Figures, Table, and Exhibits xi Preface to the Second Edition: The Face of Online Learning Today xiii The Authors xix Acknowledgments xxi Part One: Rethinking Education for an Online World 1 1 Online Learning in the Twenty-First Century 3 Online Learning Today 6 Current and Emerging Technologies 8 Emerging Issues for Both Faculty and Administrators 9 Technology for Online Teaching Is Chosen Without Faculty Input ? Governance Issues Have Emerged ? Intellectual Property, Course Design, and Course Ownership Issues ? Just Like Faculty, Students Need to Be Trained to Learn Online ? Instructor Workload Recent Developments in K?12 Online Learning 16 The Effectiveness of Distance Delivery 18 2 The Art of Online Teaching 21 Lack of Preparation 22 Who Should Teach Online? 23 Training, Training, and More Training 24 Using Mobile Technology in Faculty Training 27 New Processes, New Relationships 28 Online Pedagogy 30 Keys to Success 30 Ensuring Access to and Familiarity with Technology ? Establishing Guidelines and Procedures ? Achieving Maximum Participation ? Promoting Collaboration ? Promoting Reflection The Final Transition: Assessing and Evaluating Students and Ourselves 41 Supporting Instructors to Make the Transition 43 3 Administrative Issues and Concerns 45 Faculty Time, Compensation, and Questions of Tenure 47 Program Planning and Development 49 Another Look at Faculty and Student Support, Training, and Development 52 Governance and Intellectual Property 54 Student Retention 56 Some Last Thoughts on Administrative Issues and Concerns 58 4 The Tools of Online Teaching 61 Technology in the Twenty?]First Century 62 Matching the Technology to the Course 64 What Are Web 2.0 Technologies? 70 Common Forms of Web 2.0 Technologies ? Using Web 2.0 Tools in Online Courses Choosing Technology Wisely 75 When the Technology Is a Problem ? Evaluating Technology ? Use of Technology ? Infrastructure ? Instructional Strategy When Money Is an Issue 81 Accessibility Is a Major Concern 82 Part Two: Teaching and Learning Online 85 5 Transforming Courses for the Online Classroom 87 Starting Over: Considerations in the Development of an Online Course 89 Who Are My Students? ? Is This a Course That Will Successfully Transfer to the Online Environment? ? How Do I Define Learning in This Content Area, and What Do I Want to See as the Learning Outcomes? ? What Do I Want to Accomplish Through This Course? ? What Guidelines, Rules, Roles, and Norms Need to Be Established for Course Completion? ? How Do I Plan to Deliver Course Material? ? How Comfortable Am I in Releasing Control to the Learners? ? How Do I Want to Organize the Course Site? ? How Will I Assess Student Performance in This Course? ? How Will I Address Attendance Requirements? The Process of the Course 106 Beginnings ? Once the Course Has Started ? Endings 6 Teaching Courses Developed by Others 119 A Focus on Content 121 Ability to Adjust the Course 122 Examples of Customization 123 When Customizing Is Not Possible 124 Building Community into the Process 125 Evaluating a Course Developed by Another 126 Issues of Intellectual Property 129 Courses with Rolling Admission 130 Final Thoughts on Teaching a Course Developed by Another 132 7 Working with the Virtual Student 135 If We Build It, They Will Come 136 The Successful Learner in the Online Classroom 137 Addressing Different Learning Styles 140 Recognizing and Working with Those Who Do Not Succeed 141 The Role of the Learner in the Online Learning Process 142 Knowledge Generation ? Collaboration ? Process Management Maximizing the Potential of the Virtual Student 148 Use Best Practices from the Face?]to?]Face Classroom to Promote Participation Online ? If a Student Is Absent for a Week, Contact Him or Her to Determine the Reason ? If Students Have Technical Difficulties, Offer Support or Connect Them with Tech Support ? If Conflict Hurts Participation, Intercede with the Students Involved ? If Security Breaches Cause Nonparticipation, Report Them Quickly to Reestablish a Sense of Privacy ? Log On to the Online Classroom Three or More Times a Week (Daily If Possible!) to Keep the Discussion Moving ? Learn How to Ask Broad Questions That Stimulate Thinking to Promote Participation ? Include Humor in Your Posts to Help Students Feel Welcome and Safe ? Post a Welcoming Response to Student Introductions to Help All Join More Successfully Teaching Students to Learn in the Online Environment 154 Respecting Student Intellectual Property 156 8 Online Classroom Dynamics 159 Group Dynamics and Online Classroom Dynamics 160 Applying What We Understand About Groups to Online Classes 163 Preforming ? Unity ? Disunity ? Conflict?]Confrontation ? Disharmony ? Harmony ? Performing ? Concluding Thoughts About the Soul and Spirit Group Other Ways of Looking at Online Groups 171 The Student ? The Group ? The Instructor/Facilitator ? The Task ? The Technology Conflict Revisited 175 Working with Difficult Students 179 When It Simply Isn?t Working 181 9 Lessons Learned in the Virtual Classroom 187 A Look Back 187 The Myths 188 Lessons for Faculty 189 Instructors Need Not Fear Online Learning ? Course Development Needs to Focus on Interactivity, Not Content ? Instructor and Student Roles Need to Change Lessons for Instructional Designers and Faculty Developers 191 Both Faculty and Students Need Training ? Faculty Who Teach Online Need to Feel Supported Lessons for Administrators 192 Support Online Faculty Through Fair Compensation ? Institutions Should Develop a Strategic Plan ? Institutions Should Develop an Infrastructure First ? Technology Should Be Chosen by an Inclusive Committee ? Pay Attention to the New Regulatory Environment A Look into the Near Future 195 Technology ? Course and Program Quality and Design ? Professional Development ? How Faculty and Students Interact ? Research into Online Education Appendix A: Sample Training for Faculty 203 Introduction to and Best Practices in Online Teaching 203 LEARNING UNITS ? Week 1 ? Week 2 ? Week 3 ? Week 4 Intensive Training Focused on Collaboration and Building Online Learning Communities 212 Day 1: Defining and Recontextualizing Community ? Day 2: Human and Practical Considerations in Online Learning ? Day 3: Moving Teaching and Learning Online ? Day 4: Promoting Collaborative Learning ? Day 5: Transformative Learning Appendix B: Additional Resources 219 Communities of Practice 219 Mobile Applications and Web 2.0 Applications 220 Certificate Programs in Online Teaching 221 Online Conferences 222 Online Journals About Online Teaching 223 Professional Organizations 223 Course Evaluation Rubrics 224 References 225 Index 235
Rena M. Palloff and Keith Pratt have consulted to universities in the development and delivery of online learning since 1994. In conjunction with Fielding Graduate University, they developed the Online Teaching and Learning academic certificate program. They are the authors of Lessons from the Cyberspace Classroom, The Virtual Student, Collaborating Online, Building Online Learning Communities, Assessing Online Learning, and The Excellent Online Instructor all from Jossey-Bass.