FICTION A Conversation with Amy Tan 1: Reading a Story The Art of FictionTypes of Short FictionW. Somerset Maugham, The Appointment in Samarra Aesop, The Fox and the GrapesBidpai, The Camel and His Friends Chuang Tzu, Independence Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, Godfather Death Plot The Short Story John Updike, A & P Writing Effectively: John Updike THINKING About Plot 2: Point of ViewIdentifying Point of ViewTypes of NarratorsStream of ConsciousnessZZ Packer , BrowniesEudora Welty, A Worn PathJames Baldwin, Sonny's Blues Writing Effectively: James Baldwin THINKING about Point of View 3: Character Types of CharactersKatherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill Raymond Carver, Cathedral Writing Effectively: Raymond CarverTHINKING about Character 4: Setting Elements of SettingHistorical FictionRegionalismNaturalismKate Chopin, The Storm Jack London, To Build a Fire Ray Bradbury , The Sound of ThunderAmy Tan, A Pair of Tickets Writing Effectively: Amy TanTHINKING about Setting 5. Tone and Style ToneStyle DictionErnest Hemingway, A Clean, Well-Lighted Place Irony O. Henry, The Gift of the Magi Anne Tyler, Teenage WastelandWriting Effectively: Ernest HemingwayTHINKING about Tone and Style 6. Theme Plot vs. ThemeTheme as Unifying DeviceFinding the ThemeStephen Crane, The Open Boat Alice Munro, How I Met My Husband Luke 15:11-32, The Parable of the Prodigal Son Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., Harrison Bergeron Writing Effectively: Kurt VonnegutTHINKING about Theme 7. Symbol AllegorySymbolsRecognizing SymbolsJohn Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums John Cheever , The Swimmer Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas Shirley Jackson, The Lottery Writing effectively: Shirley Jackson THINKING about Symbols 8. Reading Long Stories and Novels Origins of the NovelNovelistic MethodsReading NovelsLeo Tolstoy, The Death of Ivan Ilych Franz Kafka, The Metamorphosis Writing Effectively: Franz KafkaTHINKING about Long Stories and Novels 9. Latin American Fiction "El Boom" Magic Realism After the BoomJorge Luis Borges, The Gospel According to Mark Gabriel Garcia Marquez, A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings Isabel Allende , The Judge's WifeInes Arredondo, The Shunammite Writing Effectively: Marquez 10. Poe and O'Connor CasebooksEdgar Allen Poe, The Tell-Tale Heart Edgar Allen Poe, The Cask of AmontilladoEdgar Allen Poe,The Fall of the House of UsherEdgar Allan Poe on WritingCritics on Edgar Allan Poe Flannery O'Connor, A Good Man Is Hard to Find Flannery O'Connor, Revelation Flannery O'Connor, Parker's Back Flannery O'Connor on Writing Critics on Flannery O'Connor 11. Critical Casebook: Two Stories in Depth Charlotte Perkins Gilman The Yellow WallpaperCharlotte Perkins Gilman on WritingCritics on "The Yellow Wallpaper" Alice Walker, Everyday Use Alice Walker, On Writing Critics on "Everyday Use" 12. Stories for Further Reading Chinua Achebe, Dead Men's Path Sherwood Anderson, HandsMargaret Atwood, Happy Endings Ambrose Bierce, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge T. Coraghessan Boyle, Greasy Lake Willa Cather, Paul's Case Anton Chekov, An UpheavalAnton Chekov, MiseryKate Chopin, The Story of an Hour Kate Chopin, Desiree's BabySandra Cisneros, The House on Mango Street Joseph Conrad, The Secret Sharer Arthur Conan Doyle, The Adventure of the Speckled BandRalph Ellison, Battle Royal Gustav Flaubert, A Simple HeartCharlotte Perkins Gilman, The Unnatural MotherSusan Glaspell, A Jury of Her PeersNikolai Gogol, The OvercoatNathaniel Hawthorne, The BirthmarkZora Neale Hurston, Sweat James Joyce, Araby James Joyce, EvelineJames Joyce, The DeadFranz Kafka, Before the LawJamaica Kincaid, Girl Jhumpa Lahiri, Interpreter of Maladies D. H. Lawrence, The Rocking-Horse Winner D. H. Lawrence, Odour of ChrysanthemumsDavid Leavitt, A Place I've Never Been Naguib Mahfouz, The Lawsuit Katherine Mansfield, The Garden PartyBobbie Ann Mason, Shiloh Guy de Maupassant, Mother SavageHerman Melville, Bartleby the ScrivenerJoyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried Daniel Orozco , OrientationRobert Louise Stevenson, The Bottle ImpEdith Wharton, The Other TwoOscar Wilde, The Happy Prince Tobias Wolff, The Rich Brother Virginia Woolf, A Haunted House POETRY A Conversation with Kay Ray 13. Reading a Poem Poetry or Verse Reading a PoemParaphraseWilliam Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree Lyric Poetry Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer's Tigers Narrative Poetry Anonymous, Sir Patrick Spence Robert Frost, "Out, Out-" Dramatic Poetry Robert Browning, My Last Duchess Didactic PoetryWriting Effectively: Adrienne RichTHINKING about Paraphrase William Stafford, Ask Me 14. Listening to a Voice Tone Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz Countee Cullen, For a Lady I Know Anne Bradstreet, The Author to Her Book Walt Whitman, To a Locomotive in Winter Emily Dickinson, I like to see it lap the Miles Benjamin Alire Saenz, To the DesertGwendolyn Brooks , Speech to the Young. Speech to the Progress-Toward Weldon Kees, For My Daughter The Person in the Poem Natasha Trethewey, White Lies Edwin Arlington Robinson, Luke Havergal Ted Hughes, Hawk Roosting Anonymous, Dog HaikuWilliam Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud Dorothy Wordsworth, Journal Entry James Stephens, A Glass of Beer Anne Sexton, Her Kind William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow Irony Robert Creeley, Oh No W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen Sharon Olds, Rites of Passage Julie Sheehan, Hate PoemSarah N. Cleghorn, The Golf Links Edna St. Vincent Millay, Second Fig Thomas Hardy, The Workbox William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper William Jay Smith, American PrimitiveDavid Lehman , Rejection Slip William Stafford, At the Un-National Monument Along the Canadian Border Richard Lovelace, To Lucasta Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est Writing Effectively: Wilfred Owen THINKING About TONE THINKING About TONE 15. Words Literal Meaning: What a Poem Says First William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say Diction Marianne Moore, Silence Robert Graves, Down, Wanton, Down! John Donne, Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You The Value of a Dictionary Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Aftermath Kay Ryan, MockingbirdJ. V. Cunningham, Friend, on this scaffold Thomas More lies dead Samuel Menashe, BreadCarl Sandburg, GrassWord Choice and Word Order Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Clothes Kay Ryan, Blandeur Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid Richard Eberhart, The Fury of Aerial Bombardment Wendy Cope, Lonely Hearts E. E. Cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town Billy Collins, The Names Christian Wiman , When the Time's Toxin Anonymous, Carnation Milk Gina Valdes, English con Salsa Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky Writing Effectively: Lewis Carroll THINKING About Diction 16. Saying and SuggestingDenotation and ConnotationJohn Masefield, Cargoes William Blake, London Wallace Stevens, Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock Gwendolyn Brooks, The Bean EatersTimothy Steele, Epitaph E. E. Cummings, next to of course god america i Robert Frost, Fire and Ice Diane Thiel , The Minefield H.D., StormAlfred, Lord Tennyson, Tears, Idle Tears Richard Wilbur, Love Calls Us to the Things of This World Writing Effectively: Richard Wilbur THINKING About Denotation and Connotation 17. Imagery Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro Taniguchi Buson, The piercing chill I feel ImageryT. S. Eliot, The winter evening settles down Theodore Roethke, Root Cellar Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish Charles Simic, Fork Emily Dickinson, A Route of Evanescence Jean Toomer, Reapers Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty About Haiku Arakida Moritake, The falling flower Matsuo Basho, Heat-lightning streak Matsuo Basho, In the old stone pool Taniguchi Buson, On the one-ton temple bell Taniguchi Buson, Moonrise on mudflatsKobayashi Issa, only one guy Kobayashi Issa, Cricket Haiku from Japanese Internment Camps Suiko Matsushita, Rain shower from mountainSuiko Matsushita, Cosmos in bloom Hakuro Wada, Even the croaking of frogs Neiji Ozawa, The war-this yearContemporary Haiku Etheridge Knight, Making jazz swing inGary Snyder, After weeks of watching the roof leakPenny Harter, broken bowlJennifer Brutschy, Born AgainAdelle Foley, Learning to ShaveGarry Gay, Hole in the ozoneJohn Keats, Bright star! would I were steadfast as thou art Walt Whitman, The Runner H.D. , OreadWilliam Carlos Williams, El Hombre Robert Bly, Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter Billy Collins, Embrace Chana Bloch , Tired SexGary Snyder , Mid-August at Sourdough MountainKevin Prufer, Pause, PauseStevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning Writing Effectively: Ezra Pound THINKING About Imagery 18. Figures of SpeechWhy Speak Figuratively? Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Howard Moss, Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day? Metaphor and Simile Emily Dickinson, My Life had stood - a Loaded Gun Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Flower in the Crannied Wall William Blake, To see a world in a grain of sand Sylvia Plath, Metaphors N. Scott Momaday, Simile Emily Dickinson, It dropped so low - in my Regard Jill Alexander Essbaum, The Heart Craig Raine, A Martian Sends a Postcard Home Other Figures of Speech James Stephens, The Wind Robinson Jeffers, HandsMargaret Atwood, You fit into me George Herbert, The Pulley Dana Gioia, Money Carl Sandburg, Fog Charles Simic, My ShoesRobert Frost, The Silken Tent Jane Kenyon, The Suitor Robert Frost, The Secret Sits A. R. Ammons, Coward Kay Ryan, Turtle Emily Bronte, Love and Friendship April Lindner, Low TideRobert Burns, Oh, my love is like a red, red rose Writing Effectively: Robert FrostTHINKING About Metaphors 19. SongSinging and Saying Ben Jonson, To Celia James Weldon Johnson, Sence You Went Away William Shakespeare, Fear no more the heat o' the sunEdwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory Paul Simon, Richard Cory Ballads Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham Blues Bessie Smith with Clarence Williams, Jailhouse Blues W. H. Auden, Funeral Blues Kevin Young , Late Blues Rap Bob Dylan, The Times They Are a-Changin' Aimee Mann, Deathly Writing Effectively: Bob Dylan THINKING About Poetry and Song 20. Sound Sound as Meaning Alexander Pope, True Ease in Writing comes from Art, not Chance William Butler Yeats, Who Goes with Fergus? John Updike, Recital William Wordsworth, A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal Aphra Behn, When maidens are young Alliteration and Assonance A. E. Housman, Eight O'Clock James Joyce, All day I hear Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The splendor falls on castle walls Rime William Cole, On my boat on Lake Cayuga Hilaire Belloc, The Hippopotamus Bob Kaufman , No More Jazz at Alcatraz William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan Gerard Manley Hopkins, God's Grandeur Robert Frost, Desert Places Reading and Hearing Poems Aloud Michael Stillman, In Memoriam John Coltrane William Shakespeare , Hark, hark, the lark Kevin Young , Doo WopT. S. Eliot, Virginia Writing Effectively: T. S. Eliot THINKING About a Poem's Sound 21. Rhythm Stresses and Pauses Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Break, Break, Break Ben Jonson, Slow, slow, fresh fount, keep time with my salt tears Dorothy Parker, Resume Meter Edna St. Vincent Millay, Counting-out Rhyme Edith Sitwell , Mariner Man A. E. Housman, When I was one-and-twenty William Carlos Williams, Smell! Walt Whitman, Beat! Beat! Drums! David Mason, Song of the Powers Langston Hughes, Dream Boogie Writing Effectively: Gwendolyn BrooksTHINKING About Rhythm 22. Closed Form Formal Patterns John Keats, This living hand, now warm and capable Robert Graves, Counting the Beats John Donne, Song ("Go and catch a falling star") Phillis Levin, Brief Bio The Sonnet William Shakespeare, Let me not to the marriage of true minds Michael Drayton, Since there's no help, come let us kiss and part Edna St. Vincent Millay, What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why Robert Frost, Acquainted with the Night Kim Addonizio, First Poem for You Mark Jarman, Unholy Sonnet: After the Praying A. E. Stallings, Sine Qua Non Amit Majmudar, Rites to Allay the DeadR. S. Gwynn, Shakespearean Sonnet The Epigram Alexander Pope, Epigram Engraved on the Collar of a DogSir John Harrington, Of TreasonWilliam Blake , To H-Langston Hughes, Two Somewhat Different EpigramsDorothy Parker , The ActressJ. V. Cunningham, This HumanistJohn Frederick Nims, ContemplationAnonymous, Epitaph of a dentistHilaire Belloc, FatigueWendy Cope, Variation on Belloc's "Fatigue"PoetweetsLawrence Bridges, Two PoetweetsRobert Pinsky , Low Pay PieceworkOther Forms Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night Robert Bridges, Triolet Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina Writing Effectively: A. E. Stallings THINKING About a Sonnet 23. Open Form Denise Levertov, Ancient Stairway Free VerseE. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill 's W. S. Merwin, For the Anniversary of My Death William Carlos Williams, The Dance Stephen Crane, The Wayfarer Walt Whitman, Cavalry Crossing a Ford Ezra Pound, The Garden Wallace Stevens, Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird Prose Poetry Charles Simic, The Magic Study of HappinessJoy Harjo, Mourning SongVisual Poetry George Herbert, Easter Wings John Hollander, Swan and Shadow Concrete Poetry Richard Kostelanetz, Ramon Gomez de la Serna, Simultaneous TranslationsDorthi Charles, Concrete Cat E. E. Cummings, in Just- Francisco X. Alarcon, Frontera / BorderCarole Satyamurti, I Shall Paint My Nails Red David St. John, HushAlice Fulton, What I Like Writing Effectively: Walt Whitman THINKING About Free Verse 24. Symbol The Meanings of a SymbolT. S. Eliot, The Boston Evening Transcript Emily Dickinson, The Lightning is a yellow Fork The Symbolist MovementIdentifying SymbolsThomas Hardy, Neutral Tones AllegoryMatthew :-, The Parable of the Good Seed George Herbert, RedemptionEdwin Markham, OutwittedSuji Kwock Kim, OccupationRobert Frost, The Road Not Taken Antonio Machado , The TravelerChristina Rossetti, Uphill William Carlos Williams, The Young HousewifeTed Kooser, Carrie Mary Oliver, Wild Geese Tami Haaland , LipstickLorine Niedecker, Popcorn-can cover Wallace Stevens , The Snow Man Wallace Stevens, Anecdote of the Jar Writing Effectively: William Butler YeatsTHINKING About Symbols 25. Myth and NarrativeOrigins of MythRobert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay William Wordsworth, The world is too much with us H. D., Helen Edgar Allan Poe, To Helen Archetype Louise Bogan, Medusa John Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci Personal Myth William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming Gregory Orr, Two Lines from the Brothers Grimm Myth and Popular Culture Charles Martin, Taken Up A. E. Stallings, First Love: A QuizAnne Sexton, Cinderella Writing Effectively: Anne Sexton THINKING about Myth 26. Poetry and Personal Identity Confessional PoetrySylvia Plath, Lady Lazarus Identity PoeticsRhina Espaillat, Bilingual/Bilingue Culture, Race, and Ethnicity Claude McKay, America Shirley Geok-lin Lim, Riding Into CaliforniaFrancisco X. Alarcon, The X in My Name Judith Ortiz Cofer, Quinceanera Sherman Alexie, The Powwow at the End of the World Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It Gender Anne Stevenson, Sous-Entendu Carolyn Kizer, BitchRafael Campo, For J. W.Donald Justice, Men at Forty Adrienne Rich, Women Katha Pollitt, Mind-Body ProblemAndrew Hudgins, Elegy for My Father, Who Is Not DeadBrian Turner , The Hurt LockerPhilip Larkin, Aubade Writing Effectively: Rhina Espaillat THINKING About Poetic Voice and Identity 27. Translation Is Poetic Translation Possible? World Poetry Li Po, Moon-Beneath Alone Drink (literal translation) Translated by Arthur Waley, Drinking Alone by Moonlight Comparing Translations Horace, "Carpe Diem" Ode (Latin text) Horace, "Carpe Diem" Ode (literal translation) Translated by Edwin Arlington Robinson, Horace to Leuconoe Translated by A. E. Stallings, A New Year's Toast Translating FormOmar Khayyam, Rubai XII (Persian text) Omar Khayyam, Rubai XII (literal translation)Translated by Edward FitzGerald, A Book of Verses underneath the Bough Translated by Dick Davis, I Need a Bare Sufficiency Omar Khayyam, Rubaiyat Translated by Edward FitzGerald, Come, fill the Cup, and in the fire of SpringTranslated by Edward FitzGerald, Some for the Glories of this WorldTranslated by Edward FitzGerald, The Moving Finger writesTranslated by Edward FitzGerald, Ah Love! could you and I with Him conspireParody Anonymous, We four lads from Liverpool are Hugh Kingsmill, What, still alive at twenty-two? Andrea Paterson, Because I Could Not DumpHarryette Mullen, Dim LadyGene Fehler, If Richard Lovelace Became a Free Agent Aaron Abeyta, thirteen ways of looking at a tortilla Writing Effectively: Arthur Waley THINKING about Parody 28. Poetry in Spanish Sor Juana, Presente en que el Carino Hace Regalo la Llaneza Translated by Diane Thiel, A Simple Gift Made Rich by Affection Pablo Neruda, Muchos Somos Translated by Alastair Reid, We Are Many Jorge Luis Borges, On his blindnessTranslated by Robert Mezey, On His BlindnessOctavio Paz, Con los ojos cerrados Translated by Eliot Weinberger, With eyes closed Surrealism in Latin American Poetry Frida Kahlo, The Two Fridas Cesar Vallejo, La colera que quiebra al hombre en ninos Translated by Thomas Merton, Anger Contemporary Mexican Poetry Jose Emilio Pacheco, Alta Traicion Translated by Alastair Reid, High Treason Tedi Lopez Mills, Convalecencia Pedro Serrano, Golondrinas Translated by Anna Crowe, Swallows Writing Effectively: Alastair Reid on Writing, Translating Neruda 29. Recognizing Excellence Anonymous, O Moon, when I gaze on thy beautiful face Emily Dickinson, A Dying Tiger - moaned for Drink SentimentalityRod McKuen, Thoughts on Capital Punishment William Stafford, Traveling Through the Dark Recognizing Excellence William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium Arthur Guiterman, On the Vanity of Earthly Greatness Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias Robert Hayden, Frederick DouglassElizabeth Bishop, One Art John Keats, Ode to a NightingaleWalt Whitman, O Captain! My Captain! Dylan Thomas , In My Craft or Sullen Art Paul Laurence Dunbar, We Wear the Mask Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus Edgar Allan Poe, Annabel Lee Writing Effectively: Edgar Allan PoeTHINKING about Evaluating a Poem 30. What Is Poetry?Archibald MacLeish, Ars Poetica 31. Two Critical Casebooks: Dickinson and HughesSuccess is counted sweetest I Taste a Liquor Never BrewedWild Nights - Wild Nights! I Felt a Funeral, in my Brain I'm Nobody! Who are you? The Soul selects her own Society Some keep the Sabbath going to Church After great pain, a formal feeling comes Much Madness is divinest SenseThis is my letter to the World I heard a Fly buzz - when I died Because I could not stop for Death Tell all the Truth but tell it slant There is no Frigate like a BookEmily Dickinson on Emily Dickinson Critics on Emily DickinsonThe Negro Speaks of Rivers My PeopleMother to Son Dream Variations I, Too The Weary Blues Song for a Dark Girl Prayer Ballad of the Landlord Theme for English B Nightmare BoogieHarlem [Dream Deferred] HomecomingLangston Hughes on Langston Hughes Critics on Langston Hughes 32. Critical Casebook: T. S. Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock T. S. Eliot on Writing Critics on "Prufrock" 33. Poems for Further Reading Anonymous, Lord Randall Anonymous, The Three Ravens Anonymous , Last Words of the Prophet Anonymous, The Twa CorbiesMatthew Arnold, Dover Beach John Ashbery, At North Farm Margaret Atwood, Siren Song W. H. Auden, As I Walked Out One Evening W. H. Auden, Musee des Beaux Arts Jimmy Baca, Spliced WireAphra Behn, A Thousand MarytrsElizabeth Bishop, Filling Station William Blake, A Poison TreeWilliam Blake, Garden of LoveWilliam Blake, The Tyger William Blake, The Sick Rose Anne Bradstreet, To My Dear and Loving HusbandGwendolyn Brooks, The Mother Gwendolyn Brooks, The Rites for Cousin VitElizabeth Barrett Browning, GriefElizabeth Barrett Browning, How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways Robert Browning, Porphyria's LoverRobert Browning, Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister Charles Bukowski, DostoevskyGeorge Gordon, Lord Byron, When We Two PartedGeorge Gordon, Lord Byron, The OceanGeorge Gordon, Lord Byron, So We'll Go No More A-RovingLewis Carroll, The Walrus and the CarpenterLorna Dee Cervantes , Cannery Town in AugustGeoffrey Chaucer, From The General PrologueGeoffrey Chaucer, Merciless Beauty G. K. Chesterton, The DonkeyJohn Ciardi, Most Like an Arch This MarriageSamuel Taylor Coleridge, Frost at MidnightSamuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan Billy Collins, Care and Feeding Hart Crane, My Grandmother's Love Letters Hart Crane, ChaplinesqueStephen Crane, I saw a man pursuing the horizonStephen Crane, A man feared that he might find an assassinE. E. Cummings, somewhere i have never travelled,gladly beyond E. E. Cummings, the Cambridge ladies who live in furnished soulsMarisa de los Santos, Perfect Dress John Donne, The Good-MorrowJohn Donne, Batter my heart, three-personed GodJohn Donne, Death be not proud John Donne, The Flea John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning Rita Dove, DaystarJohn Dryden, To the Memory of Mr. OldhamPaul Lawrence Dunbar, SympathyPaul Lawrence Dunbar, The PoetT.S. Eliot, PreludesT. S. Eliot, Journey of the Magi Rhina Espaillat, Agua Rhina Espaillat, BraAnne Finch, Countess of Winchilsea, Adam PosedRobert Frost, MowingRobert Frost, Birches Robert Frost, Mending Wall Robert Frost, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California Dana Gioia, California Hills in AugustThomas Gray, Elegy Written in a Country ChurchyardThomas Hardy, I Look into My GlassThomas Hardy, The Convergence of the Twain Thomas Hardy, The Darkling Thrush Thomas Hardy, Hap HD, OreadHD, Sea RoseSeamus Heaney, Digging Anthony Hecht, The Vow George Herbert, The CollarGeorge Herbert, The Pulley George Herbert, Love Robert Herrick, Delight and DisorderRobert Herrick, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time Tony Hoagland, BeautyGerard Manley Hopkins, No Worst, There is NoneGerard Manley Hopkins, Spring and Fall Gerard Manley Hopkins, The Windhover A. E. Housman, Into My Heart an Air that KillsA. E. Housman, Epitaph on an Army of MercenariesA. E. Housman, Loveliest of trees, the cherry now A. E. Housman, To an Athlete Dying Young Randall Jarrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner Robinson Jeffers, Rock and HawkHa Jin, Missed TimeBen Jonson, On My First Son Donald Justice, On the Death of Friends in Childhood John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn John Keats, When I have fears that I may cease to beJohn Keats, To Autumn John Keats, Ode on MelancholyJohn Keats, On First Looking into Chapman's HomerXJ Kennedy, In a Prominent Bar in Secaucus One DaySuji Kwock Kim, Monologue for an OnionTed Kooser, Abandoned Farmhouse Philip Larkin, Home is so Sad Philip Larkin, Poetry of Departures D. H. Lawrence, Piano Denise Levertov, O Taste and SeeShirley Geok-lin Lim, Learning to Love AmericaHenry Wadsworth Longfellow, The Tide Rises, The Tide FallsHenry Wadsworth Longfellow, Proem to EveangelineRobert Lowell, Skunk Hour Christopher Marlowe, The Passionate Shepherd to His LoveAndrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress Andrew Marvell, The Definition of LoveAndrew Marvell, The GardenEdna St. Vincent Millay, Passer Mortuus EstEdna St. Vincent Millay, First FigEdna St. Vincent Millay, Time does not bring reliefEdna St. Vincent Millay, Recuerdo John Milton, When I consider how my light is spent Marianne Moore, The FishMarianne Moore, Poetry Marilyn Nelson, A Strange Beautiful Woman Howard Nemerov, The War in the Air Lorine Niedecker, Sorrow Moves in Wide WavesYone Noguchi, A Selection of HokkuSharon Olds, The One Girl at the Boys' Party Wilfred Owen, FutilityWilfred Owen, Anthem for Doomed Youth Sylvia Plath, Daddy Edgar Allen Poe, The RavenEdgar Allen Poe, AloneEdgar Allan Poe, A Dream within a Dream Alexander Pope, From an Essay on ManAlexander Pope, A little Learning is a dang'rous Thing Ezra Pound, The GardenEzra Pound, Portrait d'une FemmeEzra Pound, The River-Merchant's Wife: A Letter Dudley Randall, A Different Image John Crowe Ransom, Piazza Piece Henry Reed, Naming of Parts Adrienne Rich, Living in Sin Edwin Arlington Robinson, Mr. Flood's PartyEdwin Arlington Robinson, Miniver Cheevy Theodore Roethke, Elegy for Jane Christina Rossetti, SongChristina Rossetti, Amor MundiWilliam Shakespeare, When daisies pied and violets blueWilliam Shakespeare, When icicles hang by the wallWilliam Shakespeare, When my love swears that she is made of truthWilliam Shakespeare, Poor soul, the center of my sinful earthWilliam Shakespeare, When, in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes William Shakespeare, That time of year thou mayst in me behold William Shakespeare, When to the sessions of sweet silent thought William Shakespeare, My mistress' eyes are nothing likethe sun Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ode to the West WindPercy Bysshe Shelley,To -- [Music, when soft voices die]Charles Simic , The Butcher ShopChristopher Smart, For I will consider my Cat Jeoffry Cathy Song, Stamp Collecting William Stafford, The Farm on the Great Plains Gertrude Stein, Susia AsadoWallace Stevens, The Emperor of Ice-Cream Wallace Stevens, Peter Quince at the ClavierJonathan Swift, A Description of the Morning Alfred, Lord Tennyson, from In Memorium AHH "Old yew, which graspest at the stones."Alfred, Lord Tennyson, from In Memorium AHH "Dark house, by which I once more steal"Alfred, Lord Tennyson, from In Memorium AHH "Be near me when my light is low."Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses Diane Thiel, Memento Mori in Middle SchoolDylan Thomas, Fern Hill John Updike, Ex-Basketball Player Derek Walcott, Sea GrapesMargaret Walker, For Malcolm XEdmund Waller, Go, Lovely Rose Phillis Wheatley, On Being Brought from Africa to AmericaWalt Whitman, Out of the Cradle Endlessly RockingWalt Whitman, When I Heard the Learn'd AstronomerWalt Whiman, A Noiseless Patient SpiderWalt Whitman, from Song of the Open Road Walt Whitman, I Hear America Singing Richard Wilbur, The Writer William Carlos Williams, To Waken an Old LadyWilliam Carlos Williams, The Young HousewifeWilliam Carlos Williams, Danse RusseWilliam Carlos Williams, Spring and All William Carlos Williams, Queen-Anne's-LaceWilliam Wordsworth, Lines (Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey)William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a CloudWilliam Wordsworth, Ode: Intimations of ImmortalityWilliam Wordsworth, Composed upon Westminster Bridge James Wright, Autumn Begins in Martins Ferry, Ohio Mary Sidney Wroth, In this strange labyrinth Sir Thomas Wyatt, They flee from me that sometime did me seke William Butler Yeats, No Second TroyWilliam Butler Yeats, An Irish Airman Forsees His DeathWilliam Butler Yeats, Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop William Butler Yeats, The Magi William Butler Yeats, When You Are Old DRAMAA Conversation with David Ives 34. Reading a PlayTheatrical ConventionsElements of a Play Susan Glaspell, Trifles Analyzing Trifles Writing Effectively: Susan GlaspellTHINKING About a Play 35. Modes of Drama: Tragedy and Comedy Tragedy Christopher Marlowe, Scene From Doctor Faustus (Act 2, Scene 1) Comedy David Ives, Sure ThingWriting Effectively: David IvesTHINKING about Comedy 36. Critical Casebook: Sophocles The Theater of Sophocles The Civic Role of Greek Drama Aristotle's Concept of Tragedy The Origins of Oedipus the King Sophocles, Oedipus the King (Translated by Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald) The Background of Antigone Sophocles, Antigone (Translated by Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald) Critics on SophoclesWriting Effectively: Robert Fitzgerald THINKING About Greek Tragedy 37. Critical Casebook: Shakespeare The Theater of Shakespeare William Shakespeare A Note on Othello William Shakespeare, Othello, the Moor of Venice The Background of Hamlet William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark The Background of A Midsummer Night's Dream William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream William Shakespeare, Romeo and JulietWilliam Shakespeare, MacBethWilliam Shakespeare, The TempestCritics on ShakespeareWriting Effectively: Ben Jonson Understanding Shakespeare 38. The Modern TheaterRealism Naturalism Symbolism and ExpressionismAmerican ModernismHenrik Ibsen, A Doll's House (Translated by R. Farquharson Sharp, Revised by Viktoria Michelsen)Henrik Ibsen on Writing, Correspondence on the Final Scene of A Doll's HouseEugene O'Neill, The Hairy ApeTennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie Tennessee Williams on Writing, How to Stage The Glass MenagerieTragicomedy and the AbsurdReturn to RealismExperimental Drama Milcha Sanchez-Scott, The Cuban Swimmer Milcha Sanchez-Scott on Writing, Writing The Cuban SwimmerDocumentary Drama Anna Deavere Smith, Scenes from Twilight: Los Angeles, 1992 Anna Deavere Smith on Writing, A Call to the Community THINKING About Dramatic Realism 39. Evaluating a PlayJudging a Play 40. Plays for Further ReadingsDavid Henry Hwang, The Sound of a Voice David Henry Hwang on Writing, Multicultural Theater Edward Bok Lee, El Santo Americano Edward Bok Lee on Writing Jane Martin, Beauty Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman Arthur Miller on Writing, Tragedy and the Common Man J.M. Synge, Riders to the SeaAugust Wilson, Fences August Wilson on Writing, A Look into Black America WRITING 41. Writing About Literature Read Actively Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay Plan Your Essay Pre-Writing: Discover Your Ideas Sample Student Prewriting Exercises Develop a Literary Argument Write a Rough Draft Revise Your Draft Some Final Advice on Rewriting Document Sources to Avoid PlagiarismThe Form of Your Finished Paper Spell-Check and Grammar-Check Programs Anonymous (after a poem by Jerrold H. Zar), A Little Poem Regarding Computer Spell Checkers 42. Writing About a Story Read Actively Think About the Story Pre-Writing: Discover Your Ideas Sample Student Prewriting ExercisesWrite a Rough Draft Revise Your Draft What's Your Purpose? Common Approaches to Writing About Fiction Explication Analysis The Card report Comparison and Contrast Response paper 43. Writing About a PoemRead Actively Robert Frost, Design Think About the Poem Pre-Writing: Discover Your Ideas Sample Student Prewriting Exercises Write a Rough Draft Revise Your Draft Common Approaches to Writing About Poetry Explication Analysis Comparison and contrast Abbie Huston Evans, Wing-Spread How to Quote a Poem Robert Frost, In White 44. Writing About a Play Read Critically Common Approaches to Writing About Drama Explication Analysis Comparison and contrast Card report Drama review How to Quote a Play Topics for Writing 45. Writing a Research PaperBrowse the Research Choose a Topic Begin Your Research Print Resources Online Databases Reliable Web Sources Visual Images Evaluate Your Sources Organize Your Research Refine Your Thesis Organize Your Paper Write and Revise Maintain Academic Integrity Acknowledge All Sources Quotations Citing Ideas Document Sources Using MLA Style Parenthetical References Works Cited List Citing Print Sources in MLA Style Citing Web Sources in MLA Style Sample List of Works Cited Endnotes and Footnotes Reference Guide for Citations 46. Writing as Discovery: Keeping a Journal The Rewards of Keeping a JournalSample Journal Entry Sample Student Journal 47. Writing an Essay Exam Taking an Essay Exam Toni Cade Bambara, The Lesson 48. Critical Approaches to Literature Formalist Criticism Cleanth Brooks, The Formalist Critic Michael Clark, Light and Darkness in "Sonny's Blues" Robert Langbaum, On Robert Browning's "My Last Duchess" Biographical Criticism Leslie Fiedler, The Relationship of Poet and Poem Brett C. Millier, On Elizabeth Bishop's "One Art" Emily Toth, The Source for AlcEe LaballiEre in "The Storm" Historical Criticism Hugh Kenner, Imagism Seamus Deane, Joyce's Dublin Kathryn Lee Seidel, The Economics of Zora Neale Hurston's "Sweat" Psychological Criticism Sigmund Freud, The Nature of Dreams Gretchen Schulz and R. J. R. Rockwood, Fairy Tale Motifs in "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?Harold Bloom, Poetic Influence Mythological Criticism Carl Jung, The Collective Unconscious and Archetypes Northrop Frye, Mythic Archetypes Edmond Volpe, Myth in Faulkner's "Barn Burning" Sociological Criticism Georg Lukacs, Content Determines Form Daniel P. Watkins, Money and Labor in "The Rocking-Horse Winner" Alfred Kazin, Walt Whitman and Abraham Lincoln Gender Criticism Elaine Showalter, Toward a Feminist PoeticsNina Pelikan Straus, Transformations in The Metamorphosis Richard R. Bozorth, "Tell Me the Truth About Love" Reader-Response Criticism Stanley Fish, An Eskimo "A Rose for Emily" Robert Scholes, "How Do We Make a Poem?" Michael J. Colacurcio, The End of Young Goodman Brown Deconstructionist Criticism Roland Barthes, The Death of the Author Barbara Johnson, Rigorous Unreliability Geoffrey Hartman, On Wordsworth's "A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal" Cultural Studies Vincent B. Leitch, Poststructuralist Cultural Critique Mark Bauerlein, What Is Cultural Studies? Camille Paglia, A Reading of William Blake's "The Chimney Sweeper"
X. J. Kennedy, after graduation from Seton Hall and Columbia, became a journalist second class in the Navy ("Actually, I was pretty eighth class"). His poems, some published in the New Yorker, were first collected in Nude Descending a Staircase (1961). Since then he has written six more collections, several widely adopted literature and writing textbooks, and seventeen books for children, including two novels. He has taught at Michigan, North Carolina (Greensboro), California (Irvine), Wellesley, Tufts, and Leeds. Cited in Bartlett's Familiar Quotations and reprinted in some 200 anthologies, his verse has brought him a Guggenheim fellowship, a Lamont Award, a Los Angeles Times Book Prize, an award from the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, an Aiken-Taylor prize, the Robert Frost Medal of the Poetry Society of America, and the Award for Poetry for Children from the National Council of Teachers of English. He now lives in Lexington, Massachusetts, where he and his wife Dorothy have collaborated on four books and five children. Dana Gioia is a poet, critic, and teacher. Born in Los Angeles of Italian and Mexican ancestry, he attended Stanford and Harvard before taking a detour into business. After years of writing and reading late in the evenings after work, he quit a corporate vice presidency to write. He has published four collections of poetry, Daily Horoscope (1986), The Gods of Winter (1991), Interrogations at Noon (2001), which won the American Book Award, and Pity the Beautiful (2012); and three critical volumes, including Can Poetry Matter? (1992), an influential study of poetry's place in contemporary America. Gioia has taught at Johns Hopkins, Sarah Lawrence, Wesleyan (Connecticut), Mercer, and Colorado College. From 2003-2009 he served as the Chairman of the National Endowments for the Arts. At the NEA he created the largest literary programs in federal history, including Shakespeare in American Communities and Poetry Out Loud, the national high school poetry recitation contest. He also led the campaign to restore active literary reading by creating The Big Read, which helped reverse a quarter century of decline in U.S. reading. He is currently the Judge Widney Professor of Poetry and Public Culture at the University of Southern California.