOICE AND WORD ORDER Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Clothes Kay Ryan, Blandeur Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid Wendy Cope, Lonely Hearts FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY E. E. Cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town Anonymous, Carnation Milk Gina Valdes, English con Salsa William Wordsworth, My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold William Wordsworth, Mutability Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky WRITING EFFECTIVELY Lewis Carroll, Humpty Dumpty Explicates "Jabberwocky" THINKING ABOUT DICTION CHECKLIST: Writing About Diction TOPICS FOR WRITING ON WORD CHOICE TERMS FOR REVIEW 15 SAYING AND SUGGESTING DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION William Blake, London Wallace Stevens, Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock E. E. Cummings, next to of course god america i Timothy Steele, Epitaph Diane Thiel, The Minefield H.D., Sea Rose Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Tears, Idle Tears Richard Wilbur, Love Calls Us to the Things of This World WRITING EFFECTIVELY Richard Wilbur on Writing, Concerning "Love Calls Us to the Things of This World" THINKING ABOUT DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION CHECKLIST: Writing About What a Poem Says and Suggests TOPICS FOR WRITING ON DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION TERMS FOR REVIEW 16 IMAGERY Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro Taniguchi Buson, The piercing chill I feel IMAGERY T. S. Eliot, The winter evening settles down Theodore Roethke, Root Cellar Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish Emily Dickinson, A Route of Evanescence Jean Toomer, Reapers Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty ABOUT HAIKU Arakida Moritake, The falling flower Matsuo Basho, Heat-lightning streak Matsuo Basho, In the old stone pool Taniguchi Buson, On the one-ton temple bell Taniguchi Buson, Moonrise on mudflats Kobayashi Issa, only one guy Kobayashi Issa, Cricket HAIKU FROM JAPANESE INTERNMENT CAMPS Suiko Matsushita, Rain shower from mountain Suiko Matsushita, Cosmos in bloom Hakuro Wada, Even the croaking of frogs Neiji Ozawa, The war-this year CONTEMPORARY HAIKU Nick Virgilio, The Old Neighborhood Lee Gurga, Visitor's Room Adelle Foley, Learning to Shave Jennifer Brutschy, Born Again FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY John Keats, Bright star! would I were steadfast as thou art Walt Whitman, The Runner H.D., Heat William Carlos Williams, El Hombre Li Po, Drinking Alone by Moonlight Robert Bly, Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter Stevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning WRITING EFFECTIVELY Ezra Pound on Writing, The Image THINKING ABOUT IMAGERY CHECKLIST: Writing About Imagery TOPICS FOR WRITING ON IMAGERY Sample Student Paper, Faded Beauty: Elizabeth Bishop's Use of Imagery in "The Fish" TERMS FOR REVIEW 17 FIGURES OF SPEECH WHY SPEAK FIGURATIVELY? Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Howard Moss, Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day? METAPHOR AND SIMILE Emily Dickinson, My Life had stood - a Loaded Gun Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Flower in the Crannied Wall William Blake, To see a world in a grain of sand Sylvia Plath, Metaphors N. Scott Momaday, Simile Craig Raine, A Martian Sends a Postcard Home OTHER FIGURES OF SPEECH James Stephens, The Wind Robinson Jeffers, Hands Margaret Atwood, You fit into me Timothy Steele, Epitaph Dana Gioia, Money Carl Sandburg, Fog FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY Jane Kenyon, The Suitor Robert Frost, The Secret Sits Kay Ryan, Turtle Emily Bronte, Love and Friendship WRITING EFFECTIVELY Robert Frost on Writing, The Importance of Poetic Metaphor THINKING ABOUT METAPHORS CHECKLIST: Writing About Metaphors TOPICS FOR WRITING ON FIGURES OF SPEECH TERMS FOR REVIEW 18 SONG SINGING AND SAYING Ben Jonson, To Celia William Shakespeare, Fear no more the heat o' the sun Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory Paul Simon, Richard Cory BALLADS Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham BLUES Bessie Smith with Clarence Williams, Jailhouse Blues W. H. Auden, Funeral Blues RAP FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY Neko Case, This Tornado Loves You Bob Dylan, The Times They Are a-Changin' WRITING EFFECTIVELY Bob Dylan on Writing, Rhythm, Rime, and Songwriting from the Outside THINKING ABOUT POETRY AND SONG CHECKLIST: Writing About Song Lyrics TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SONG LYRICS TERMS FOR REVIEW 19 SOUND SOUND AS MEANING William Butler Yeats, Who Goes with Fergus? Edgar Allan Poe, from Ulalume William Wordsworth, A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal ALLITERATION AND ASSONANCE Frances Cornford, The Watch James Joyce, All day I hear Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The splendor falls on castle walls RIME William Cole, On my boat on Lake Cayuga Hilaire Belloc, The Hippopotamus Bob Kaufman, No More Jazz at Alcatraz William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan Gerard Manley Hopkins, God's Grandeur How to read a POEM ALOUD Michael Stillman, In Memoriam John Coltrane T. S. Eliot, Virginia WRITING EFFECTIVELY T. S. Eliot on Writing, The Music of Poetry THINKING ABOUT A POEM'S SOUND CHECKLIST: Writing About a Poem's Sound TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SOUND TERMS FOR REVIEW 20 RHYTHM STRESSES AND PAUSES STRESS AND Meaning line endings Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Break, Break, Break George Gordon, Lord Byron, So We'll Go No More a-Roving Dorothy Parker, Resume METER Edna St. Vincent Millay, Counting-out Rhyme A. E. Housman, When I was one-and-twenty William Carlos Williams, Smell! Walt Whitman, Beat! Beat! Drums! WRITING EFFECTIVELY Gwendolyn Brooks on Writing, Hearing "We Real Cool" THINKING ABOUT RHYTHM CHECKLIST: Scanning a Poem TOPICS FOR WRITING ON RHYTHM TERMS FOR REVIEW 21 CLOSED FORM the value of form FORMAL PATTERNS Ernest Dowson, "Days of Wine and Roses" John Donne, Song ("Go and catch a falling star") Thomas M. Disch, Zewhyexary THE SONNET William Shakespeare, Let me not to the marriage of true minds Edna St. Vincent Millay, What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why A. E. Stallings, Aftershocks R. S. Gwynn, Shakespearean Sonnet Sherman Alexie, The Facebook Sonnet THE EPIGRAM Sir John Harrington, Of Treason Langston Hughes, Two Somewhat Different Epigrams Hilaire Belloc, Fatigue Wendy Cope, Variation on Belloc's "Fatigue" Anonymous, Epitaph on a Dentist OTHER FORMS Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night Robert Bridges, Triolet Paul Laurence Dunbar, We Wear the Mask Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina WRITING EFFECTIVELY A. E. Stallings on Writing, On Form and Artifice THINKING ABOUT A SONNET CHECKLIST: Writing About a Sonnet TOPICS FOR WRITING ON closed form TERMS FOR REVIEW 22 OPEN FORM Denise Levertov, Ancient Stairway FREE VERSE E. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill 's W. S. Merwin, For the Anniversary of My Death William Carlos Williams, The Dance Stephen Crane, The Heart Walt Whitman, Cavalry Crossing a Ford Ezra Pound, Salutation Wallace Stevens, Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird PROSE POETRY Charles Simic, The Magic Study of Happiness VISUAL POETRY George Herbert, Easter Wings FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY E. E. Cummings, in Just- Francisco X. Alarcon, Frontera / Border Carole Satyamurti, I Shall Paint My Nails Red WRITING EFFECTIVELY Walt Whitman on Writing, The Poetry of the Future THINKING ABOUT FREE VERSE CHECKLIST: Writing About Line Breaks TOPICS FOR WRITING ON OPEN FORM TERMS FOR REVIEW 23 SYMBOL THE MEANINGS OF A SYMBOL T. S. Eliot, The Boston Evening Transcript Emily Dickinson, The Lightning is a yellow Fork IDENTIFYING SYMBOLS Thomas Hardy, Neutral Tones ALLEGORY Matthew, The Parable of the Good Seed George Herbert, Redemption Antonio Machado, Proverbios y Cantares (IX) Translated by Dana Gioia, Traveler Christina Rossetti, Up-Hill FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY William Carlos Williams, The Young Housewife Ted Kooser, Carrie Mary Oliver, Wild Geese William Blake, The Tyger Tami Haaland, Lipstick Lorine Niedecker, Popcorn-can cover Wallace Stevens, The Snow Man Wallace Stevens, Anecdote of the Jar WRITING EFFECTIVELY William Butler Yeats on Writing, Poetic Symbols THINKING ABOUT SYMBOLS CHECKLIST: Writing About Symbols TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SYMBOLISM TERMS FOR REVIEW 24 MYTH AND NARRATIVE The subjects and uses OF MYTH origins OF MYTH Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay William Wordsworth, The world is too much with us H. D., Helen ARCHETYPE Louise Bogan, Medusa John Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci PERSONAL MYTH William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming Diane Thiel, Memento Mori in Middle School MYTH AND POPULAR CULTURE for review and further study A. E. Stallings, First Love: A Quiz Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses Anne Sexton, Cinderella WRITING EFFECTIVELY Diane Thiel on Writing, The Map of Myth THINKING ABOUT MYTH CHECKLIST: Writing About Myth TOPICS FOR WRITING ON MYTH Sample Student Paper, The Bonds Between Love and Hatred in H.D.'s "Helen" TERMS FOR REVIEW 25 POETRY AND PERSONAL IDENTITY CONFESSIONAL POETRY Sylvia Plath, Lady Lazarus IDENTITY POETICS Rhina Espaillat, Bilingual/Bilingue CULTURE, RACE, AND ETHNICITY Claude McKay, America Shirley Geok-lin Lim, Riding into California Judith Ortiz Cofer, Quinceanera Sherman Alexie, The Powwow at the End of the World Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It GENDER Anne Stevenson, The Victory Rafael Campo, For J. W. James Wright, Autumn Begins in Martins Ferry, Ohio Adrienne Rich, Women FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY Philip Larkin, Aubade WRITING EFFECTIVELY Rhina Espaillat on Writing, Being a Bilingual Writer THINKING ABOUT POETIC VOICE AND IDENTITY CHECKLIST: Writing About Voice and Personal Identity TOPICS FOR WRITING ON PERSONAL IDENTITY terms for review 26 POETRY IN SPANISH: LITERATURE OF LATIN AMERICA Sor Juana, Presente en que el Carino Hace Regalo la Llaneza Translated by Diane Thiel, A Simple Gift Made Rich by Affection Pablo Neruda, Muchos Somos Translated by Alastair Reid, We Are Many Jorge Luis Borges, On his blindness Translated by Robert Mezey, On His Blindness Octavio Paz, Con los ojos cerrados Translated by Eliot Weinberger, With eyes closed SURREALISM IN LATIN AMERICAN POETRY Frida Kahlo, The Two Fridas Cesar Vallejo, La colera que quiebra al hombre en ninos Translated by Thomas Merton, Anger CONTEMPORARY MEXICAN POETRY Jose Emilio Pacheco, Alta Traicion Translated by Alastair Reid, High Treason Elva Macias, Comi los frutos elegidos Translated by Kimberly Gooden, I Ate the Fruits Chosen by the Wind WRITING EFFECTIVELY Alastair Reid on Writing, Translating Neruda TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SPANISH POETRY 27 RECOGNIZING EXCELLENCE Anonymous, O Moon, when I gaze on thy beautiful face Emily Dickinson, A Dying Tiger - moaned for Drink SENTIMENTALITY Rod McKuen, Thoughts on Capital Punishment William Stafford, Traveling Through the Dark RECOGNIZING EXCELLENCE William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium Arthur Guiterman, On the Vanity of Earthly Greatness Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias Robert Hayden, The Whipping Elizabeth Bishop, One Art Langston Hughes, I, Too John Keats, Ode to a Nightingale Walt Whitman, O Captain! My Captain! Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus Edgar Allan Poe, Annabel Lee WRITING EFFECTIVELY Edgar Allan Poe on Writing, A Long Poem Does Not Exist THINKING ABOUT EVALUATING A POEM CHECKLIST: Writing an Evaluation TOPICS FOR WRITING ON EVALUATING A POEM TERMS FOR REVIEW 28 WHAT IS POETRY? some definitions of poetry Dante, Samuel Johnson, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth, Emily Dickinson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Robert Frost, Mina Loy, T. S. Eliot, W. H. Auden, Jose Garcia Villa, Elizabeth Bishop, Joy Harjo, Octavio Paz, Denise Levertov, Lucille Clifton, Charles Simic, - 29 Three CRITICAL CASEBOOKS Emily Dickinson, Langston Hughes, and Robert Frost EMILY DICKINSON Success is counted sweetest Wild Nights - Wild Nights! I felt a Funeral, in my Brain I'm Nobody! Who are you? The Soul selects her own Society Much Madness is divinest Sense I heard a Fly buzz - when I died I started Early - Took my Dog Because I could not stop for Death Tell all the Truth but tell it slant EMILY DICKINSON ON WRITING Recognizing Poetry Self-Description CRITICS ON EMILY DICKINSON Thomas H. Johnson, The Discovery of Emily Dickinson's Manuscripts Richard Wilbur, The Three Privations of Emily Dickinson Cynthia Griffin Wolff, Dickinson and Death (A Reading of "Because I could not stop for Death") Judith Farr, A Reading of "My Life had stood - a Loaded Gun" LANGSTON HUGHES The Negro Speaks of Rivers The Negro My People Mother to Son Song for a Dark Girl Prayer Luck Theme for English B Harlem [Dream Deferred] Homecoming LANGSTON HUGHES ON WRITING

About the Author

X. J. Kennedy, after graduation from Seton Hall and Columbia, became a journalist second class in the Navy ("Actually, I was pretty eighth class"). His poems, some published in the New Yorker, were first collected in Nude Descending a Staircase (1961). Since then he has written six more collections, several widely adopted literature and writing textbooks, and seventeen books for children, including two novels. He has taught at Michigan, North Carolina (Greensboro), California (Irvine), Wellesley, Tufts, and Leeds. Cited in Bartlett's Familiar Quotations and reprinted in some 200 anthologies, his verse has brought him a Guggenheim fellowship, a Lamont Award, a Los Angeles Times Book Prize, an award from the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, an Aiken-Taylor prize, the Robert Frost Medal of the Poetry Society of America, and the Award for Poetry for Children from the National Council of Teachers of English. He now lives in Lexington, Massachusetts, where he and his wife Dorothy have collaborated on four books and five children. Dana Gioia is a poet, critic, and teacher. He was appointed California's Poet Laureate for a two-year term. Born in Los Angeles of Italian and Mexican ancestry, he attended Stanford and Harvard before taking a detour into business. After years of writing and reading late in the evenings after work, he quit a corporate vice presidency to write. He has published four collections of poetry, Daily Horoscope (1986), The Gods of Winter (1991), Interrogations at Noon (2001), which won the American Book Award, and Pity the Beautiful (2012); and three critical volumes, including Can Poetry Matter? (1992), an influential study of poetry's place in contemporary America. Gioia has taught at Johns Hopkins, Sarah Lawrence, Wesleyan (Connecticut), Mercer, and Colorado College. From 2003-2009 he served as the Chairman of the National Endowments for the Arts. At the NEA he created the largest literary programs in federal history, including Shakespeare in American Communities and Poetry Out Loud, the national high school poetry recitation contest. He also led the campaign to restore active literary reading by creating The Big Read, which helped reverse a quarter century of decline in U.S. reading. He is currently the Judge Widney Professor of Poetry and Public Culture at the University of Southern California.

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