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FICTION A Conversation with Amy Tan 1: Reading a Story The Art of Fiction Types of Short Fiction W. Somerset Maugham, The Appointment in Samarra Aesop, The Fox and the Grapes Bidpai, The Camel and His Friends Chuang Tzu, Independence Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, Godfather Death Plot The Short Story John Updike, A & P Writing Effectively: John Updike THINKING About Plot 2: Point of View Identifying Point of View Types of Narrators Stream of Consciousness ZZ Packer , Brownies Eudora Welty, A Worn Path James Baldwin, Sonny's Blues Writing Effectively: James Baldwin THINKING about Point of View 3: Character Types of Characters Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill Raymond Carver, Cathedral Writing Effectively: Raymond Carver THINKING about Character 4: Setting Elements of Setting Historical Fiction Regionalism Naturalism Kate Chopin, The Storm Jack London, To Build a Fire Ray Bradbury , The Sound of Thunder Amy Tan, A Pair of Tickets Writing Effectively: Amy Tan THINKING about Setting 5. Tone and Style Tone Style Diction Ernest Hemingway, A Clean, Well-Lighted Place Irony O. Henry, The Gift of the Magi Anne Tyler, Teenage Wasteland Writing Effectively: Ernest Hemingway THINKING about Tone and Style 6. Theme Plot vs. Theme Theme as Unifying Device Finding the Theme Stephen Crane, The Open Boat Alice Munro, How I Met My Husband Luke 15:11-32, The Parable of the Prodigal Son Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., Harrison Bergeron Writing Effectively: Kurt Vonnegut THINKING about Theme 7. Symbol Allegory Symbols Recognizing Symbols John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums John Cheever , The Swimmer Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas Shirley Jackson, The Lottery Writing effectively: Shirley Jackson THINKING about Symbols 8. Reading Long Stories and Novels Origins of the Novel Novelistic Methods Reading Novels Leo Tolstoy, The Death of Ivan Ilych Franz Kafka, The Metamorphosis Writing Effectively: Franz Kafka THINKING about Long Stories and Novels 9. Latin American Fiction "El Boom" Magic Realism After the Boom Jorge Luis Borges, The Gospel According to Mark Gabriel Garcia Marquez, A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings Isabel Allende , The Judge's Wife Ines Arredondo, The Shunammite Writing Effectively: Marquez 10. Poe and O'Connor Casebooks Edgar Allen Poe, The Tell-Tale Heart Edgar Allen Poe, The Cask of Amontillado Edgar Allen Poe,The Fall of the House of Usher Edgar Allan Poe on Writing Critics on Edgar Allan Poe Flannery O'Connor, A Good Man Is Hard to Find Flannery O'Connor, Revelation Flannery O'Connor, Parker's Back Flannery O'Connor on Writing Critics on Flannery O'Connor 11. Critical Casebook: Two Stories in Depth Charlotte Perkins Gilman The Yellow Wallpaper Charlotte Perkins Gilman on Writing Critics on "The Yellow Wallpaper" Alice Walker, Everyday Use Alice Walker, On Writing Critics on "Everyday Use" 12. Stories for Further Reading Chinua Achebe, Dead Men's Path Sherwood Anderson, Hands Margaret Atwood, Happy Endings Ambrose Bierce, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge T. Coraghessan Boyle, Greasy Lake Willa Cather, Paul's Case Anton Chekov, An Upheaval Anton Chekov, Misery Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour Kate Chopin, Desiree's Baby Sandra Cisneros, The House on Mango Street Joseph Conrad, The Secret Sharer Arthur Conan Doyle, The Adventure of the Speckled Band Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal Gustav Flaubert, A Simple Heart Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Unnatural Mother Susan Glaspell, A Jury of Her Peers Nikolai Gogol, The Overcoat Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Birthmark Zora Neale Hurston, Sweat James Joyce, Araby James Joyce, Eveline James Joyce, The Dead Franz Kafka, Before the Law Jamaica Kincaid, Girl Jhumpa Lahiri, Interpreter of Maladies D. H. Lawrence, The Rocking-Horse Winner D. H. Lawrence, Odour of Chrysanthemums David Leavitt, A Place I've Never Been Naguib Mahfouz, The Lawsuit Katherine Mansfield, The Garden Party Bobbie Ann Mason, Shiloh Guy de Maupassant, Mother Savage Herman Melville, Bartleby the Scrivener Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried Daniel Orozco , Orientation Robert Louise Stevenson, The Bottle Imp Edith Wharton, The Other Two Oscar Wilde, The Happy Prince Tobias Wolff, The Rich Brother Virginia Woolf, A Haunted House POETRY A Conversation with Kay Ray 13. Reading a Poem Poetry or Verse Reading a Poem Paraphrase William Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree Lyric Poetry Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer's Tigers Narrative Poetry Anonymous, Sir Patrick Spence Robert Frost, "Out, Out-" Dramatic Poetry Robert Browning, My Last Duchess Didactic Poetry Writing Effectively: Adrienne Rich THINKING about Paraphrase William Stafford, Ask Me 14. Listening to a Voice Tone Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz Countee Cullen, For a Lady I Know Anne Bradstreet, The Author to Her Book Walt Whitman, To a Locomotive in Winter Emily Dickinson, I like to see it lap the Miles Benjamin Alire Saenz, To the Desert Gwendolyn Brooks , Speech to the Young. Speech to the Progress-Toward Weldon Kees, For My Daughter The Person in the Poem Natasha Trethewey, White Lies Edwin Arlington Robinson, Luke Havergal Ted Hughes, Hawk Roosting Anonymous, Dog Haiku William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud Dorothy Wordsworth, Journal Entry James Stephens, A Glass of Beer Anne Sexton, Her Kind William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow Irony Robert Creeley, Oh No W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen Sharon Olds, Rites of Passage Julie Sheehan, Hate Poem Sarah N. Cleghorn, The Golf Links Edna St. Vincent Millay, Second Fig Thomas Hardy, The Workbox William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper William Jay Smith, American Primitive David Lehman , Rejection Slip William Stafford, At the Un-National Monument Along the Canadian Border Richard Lovelace, To Lucasta Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est Writing Effectively: Wilfred Owen THINKING About TONE THINKING About TONE 15. Words Literal Meaning: What a Poem Says First William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say Diction Marianne Moore, Silence Robert Graves, Down, Wanton, Down! John Donne, Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You The Value of a Dictionary Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Aftermath Kay Ryan, Mockingbird J. V. Cunningham, Friend, on this scaffold Thomas More lies dead Samuel Menashe, Bread Carl Sandburg, Grass Word Choice and Word Order Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Clothes Kay Ryan, Blandeur Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid Richard Eberhart, The Fury of Aerial Bombardment Wendy Cope, Lonely Hearts E. E. Cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town Billy Collins, The Names Christian Wiman , When the Time's Toxin Anonymous, Carnation Milk Gina Valdes, English con Salsa Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky Writing Effectively: Lewis Carroll THINKING About Diction 16. Saying and Suggesting Denotation and Connotation John Masefield, Cargoes William Blake, London Wallace Stevens, Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock Gwendolyn Brooks, The Bean Eaters Timothy Steele, Epitaph E. E. Cummings, next to of course god america i Robert Frost, Fire and Ice Diane Thiel , The Minefield H.D., Storm Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Tears, Idle Tears Richard Wilbur, Love Calls Us to the Things of This World Writing Effectively: Richard Wilbur THINKING About Denotation and Connotation 17. Imagery Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro Taniguchi Buson, The piercing chill I feel Imagery T. S. Eliot, The winter evening settles down Theodore Roethke, Root Cellar Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish Charles Simic, Fork Emily Dickinson, A Route of Evanescence Jean Toomer, Reapers Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty About Haiku Arakida Moritake, The falling flower Matsuo Basho, Heat-lightning streak Matsuo Basho, In the old stone pool Taniguchi Buson, On the one-ton temple bell Taniguchi Buson, Moonrise on mudflats Kobayashi Issa, only one guy Kobayashi Issa, Cricket Haiku from Japanese Internment Camps Suiko Matsushita, Rain shower from mountain Suiko Matsushita, Cosmos in bloom Hakuro Wada, Even the croaking of frogs Neiji Ozawa, The war-this year Contemporary Haiku Etheridge Knight, Making jazz swing in Gary Snyder, After weeks of watching the roof leak Penny Harter, broken bowl Jennifer Brutschy, Born Again Adelle Foley, Learning to Shave Garry Gay, Hole in the ozone John Keats, Bright star! would I were steadfast as thou art Walt Whitman, The Runner H.D. , Oread William Carlos Williams, El Hombre Robert Bly, Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter Billy Collins, Embrace Chana Bloch , Tired Sex Gary Snyder , Mid-August at Sourdough Mountain Kevin Prufer, Pause, Pause Stevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning Writing Effectively: Ezra Pound THINKING About Imagery 18. Figures of Speech Why Speak Figuratively? Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Howard Moss, Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day? Metaphor and Simile Emily Dickinson, My Life had stood - a Loaded Gun Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Flower in the Crannied Wall William Blake, To see a world in a grain of sand Sylvia Plath, Metaphors N. Scott Momaday, Simile Emily Dickinson, It dropped so low - in my Regard Jill Alexander Essbaum, The Heart Craig Raine, A Martian Sends a Postcard Home Other Figures of Speech James Stephens, The Wind Robinson Jeffers, Hands Margaret Atwood, You fit into me George Herbert, The Pulley Dana Gioia, Money Carl Sandburg, Fog Charles Simic, My Shoes Robert Frost, The Silken Tent Jane Kenyon, The Suitor Robert Frost, The Secret Sits A. R. Ammons, Coward Kay Ryan, Turtle Emily Bronte, Love and Friendship April Lindner, Low Tide Robert Burns, Oh, my love is like a red, red rose Writing Effectively: Robert Frost THINKING About Metaphors 19. Song Singing and Saying Ben Jonson, To Celia James Weldon Johnson, Sence You Went Away William Shakespeare, Fear no more the heat o' the sun Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory Paul Simon, Richard Cory Ballads Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham Blues Bessie Smith with Clarence Williams, Jailhouse Blues W. H. Auden, Funeral Blues Kevin Young , Late Blues Rap Bob Dylan, The Times They Are a-Changin' Aimee Mann, Deathly Writing Effectively: Bob Dylan THINKING About Poetry and Song 20. Sound Sound as Meaning Alexander Pope, True Ease in Writing comes from Art, not Chance William Butler Yeats, Who Goes with Fergus? John Updike, Recital William Wordsworth, A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal Aphra Behn, When maidens are young Alliteration and Assonance A. E. Housman, Eight O'Clock James Joyce, All day I hear Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The splendor falls on castle walls Rime William Cole, On my boat on Lake Cayuga Hilaire Belloc, The Hippopotamus Bob Kaufman , No More Jazz at Alcatraz William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan Gerard Manley Hopkins, God's Grandeur Robert Frost, Desert Places Reading and Hearing Poems Aloud Michael Stillman, In Memoriam John Coltrane William Shakespeare , Hark, hark, the lark Kevin Young , Doo Wop T. S. Eliot, Virginia Writing Effectively: T. S. Eliot THINKING About a Poem's Sound 21. Rhythm Stresses and Pauses Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Break, Break, Break Ben Jonson, Slow, slow, fresh fount, keep time with my salt tears Dorothy Parker, Resume Meter Edna St. Vincent Millay, Counting-out Rhyme Edith Sitwell , Mariner Man A. E. Housman, When I was one-and-twenty William Carlos Williams, Smell! Walt Whitman, Beat! Beat! Drums! David Mason, Song of the Powers Langston Hughes, Dream Boogie Writing Effectively: Gwendolyn Brooks THINKING About Rhythm 22. Closed Form Formal Patterns John Keats, This living hand, now warm and capable Robert Graves, Counting the Beats John Donne, Song ("Go and catch a falling star") Phillis Levin, Brief Bio The Sonnet William Shakespeare, Let me not to the marriage of true minds Michael Drayton, Since there's no help, come let us kiss and part Edna St. Vincent Millay, What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why Robert Frost, Acquainted with the Night Kim Addonizio, First Poem for You Mark Jarman, Unholy Sonnet: After the Praying A. E. Stallings, Sine Qua Non Amit Majmudar, Rites to Allay the Dead R. S. Gwynn, Shakespearean Sonnet The Epigram Alexander Pope, Epigram Engraved on the Collar of a Dog Sir John Harrington, Of Treason William Blake , To H- Langston Hughes, Two Somewhat Different Epigrams Dorothy Parker , The Actress J. V. Cunningham, This Humanist John Frederick Nims, Contemplation Anonymous, Epitaph of a dentist Hilaire Belloc, Fatigue Wendy Cope, Variation on Belloc's "Fatigue" Poetweets Lawrence Bridges, Two Poetweets Robert Pinsky , Low Pay Piecework Other Forms Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night Robert Bridges, Triolet Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina Writing Effectively: A. E. Stallings THINKING About a Sonnet 23. Open Form Denise Levertov, Ancient Stairway Free Verse E. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill 's W. S. Merwin, For the Anniversary of My Death William Carlos Williams, The Dance Stephen Crane, The Wayfarer Walt Whitman, Cavalry Crossing a Ford Ezra Pound, The Garden Wallace Stevens, Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird Prose Poetry Charles Simic, The Magic Study of Happiness Joy Harjo, Mourning Song Visual Poetry George Herbert, Easter Wings John Hollander, Swan and Shadow Concrete Poetry Richard Kostelanetz, Ramon Gomez de la Serna, Simultaneous Translations Dorthi Charles, Concrete Cat E. E. Cummings, in Just- Francisco X. Alarcon, Frontera / Border Carole Satyamurti, I Shall Paint My Nails Red David St. John, Hush Alice Fulton, What I Like Writing Effectively: Walt Whitman THINKING About Free Verse 24. Symbol The Meanings of a Symbol T. S. Eliot, The Boston Evening Transcript Emily Dickinson, The Lightning is a yellow Fork The Symbolist Movement Identifying Symbols Thomas Hardy, Neutral Tones Allegory Matthew :-, The Parable of the Good Seed George Herbert, Redemption Edwin Markham, Outwitted Suji Kwock Kim, Occupation Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken Antonio Machado , The Traveler Christina Rossetti, Uphill William Carlos Williams, The Young Housewife Ted Kooser, Carrie Mary Oliver, Wild Geese Tami Haaland , Lipstick Lorine Niedecker, Popcorn-can cover Wallace Stevens , The Snow Man Wallace Stevens, Anecdote of the Jar Writing Effectively: William Butler Yeats THINKING About Symbols 25. Myth and Narrative Origins of Myth Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay William Wordsworth, The world is too much with us H. D., Helen Edgar Allan Poe, To Helen Archetype Louise Bogan, Medusa John Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci Personal Myth William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming Gregory Orr, Two Lines from the Brothers Grimm Myth and Popular Culture Charles Martin, Taken Up A. E. Stallings, First Love: A Quiz Anne Sexton, Cinderella Writing Effectively: Anne Sexton THINKING about Myth 26. Poetry and Personal Identity Confessional Poetry Sylvia Plath, Lady Lazarus Identity Poetics Rhina Espaillat, Bilingual/Bilingue Culture, Race, and Ethnicity Claude McKay, America Shirley Geok-lin Lim, Riding Into California Francisco X. Alarcon, The X in My Name Judith Ortiz Cofer, Quinceanera Sherman Alexie, The Powwow at the End of the World Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It Gender Anne Stevenson, Sous-Entendu Carolyn Kizer, Bitch Rafael Campo, For J. W. Donald Justice, Men at Forty Adrienne Rich, Women Katha Pollitt, Mind-Body Problem Andrew Hudgins, Elegy for My Father, Who Is Not Dead Brian Turner , The Hurt Locker Philip Larkin, Aubade Writing Effectively: Rhina Espaillat THINKING About Poetic Voice and Identity 27. Translation Is Poetic Translation Possible? World Poetry Li Po, Moon-Beneath Alone Drink (literal translation) Translated by Arthur Waley, Drinking Alone by Moonlight Comparing Translations Horace, "Carpe Diem" Ode (Latin text) Horace, "Carpe Diem" Ode (literal translation) Translated by Edwin Arlington Robinson, Horace to Leuconoe Translated by A. E. Stallings, A New Year's Toast Translating Form Omar Khayyam, Rubai XII (Persian text) Omar Khayyam, Rubai XII (literal translation) Translated by Edward FitzGerald, A Book of Verses underneath the Bough Translated by Dick Davis, I Need a Bare Sufficiency Omar Khayyam, Rubaiyat Translated by Edward FitzGerald, Come, fill the Cup, and in the fire of Spring Translated by Edward FitzGerald, Some for the Glories of this World Translated by Edward FitzGerald, The Moving Finger writes Translated by Edward FitzGerald, Ah Love! could you and I with Him conspire Parody Anonymous, We four lads from Liverpool are Hugh Kingsmill, What, still alive at twenty-two? Andrea Paterson, Because I Could Not Dump Harryette Mullen, Dim Lady Gene Fehler, If Richard Lovelace Became a Free Agent Aaron Abeyta, thirteen ways of looking at a tortilla Writing Effectively: Arthur Waley THINKING about Parody 28. Poetry in Spanish Sor Juana, Presente en que el Carino Hace Regalo la Llaneza Translated by Diane Thiel, A Simple Gift Made Rich by Affection Pablo Neruda, Muchos Somos Translated by Alastair Reid, We Are Many Jorge Luis Borges, On his blindness Translated by Robert Mezey, On His Blindness Octavio Paz, Con los ojos cerrados Translated by Eliot Weinberger, With eyes closed Surrealism in Latin American Poetry Frida Kahlo, The Two Fridas Cesar Vallejo, La colera que quiebra al hombre en ninos Translated by Thomas Merton, Anger Contemporary Mexican Poetry Jose Emilio Pacheco, Alta Traicion Translated by Alastair Reid, High Treason Tedi Lopez Mills, Convalecencia Pedro Serrano, Golondrinas Translated by Anna Crowe, Swallows Writing Effectively: Alastair Reid on Writing, Translating Neruda 29. Recognizing Excellence Anonymous, O Moon, when I gaze on thy beautiful face Emily Dickinson, A Dying Tiger - moaned for Drink Sentimentality Rod McKuen, Thoughts on Capital Punishment William Stafford, Traveling Through the Dark Recognizing Excellence William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium Arthur Guiterman, On the Vanity of Earthly Greatness Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias Robert Hayden, Frederick Douglass Elizabeth Bishop, One Art John Keats, Ode to a Nightingale Walt Whitman, O Captain! My Captain! Dylan Thomas , In My Craft or Sullen Art Paul Laurence Dunbar, We Wear the Mask Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus Edgar Allan Poe, Annabel Lee Writing Effectively: Edgar Allan Poe THINKING about Evaluating a Poem 30. What Is Poetry? Archibald MacLeish, Ars Poetica 31. Two Critical Casebooks: Dickinson and Hughes Success is counted sweetest I Taste a Liquor Never Brewed Wild Nights - Wild Nights! I Felt a Funeral, in my Brain I'm Nobody! Who are you? The Soul selects her own Society Some keep the Sabbath going to Church After great pain, a formal feeling comes Much Madness is divinest Sense This is my letter to the World I heard a Fly buzz - when I died Because I could not stop for Death Tell all the Truth but tell it slant There is no Frigate like a Book Emily Dickinson on Emily Dickinson Critics on Emily Dickinson The Negro Speaks of Rivers My People Mother to Son Dream Variations I, Too The Weary Blues Song for a Dark Girl Prayer Ballad of the Landlord Theme for English B Nightmare Boogie Harlem [Dream Deferred] Homecoming Langston Hughes on Langston Hughes Critics on Langston Hughes 32. Critical Casebook: T. S. Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock T. S. Eliot on Writing Critics on "Prufrock" 33. Poems for Further Reading Anonymous, Lord Randall Anonymous, The Three Ravens Anonymous , Last Words of the Prophet Anonymous, The Twa Corbies Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach John Ashbery, At North Farm Margaret Atwood, Siren Song W. H. Auden, As I Walked Out One Evening W. H. Auden, Musee des Beaux Arts Jimmy Baca, Spliced Wire Aphra Behn, A Thousand Marytrs Elizabeth Bishop, Filling Station William Blake, A Poison Tree William Blake, Garden of Love William Blake, The Tyger William Blake, The Sick Rose Anne Bradstreet, To My Dear and Loving Husband Gwendolyn Brooks, The Mother Gwendolyn Brooks, The Rites for Cousin Vit Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Grief Elizabeth Barrett Browning, How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways Robert Browning, Porphyria's Lover Robert Browning, Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister Charles Bukowski, Dostoevsky George Gordon, Lord Byron, When We Two Parted George Gordon, Lord Byron, The Ocean George Gordon, Lord Byron, So We'll Go No More A-Roving Lewis Carroll, The Walrus and the Carpenter Lorna Dee Cervantes , Cannery Town in August Geoffrey Chaucer, From The General Prologue Geoffrey Chaucer, Merciless Beauty G. K. Chesterton, The Donkey John Ciardi, Most Like an Arch This Marriage Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Frost at Midnight Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan Billy Collins, Care and Feeding Hart Crane, My Grandmother's Love Letters Hart Crane, Chaplinesque Stephen Crane, I saw a man pursuing the horizon Stephen Crane, A man feared that he might find an assassin E. E. Cummings, somewhere i have never travelled,gladly beyond E. E. Cummings, the Cambridge ladies who live in furnished souls Marisa de los Santos, Perfect Dress John Donne, The Good-Morrow John Donne, Batter my heart, three-personed God John Donne, Death be not proud John Donne, The Flea John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning Rita Dove, Daystar John Dryden, To the Memory of Mr. Oldham Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Sympathy Paul Lawrence Dunbar, The Poet T.S. Eliot, Preludes T. S. Eliot, Journey of the Magi Rhina Espaillat, Agua Rhina Espaillat, Bra Anne Finch, Countess of Winchilsea, Adam Posed Robert Frost, Mowing Robert Frost, Birches Robert Frost, Mending Wall Robert Frost, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California Dana Gioia, California Hills in August Thomas Gray, Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard Thomas Hardy, I Look into My Glass Thomas Hardy, The Convergence of the Twain Thomas Hardy, The Darkling Thrush Thomas Hardy, Hap HD, Oread HD, Sea Rose Seamus Heaney, Digging Anthony Hecht, The Vow George Herbert, The Collar George Herbert, The Pulley George Herbert, Love Robert Herrick, Delight and Disorder Robert Herrick, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time Tony Hoagland, Beauty Gerard Manley Hopkins, No Worst, There is None Gerard Manley Hopkins, Spring and Fall Gerard Manley Hopkins, The Windhover A. E. Housman, Into My Heart an Air that Kills A. E. Housman, Epitaph on an Army of Mercenaries A. E. Housman, Loveliest of trees, the cherry now A. E. Housman, To an Athlete Dying Young Randall Jarrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner Robinson Jeffers, Rock and Hawk Ha Jin, Missed Time Ben Jonson, On My First Son Donald Justice, On the Death of Friends in Childhood John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn John Keats, When I have fears that I may cease to be John Keats, To Autumn John Keats, Ode on Melancholy John Keats, On First Looking into Chapman's Homer XJ Kennedy, In a Prominent Bar in Secaucus One Day Suji Kwock Kim, Monologue for an Onion Ted Kooser, Abandoned Farmhouse Philip Larkin, Home is so Sad Philip Larkin, Poetry of Departures D. H. Lawrence, Piano Denise Levertov, O Taste and See Shirley Geok-lin Lim, Learning to Love America Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, The Tide Rises, The Tide Falls Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Proem to Eveangeline Robert Lowell, Skunk Hour Christopher Marlowe, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress Andrew Marvell, The Definition of Love Andrew Marvell, The Garden Edna St. Vincent Millay, Passer Mortuus Est Edna St. Vincent Millay, First Fig Edna St. Vincent Millay, Time does not bring relief Edna St. Vincent Millay, Recuerdo John Milton, When I consider how my light is spent Marianne Moore, The Fish Marianne Moore, Poetry Marilyn Nelson, A Strange Beautiful Woman Howard Nemerov, The War in the Air Lorine Niedecker, Sorrow Moves in Wide Waves Yone Noguchi, A Selection of Hokku Sharon Olds, The One Girl at the Boys' Party Wilfred Owen, Futility Wilfred Owen, Anthem for Doomed Youth Sylvia Plath, Daddy Edgar Allen Poe, The Raven Edgar Allen Poe, Alone Edgar Allan Poe, A Dream within a Dream Alexander Pope, From an Essay on Man Alexander Pope, A little Learning is a dang'rous Thing Ezra Pound, The Garden Ezra Pound, Portrait d'une Femme Ezra Pound, The River-Merchant's Wife: A Letter Dudley Randall, A Different Image John Crowe Ransom, Piazza Piece Henry Reed, Naming of Parts Adrienne Rich, Living in Sin Edwin Arlington Robinson, Mr. Flood's Party Edwin Arlington Robinson, Miniver Cheevy Theodore Roethke, Elegy for Jane Christina Rossetti, Song Christina Rossetti, Amor Mundi William Shakespeare, When daisies pied and violets blue William Shakespeare, When icicles hang by the wall William Shakespeare, When my love swears that she is made of truth William Shakespeare, Poor soul, the center of my sinful earth William Shakespeare, When, in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes William Shakespeare, That time of year thou mayst in me behold William Shakespeare, When to the sessions of sweet silent thought William Shakespeare, My mistress' eyes are nothing likethe sun Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ode to the West Wind Percy Bysshe Shelley,To -- [Music, when soft voices die] Charles Simic , The Butcher Shop Christopher Smart, For I will consider my Cat Jeoffry Cathy Song, Stamp Collecting William Stafford, The Farm on the Great Plains Gertrude Stein, Susia Asado Wallace Stevens, The Emperor of Ice-Cream Wallace Stevens, Peter Quince at the Clavier Jonathan Swift, A Description of the Morning Alfred, Lord Tennyson, from In Memorium AHH "Old yew, which graspest at the stones." Alfred, Lord Tennyson, from In Memorium AHH "Dark house, by which I once more steal" Alfred, Lord Tennyson, from In Memorium AHH "Be near me when my light is low." Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses Diane Thiel, Memento Mori in Middle School Dylan Thomas, Fern Hill John Updike, Ex-Basketball Player Derek Walcott, Sea Grapes Margaret Walker, For Malcolm X Edmund Waller, Go, Lovely Rose Phillis Wheatley, On Being Brought from Africa to America Walt Whitman, Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking Walt Whitman, When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer Walt Whiman, A Noiseless Patient Spider Walt Whitman, from Song of the Open Road Walt Whitman, I Hear America Singing Richard Wilbur, The Writer William Carlos Williams, To Waken an Old Lady William Carlos Williams, The Young Housewife William Carlos Williams, Danse Russe William Carlos Williams, Spring and All William Carlos Williams, Queen-Anne's-Lace William Wordsworth, Lines (Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey) William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud William Wordsworth, Ode: Intimations of Immortality William Wordsworth, Composed upon Westminster Bridge James Wright, Autumn Begins in Martins Ferry, Ohio Mary Sidney Wroth, In this strange labyrinth Sir Thomas Wyatt, They flee from me that sometime did me seke William Butler Yeats, No Second Troy William Butler Yeats, An Irish Airman Forsees His Death William Butler Yeats, Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop William Butler Yeats, The Magi William Butler Yeats, When You Are Old DRAMA A Conversation with David Ives 34. Reading a Play Theatrical Conventions Elements of a Play Susan Glaspell, Trifles Analyzing Trifles Writing Effectively: Susan Glaspell THINKING About a Play 35. Modes of Drama: Tragedy and Comedy Tragedy Christopher Marlowe, Scene From Doctor Faustus (Act 2, Scene 1) Comedy David Ives, Sure Thing Writing Effectively: David Ives THINKING about Comedy 36. Critical Casebook: Sophocles The Theater of Sophocles The Civic Role of Greek Drama Aristotle's Concept of Tragedy The Origins of Oedipus the King Sophocles, Oedipus the King (Translated by Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald) The Background of Antigone Sophocles, Antigone (Translated by Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald) Critics on Sophocles Writing Effectively: Robert Fitzgerald THINKING About Greek Tragedy 37. Critical Casebook: Shakespeare The Theater of Shakespeare William Shakespeare A Note on Othello William Shakespeare, Othello, the Moor of Venice The Background of Hamlet William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark The Background of A Midsummer Night's Dream William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet William Shakespeare, MacBeth William Shakespeare, The Tempest Critics on Shakespeare Writing Effectively: Ben Jonson Understanding Shakespeare 38. The Modern Theater Realism Naturalism Symbolism and Expressionism American Modernism Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House (Translated by R. Farquharson Sharp, Revised by Viktoria Michelsen) Henrik Ibsen on Writing, Correspondence on the Final Scene of A Doll's House Eugene O'Neill, The Hairy Ape Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie Tennessee Williams on Writing, How to Stage The Glass Menagerie Tragicomedy and the Absurd Return to Realism Experimental Drama Milcha Sanchez-Scott, The Cuban Swimmer Milcha Sanchez-Scott on Writing, Writing The Cuban Swimmer Documentary Drama Anna Deavere Smith, Scenes from Twilight: Los Angeles, 1992 Anna Deavere Smith on Writing, A Call to the Community THINKING About Dramatic Realism 39. Evaluating a Play Judging a Play 40. Plays for Further Readings David Henry Hwang, The Sound of a Voice David Henry Hwang on Writing, Multicultural Theater Edward Bok Lee, El Santo Americano Edward Bok Lee on Writing Jane Martin, Beauty Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman Arthur Miller on Writing, Tragedy and the Common Man J.M. Synge, Riders to the Sea August Wilson, Fences August Wilson on Writing, A Look into Black America WRITING 41. Writing About Literature Read Actively Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay Plan Your Essay Pre-Writing: Discover Your Ideas Sample Student Prewriting Exercises Develop a Literary Argument Write a Rough Draft Revise Your Draft Some Final Advice on Rewriting Document Sources to Avoid Plagiarism The Form of Your Finished Paper Spell-Check and Grammar-Check Programs Anonymous (after a poem by Jerrold H. Zar), A Little Poem Regarding Computer Spell Checkers 42. Writing About a Story Read Actively Think About the Story Pre-Writing: Discover Your Ideas Sample Student Prewriting Exercises Write a Rough Draft Revise Your Draft What's Your Purpose? Common Approaches to Writing About Fiction Explication Analysis The Card report Comparison and Contrast Response paper 43. Writing About a Poem Read Actively Robert Frost, Design Think About the Poem Pre-Writing: Discover Your Ideas Sample Student Prewriting Exercises Write a Rough Draft Revise Your Draft Common Approaches to Writing About Poetry Explication Analysis Comparison and contrast Abbie Huston Evans, Wing-Spread How to Quote a Poem Robert Frost, In White 44. Writing About a Play Read Critically Common Approaches to Writing About Drama Explication Analysis Comparison and contrast Card report Drama review How to Quote a Play Topics for Writing 45. Writing a Research Paper Browse the Research Choose a Topic Begin Your Research Print Resources Online Databases Reliable Web Sources Visual Images Evaluate Your Sources Organize Your Research Refine Your Thesis Organize Your Paper Write and Revise Maintain Academic Integrity Acknowledge All Sources Quotations Citing Ideas Document Sources Using MLA Style Parenthetical References Works Cited List Citing Print Sources in MLA Style Citing Web Sources in MLA Style Sample List of Works Cited Endnotes and Footnotes Reference Guide for Citations 46. Writing as Discovery: Keeping a Journal The Rewards of Keeping a Journal Sample Journal Entry Sample Student Journal 47. Writing an Essay Exam Taking an Essay Exam Toni Cade Bambara, The Lesson 48. Critical Approaches to Literature Formalist Criticism Cleanth Brooks, The Formalist Critic Michael Clark, Light and Darkness in "Sonny's Blues" Robert Langbaum, On Robert Browning's "My Last Duchess" Biographical Criticism Leslie Fiedler, The Relationship of Poet and Poem Brett C. Millier, On Elizabeth Bishop's "One Art" Emily Toth, The Source for AlcEe LaballiEre in "The Storm" Historical Criticism Hugh Kenner, Imagism Seamus Deane, Joyce's Dublin Kathryn Lee Seidel, The Economics of Zora Neale Hurston's "Sweat" Psychological Criticism Sigmund Freud, The Nature of Dreams Gretchen Schulz and R. J. R. Rockwood, Fairy Tale Motifs in "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? Harold Bloom, Poetic Influence Mythological Criticism Carl Jung, The Collective Unconscious and Archetypes Northrop Frye, Mythic Archetypes Edmond Volpe, Myth in Faulkner's "Barn Burning" Sociological Criticism Georg Lukacs, Content Determines Form Daniel P. Watkins, Money and Labor in "The Rocking-Horse Winner" Alfred Kazin, Walt Whitman and Abraham Lincoln Gender Criticism Elaine Showalter, Toward a Feminist Poetics Nina Pelikan Straus, Transformations in The Metamorphosis Richard R. Bozorth, "Tell Me the Truth About Love" Reader-Response Criticism Stanley Fish, An Eskimo "A Rose for Emily" Robert Scholes, "How Do We Make a Poem?" Michael J. Colacurcio, The End of Young Goodman Brown Deconstructionist Criticism Roland Barthes, The Death of the Author Barbara Johnson, Rigorous Unreliability Geoffrey Hartman, On Wordsworth's "A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal" Cultural Studies Vincent B. Leitch, Poststructuralist Cultural Critique Mark Bauerlein, What Is Cultural Studies? Camille Paglia, A Reading of William Blake's "The Chimney Sweeper"

About the Author

X. J. Kennedy, after graduation from Seton Hall and Columbia, became a journalist second class in the Navy ("Actually, I was pretty eighth class"). His poems, some published in the New Yorker, were first collected in Nude Descending a Staircase (1961). Since then he has written six more collections, several widely adopted literature and writing textbooks, and seventeen books for children, including two novels. He has taught at Michigan, North Carolina (Greensboro), California (Irvine), Wellesley, Tufts, and Leeds. Cited in Bartlett's Familiar Quotations and reprinted in some 200 anthologies, his verse has brought him a Guggenheim fellowship, a Lamont Award, a Los Angeles Times Book Prize, an award from the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, an Aiken-Taylor prize, the Robert Frost Medal of the Poetry Society of America, and the Award for Poetry for Children from the National Council of Teachers of English. He now lives in Lexington, Massachusetts, where he and his wife Dorothy have collaborated on four books and five children. Dana Gioia is a poet, critic, and teacher. Born in Los Angeles of Italian and Mexican ancestry, he attended Stanford and Harvard before taking a detour into business. After years of writing and reading late in the evenings after work, he quit a corporate vice presidency to write. He has published four collections of poetry, Daily Horoscope (1986), The Gods of Winter (1991), Interrogations at Noon (2001), which won the American Book Award, and Pity the Beautiful (2012); and three critical volumes, including Can Poetry Matter? (1992), an influential study of poetry's place in contemporary America. Gioia has taught at Johns Hopkins, Sarah Lawrence, Wesleyan (Connecticut), Mercer, and Colorado College. From 2003-2009 he served as the Chairman of the National Endowments for the Arts. At the NEA he created the largest literary programs in federal history, including Shakespeare in American Communities and Poetry Out Loud, the national high school poetry recitation contest. He also led the campaign to restore active literary reading by creating The Big Read, which helped reverse a quarter century of decline in U.S. reading. He is currently the Judge Widney Professor of Poetry and Public Culture at the University of Southern California.

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