Rhetorical ContentsThematic ContentsPreface for InstructorsPreface for StudentsPART ONE: Exploring the Realm of College Reading and WritingChapter 1: Reading, Thinking, and Writing for College The Reading/Writing Connection Why We ReadCharacteristics of Successful College Writers and Readers"LET'S TELL THE STORY OF ALL AMERICA'S CULTURES," Ji-Yeon Mary YufillGuidelines for Being an Active Reading AudienceStrategies for Active Reading * Preview the Reading * Use Dictionary Definitions and Contextual Definitions * Annotate * Summarize * Respond in a Journal * Think CriticallyGuidelines for Note-taking in the ClassroomGuidelines for Connecting Reading and WritingPurpose * Focus * Material * Structure * StyleModel with Key Questions"A LETTER OF COMPLAINT," Matt Cirillo and Cindy SharpJournal Writing: The Reading LogBox: Using the Computer for College Reading and WritingOptions for WritingResponding to Writing: Using Active Reading StrategiesBox: Critical Thinking in Connecting TextsChapter 2: Defining the Essay and the Composing ProcessCharacteristics of the Essay"A BLACK ATHLETE LOOKS AT EDUCATION," Arthur AsheModel with Key Questions "MATILDA," DouglasW. CwiakGuidelines for Writing the Essay Purpose * Focus * Material * Structure * StyleAn Overview of the Composing ProcessDiscovering * Drafting * Revising * Polishing * Writer/Audience ResponseBox: Strategies for WritersJournal Writing: Examining Your Composing ProcessBox: Using the Computer: Opening a Planning FileOptions for WritingResponding to Writing: Annotation"WHAT I HAVE LIVED FOR," Bertrand RussellBox: Critical Thinking in Connecting TextsOne Essay's Trip through the Composing Process"AMERICAN MUSICIANS AND AMENDMENT RIGHTS," Cyrus DohertyChapter 3: Discovering Through PrewritingCharacteristics of PrewritingModel with Key Questions"PUBLIC PARKING AND ROAD WAR," Olasumbo DavisGuidelines for PrewritingConsider Your Audience * Allow Prewriting Free Rein * Mapping an EssayBox: Strategies for PrewritingJournal Writing: Discovery Entry"TO INVIGORATE LITERARY MIND, START MOVING LITERARY FEET," Joyce Carol OatesBox: Using the Computer: Organizing PrewritingOptions for WritingResponding to Writing: Discovering Keys for PrewritingBox: Critical Thinking in Connecting TextsChapter 4 Finding a Thesis and DraftingCharacteristics of a Thesis StatementGuidelines for Writing Thesis StatementsConsider Audience in Selecting a Subject * Check for a Controlling Idea * Avoid an Announcement * Use Specific Language * Establish an Appropriate Tone * Test and Reverse * Evaluating Thesis StatementsBox: Strategies for Writing Thesis StatementsCharacteristics of Drafting Model with Key Questions"DISHONESTY," Margarita FigueroaGuidelines for DraftingAssess Material * Order Material * Begin in the Middle * Outline * Draft in Sections * Define All Terms * Draft Multiple Versions * Reserve Technical Considerations * Share Drafts with PeersBox: Strategies for DraftingJournal Writing: From Idea to EssayBox: Using the Computer: Outlining Your Paper and Visiting WebsitesOptions for WritingResponding to Writing: Practice in Outlining"STUTTERING TIME," Edward HoaglandBox: Critical Thinking in Connecting TextsChapter 5: Using Body Paragraphs to Develop EssaysCharacteristics of Body ParagraphsModel with Key Questions"RELATIVITY," Jeremy SmithGuidelines for Body ParagraphsDetermine the Paragraph's Purpose * Use Topic Sentences * Develop Supporting Details * Organize Your Support * Use a Map for Levels of Support * Know When to Paragraph: Some General Rules * Signal Shifts in Thought * Avoid the Unclear "this" and "it" * Repeat Important Words * Use Parallel Sentence StructuresBox: Strategies for Body ParagraphsJournal Writing: From Idea to ParagraphBox: Using the Computer: Moving from Prewriting to Paragraphing and EditingOptions for WritingResponding to Writing: Peer Editing Body ParagraphsBox: Strategies for Peer Editing * Box: Critical Thinking inConnecting TextsChapter 6: Creating Effective Introductions and ConclusionsCharacteristics of IntroductionsModel with Key Questions"DON'T BE AFRAID TO POP THE HOOD," Tommy HonjoGuidelines for Introductions 113Hook Your Audience * Introduce the Subject * Establish a Voice and Tone * State the Thesis * Avoid Truisms or Generalized QuestionsBox: Strategies for IntroductionsCharacteristics of ConclusionsGuidelines for ConclusionsOffer Closure * Frame the Essay * Avoid PitfallsBox: Strategies for ConclusionsJournal Writing: Experimenting with Voice and ToneBox: Using the Computer: Crafting Conclusions and Online ResearchOptions for WritingResponding to Writing: Beginnings and EndingsIntroductory Paragraphs * Concluding Paragraphs * Questions onIntroductions and ConclusionsBox: Critical Thinking in Connecting TextsChapter 7: Revising and Polishing the EssayCharacteristics of RevisingModel with Key Questions"DISHONESTY," Margarita FigueroaGuidelines for RevisingAllow Time for Reflection * Use Audience Response: Peer and Instructor Editing * Rethink the Draft * Add to the Draft * Cut What Is Not Working * Make Substitutions * Rearrange MaterialBox: Strategies for RevisingCharacteristics of PolishingModel with Key Questions"PRACTICING WHAT WE PREACH," Margarita FigueroaComma Rules ChartGuidelines for PolishingReread Your Revised Draft * Use Your Tools to Improve Weak Spots * Use Peer Editing and Instructor Response * Trim and Clarify * Eliminate Wordiness * Insert Cue Words * Create a Captivating Title * Check for Correct Manuscript Format Box: Strategies for PolishingJournal Writing: A Revision DialogueBox: Using the Computer: Revising and PolishingOptions for WritingResponding to Writing: Peer EditingBox: Critical Thinking in Connecting TextsChapter 8: Writing with SourcesCharacteristics of Source-Based WritingsModel with Key Questions"BLUE SKY, WHY?" Melissa LombardiGuidelines for Writing Essays with SourcesPose a Question to Launch Your Investigation * Identify Your Audience * Collect Data from Appropriate Sources * Evaluate Your Data * Record Your Data: Three Kinds of Notes * Avoid PlagiarismUse "The Sandwich" with Your QuotesDocumentationMove from Notes to a Plan * Incorporate Sources in Your DraftBox: Strategies for Essays Using SourcesJournal Writing: Sleuthing AroundBox: Using the Computer: Searching the Net and Citing SourcesUsing MLA and APA FormatOptions for WritingResponding to Writing: Dissecting a Student'sSource-Based Paper"TV: A BEAUTIFUL CURSE?" Brent MonacelliBox: Critical Thinking in Connecting TextsPART TWO: Exploring Development Options: Choosing Patterns to Fit PurposeChapter 9: Writing About Events: Narration and IllustrationCharacteristics of NarrationModel with Key Questions "BRADY BUNCH WANNA-BE," Tori UedaGuidelines for Writing NarrationDetermine Your Purpose * Interview Sources If Helpful * Frame Thesis AroundSignificance of the Event * Set the Scene for Your Audience * Choose andMaintain a Consistent Point of View * Follow a Clear Order * Use Cue Words * Incorporate Descriptive Detail and Specific Action * Use Dialogue If AppropriateBox: Strategies for Writing NarrationOptions for Writing NarrationJournal Writing: The Autobiographical EntryCharacteristics of IllustrationModel with Key Questions"TRICK OF THE TRADE," David RedmondGuidelines for Writing IllustrationConsider Audience and Purpose * Decide on a Point to Illustrate * Choose and Evaluate Examples * Organize Examples to Suit Your PurposeBox: Strategies for Writing IllustrationOptions for Writing IllustrationBox: Using the Computer: Devising and Sharing NarrativesResponding to Writing: Examining Narrative Strategies"A HANGING," George OrwellResponding to Orwell's NarrativeResponding to Your Own Narrative DraftBox: Critical Thinking in Connecting TextsChapter 10 Observing the World: Description and Definition Characteristics of DescriptionModel with Key Questions"DOUBLE A'S, DOUBLE JOYS," Brenda GrantGuidelines for Writing DescriptionConsider Audience and Purpose * Focus Range of Subject * Select Important Details * Follow a Clear Order * Use Vivid WordsBox: Strategies for Writing DescriptionOptions for Writing DescriptionCharacteristics of DefinitionModel with Key Questions"BETTER LATE THAN NEVER," Ravinder DegunGuidelines for Writing DefinitionConsider Audience and Purpose * Determine Range of Subject * Various Kinds of Definition * Follow a Clear Order * Use Precise Words * Avoid Circular DefinitionsBox: Strategies for Writing DefinitionsOptions for Writing DefinitionChallenge Option: Combining PatternsJournal Writing: Sensory Isolation and Word AssociationDescription * DefinitionBox: Using the Computer: Developing Descriptions and DiscoveringNew Worlds on the WebResponding to Writing: ComparisonsBox: Critical Thinking in Connecting TextsChapter 11 Making Connections: Process and Cause/EffectCharacteristics of ProcessModel with Key Questions"TWILIGHT SPECIAL," Rachel GibsonGuidelines for Writing ProcessIdentify Your Purpose and Audience * Focus Your Subject * Structure the Process Using Steps and Cue Words * Explain Every Step with Precise Detail * Maintain a Consistent Tense and Point of View * Define All Necessary Equipment and Terms * Conclude ThoughtfullyBox: Strategies for Writing ProcessOptions for Writing Essays Using ProcessChallenge Option: Combining PatternsCharacteristics of Cause/EffectModel with Key Questions"TV AS A CULPRIT," Swarupa ReddyGuidelines for Writing Cause/Effect Determine Purpose and Audience * Focus Your Subject * Sketch Out a Structure: Three Alternate Plans * Connect with Cue Words * Use Specific Details * Avoid Possible PitfallsBox: Strategies for Writing Cause/EffectOptions for Writing Cause/EffectChallenge Option: Combining PatternsJournal Writing: ConnectionsProcess * Cause/Effect: The Time LineBox: Using the Computer: Finding Information on the InternetResponding to Writing: Keeping a Progress LogBox: Critical Thinking in Connecting TextsChapter 12 Showing Relationships: Comparison/Contrast and Division/ClassificationCharacteristics of Comparison/ContrastModel with Key Questions"MEN ARE MAKITA, WOMEN ARE MARIGOLDS," Yen GlassmanGuidelines for Writing Comparison/ContrastDetermine Your Purpose and Audience * Identify Similar Subjects toCompare or Contrast * Focus Your Subject * Choose Points and Maintain a Balance * Sketch Out a Structure: Two Possible Plans * Use Cue Words Box: Strategies for Writing Comparison/ContrastOptions for Writing Comparison/ContrastChallenge Option: Combining PatternsCharacteristics of Division/ClassificationModel with Key Questions"COWORKERS," Chuks OfoegbuGuidelines for Writing Division/ClassificationConnect Subject, Audience, and Purpose * Identify a Unifying Principle * Limit Divisions or Categories * Determine a Plan * Polish for PizzazzBox: Strategies for Writing Division/ClassificationOptions for Writing Division/ClassificationChallenge Option: Combining PatternsJournal Writing: Types and StereotypesComparison/Contrast * Division/ClassificationBox: Using the Computer: Comparing and ContrastingInformation and WebsitesResponding to Writing: A Scavenger HuntBox: Critical Thinking in Connecting TextsChapter 13 Taking a Stand: ArgumentCharacteristics of Argument"WHERE THE GUYS ARE NOT: THE GROWING GENDER IMBALANCE IN COLLEGE DEGREES AWARDED," OpportunityModel with Key Questions"LET'S MIX IT UP," Brian VillapuduaGuidelines for Writing ArgumentChoose a Controversial Subject * Assess Your Audience * Focus Subject with a Reasonable Claim * Choose a Pattern of Development * Use a Variety of Reliable, Current, Audience-Appropriate Evidence * Acknowledge the Opposition * Order the Argument: Two Possible Plans * Use Cue Words to Advance Argument * Include Appropriate, Fair-Minded Appeals * Avoid Logical FallaciesBox: Strategies for ArgumentationJournal Writing: An Opinion InventoryBox: Using the Computer: Writing, Developing, and Observing ArgumentsOptions for Writing ArgumentResponding to Writing: Assessing Strategies for Writing ArgumentBox: Critical Thinking in Connecting TextsPART THREE: Exploring Other Options: A Writer's ToolkitUnit 1 Timed WritingSample Timed WritingGuidelines for Timed WritingMake Preparations * Understand the QuestionBox: Directives Used in Timed Writing * Allocate Time * Find a Thesis and Sketch a Plan * Draft and Reread * Revise and Polish"COFFIN NAILS," Russell FullertonBox: Strategies for Timed WritingUnit 2 Writing about Film and LiteratureBox: Key Terms in Film and LiteratureQuestions for Analyzing FilmQuestions for Analyzing Literature Model Essay"FRANKIE, MAGGIE, AND THE RING""DOWN HERE IN THE HOBBIT HOLE," Mark SundeenResponding to PoetryBox: Key Terms in Understanding Poetry"MONET REFUSES THE OPERATION," Lisel MuellerBox: Strategies for Using the Five Keys when Writing About Film and LiteratureUnit 3 Connecting with Your Audience: Public Speaking and WritingPublic SpeakingPurpose * Focus * Material * Structure * Style"TWO WAYS TO ACHIEVE SOCIAL CHANGE," Emily AndersonPublic Writing Living History ProjectPART FOUR: Exploring Other Writers: A Collection Of ReadingsThematic ContentsCollege Community"Generation 9/11" * Kay Randall"The Path of Books and Bootstraps" * Jill Leovy"We're Lying: Safe Sex and White Lies in the Time of AIDS" * Meghan DaumWork Community"Ambition" * Perri Klass"Zipped Lips" * Barbara Ehrenreich"Delivering the Goods" * Bonnie Jo Campbell"The Turning Point" * Craig Swanson"McDonald's Is Not Our Kind of Place" * Amitai Etzioni"Facing Down Abusers" * Im Jung KwuonCivic Community"The Geography of the Imagination" * Guy Davenport"Grant Wood: American Gothic" (poem) * Jane Yolen"Offering Euthanasia Can Be an Act of Love" * Derek Humphry"Who Gets to Choose?" * Jean Nandi"American Health, Then and Now" * Bryan Williams and Sharon Knight"Our Biotech Bodies, Ourselves" * James PetkokourisWriter's Community"Welcome to the E-mail Combat Zone" * Patricia T. O'Conner and Stewart Kellerman"A List of Topics for Writing Practice" * Natalie GoldbergFamily Community"Whose Eyes Are Those, Whose Nose?" * Margaret Brown "The Meanings of a Word" * Gloria Naylor"Crazy for Dysfunction" * Douglas CruickshankGlobal Community"The Salsa Zone" * Richard Rodriguez"Illusions are Forever" * Jay ChiatPART FIVE: Editing Essays: A Concise HandbookGuide to the HandbookDiagnostic TestDiagnostic Test Error Analysis ChartReviewing Parts of SpeechNouns * Pronouns * Verbs * Adjectives * Adverbs * Prepositions * Conjunctions * InterjectionsWriting SentencesSubjects * Verbs * Clauses * Types of Sentences: Simple, Compound, Complex, Compound-ComplexSentence CombiningCoordination * SubordinationSolving Sentence ProblemsFragments * Run-ons and Comma Splices * Faulty Parallelism * Mixed ConstructionSolving Verb ProblemsVerb Tenses * Subject/Verb Agreement * Tense Shifts * Voice * Faulty PredicationSolving Pronoun ProblemsPronoun Agreement * Pronoun Case * Pronoun Reference * Pronoun ShiftSolving Adverb and Adjective ProblemsAdverb and Adjective Usage * Double Negatives * Faulty ComparisonSolving Modifier ProblemsDangling Modifiers * Misplaced ModifiersSolving Punctuation ProblemsCommas * Semicolons * Colons * End Punctuation * Apostrophes * Quotation Marks * Italics * Hyphens * Dashes * Parentheses * Brackets * Ellipsis PointsSolving Mechanics ProblemsCapitalization * Abbreviations * Numbers * Manuscript FormatSolving Spelling ProblemsSpelling Rules * Words Frequently Misspelled * Using the Wrong WordChoosing the Right Word Common PrepositionsCommon Subordinating ConjunctionsOther Irregular VerbsSolving ESL ProblemsGlossaryCredits Index
Keys to Successful Writing, An essay-level rhetoric/reader/handbook, prepares student writers for college, career, and everyday writing success by illustrating the writing process as a process of reading, thinking, and writing. The distinctive five "key" heuristic of purpose, focus, material, structure, and style, developed by the author and tested in her classrooms, helps students focus on the writing process and critical thinking that will make them stronger writers.