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Janson's History of Art


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Preface xivFaculty and Student Resources for Teaching and Learning with Janson's History of Art xixIntroduction xxi PART ONE: THE ANCIENT WORLD Chapter 1: Prehistoric Art PALEOLITHIC ART 2MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Cave Painting 5Interpreting Prehistoric Painting 5Paleolithic Carving 7INFORMING ART: Telling Time: Labels and Periods 9Paleolithic houses 11NEOLITHIC ART 11Settled Societies and Neolithic Art 11Architecture in Europe: Tombs and Rituals 15INFORMING ART: Dating Techniques 17 Chapter 2: Ancient Near Eastern Art SUMERIAN ART 22Temple Architecture: Linking Heaven and Earth 23MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Mud Brick 23Sculpture and Inlay 25PRIMARY SOURCES: The Gilgamesh Epic 25Visual Narratives 27Cylinder Seals 29THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: Losses Through Looting 29ART OF AKKAD 30Sculpture: Power and Narrative 30NEO-SUMERIAN REVIVAL 32Architecture: The Ziggurat of Ur 32Sculpture: Figures of Gudea 32PRIMARY SOURCES: Texts on Gudea Figures from Lagash and Surrounding Areas, ca. 2100 33BABYLONIAN ART 33The Code of Hammurabi 34ASSYRIAN ART 34PRIMARY SOURCES: The Code of Hammurabi 35Art of Empire: Expressing Royal Power 37LATE BABYLONIAN ART 37The Royal Palace 38REGIONAL NEAR EASTERN ART 38The Hittites 40The Phoenicians 40The Hebrews 41IRANIAN ART 41Early Iranian Art 42The Persian Empire: Cosmopolitan Heirs to the Mesopotamian Tradition 43Mesopotamia Between Persian and Islamic Dominion 46
Chapter 3: Egyptian Art PREDYNASTIC AND EARLY DYNASTIC ART 50The Palette of King Narmer 50INFORMING ART: Egyptian Gods and Goddesses 52THE OLD KINGDOM: A GOLDEN AGE 53Old Kingdom Funerary Complexes 53INFORMING ART: Major Periods in Ancient Egypt 54The Pyramids at Giza: Reflecting a New Royal Role 55MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Building the Pyramids 56PRIMARY SOURCES: Excerpt from the Pyramid Text of Unis (r. 2341-2311 BCE) 58Representing the Human Figure 59THE MIDDLE KINGDOM: REASSERTINGTRADITION THROUGH THE ARTS 62Royal Portraiture: Changing Expressions and Proportions 62Funerary Architecture 63THE NEW KINGDOM: RESTORED GLORY 65Royal Burials in the Valley of the Kings 65Temples to the Gods 67Block Statues 70Images in New Kingdom Tombs 71AKHENATEN AND THE AMARNA STYLE 72The Amarna Style 72Tutankhamun and the Aftermath of Amarna 75THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: Interpreting Ancient Travel Writers 75PAPYRUS SCROLLS: THE BOOK OF THE DEAD 77PRIMARY SOURCES: The Book of the Dead 77LATE EGYPT 78 Chapter 4: Aegean Art EARLY CYCLADIC ART 82MINOAN ART 84The "Palace" at Knossos 84Wall Paintings: Representing Rituals and Nature 86THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: Two Excavators, Legend, and Archaeology 87Minoan Pottery 89Carved Minoan Stone Vessels 90Late Minoan Art 92MYCENAEAN ART 93Architecture: Citadels 93Mycenaean Tombs and Their Contents 96Sculpture 99 Chapter 5: Greek Art THE EMERGENCE OF GREEK ART: THE GEOMETRIC STYLE 104INFORMING ART: Greek Gods and Goddesses 105Geometric Style Pottery 105Geometric Style Sculpture 107THE ORIENTALIZING STYLE: HORIZONS EXPAND 107Miniature Vessels 108ARCHAIC ART: ART OF THE CITY-STATE 109The Rise of Monumental Temple Architecture 109STONE SCULPTURE 113Architectural Sculpture: The Building Comes Alive 115Vase Painting: Art of the Symposium 119THE CLASSICAL AGE 123Classical Sculpture 123MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: The Indirect Lost-Wax Process 128Architecture and Sculpture on the Athenian Akropolis 131PRIMARY SOURCES: Aristotle (384-322 BCE) 133THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: Repatriation of Cultural Heritage 134PRIMARY SOURCES: Plutarch (ca. 46-after 119 CE) 136THE LATE CLASSICAL PERIOD 141Late Classical Architecture: Civic and Sacred 141Late Classical sculpture 142Painting in the Late Classical Age 145THE AGE OF ALEXANDER AND THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD 147Architecture: The Scholarly Tradition and Theatricality 148City Planning 150Hellenistic Sculpture: Expression and Movement 154THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: J.J. Winckelmann and the Apollo Belvedere 157Hellenistic Painting 161 Chapter 6: Etruscan ArtFUNERARY ART 165Tombs and Their Contents 166MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Etruscan Gold-Working 169ARCHITECTURE 173City Planning 174SCULPTURE 175Dynamism in Terra Cotta and Bronze 175 Chapter 7: Roman ArtEARLY ROME AND THE REPUBLIC 181THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: Recognizing Copies: The Case of the Laocooen 183NEW DIRECTIONS IN ARCHITECTURE 183Sculpture 188PRIMARY SOURCES: Cicero (106-43 BCE) 192MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Copying Greek Sculptures 193Painting and Mosaic 194PRIMARY SOURCES: Polybius (ca. 200-ca. 118 BCE) 194THE EARLY EMPIRE 195Architecture 196THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: Two Pantheon Problems 202Portrait Sculpture 203Relief Sculpture 207PRIMARY SOURCES: Josephus (37/8-ca. 100 CE) 210Art and Architecture in the Provinces 213Domestic Art and Architecture 216THE LATE EMPIRE 222Architecture 222MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Painted Stone in Greece and Rome 223Architecture in the Provinces 227Portrait Sculpture 228Relief Sculpture 229 PART TWO: THE MIDDLE AGES Chapter 8: Early Jewish, Early Christian, and Byzantine ArtEARLY JEWISH ART 237EARLY CHRISTIAN ART 240Christian Art before Constantine 240INFORMING ART: The Life of Jesus 241PRIMARY SOURCES: The Book of the Popes (Liber Pontificalis) 244Christian Art after Official Recognition of Christianity 245MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Mosaics 248BYZANTINE ART 254Early Byzantine Art 254PRIMARY SOURCES: Procopius of Caesarea (Sixth Century) 258The Iconoclastic Controversy 265Middle Byzantine Art 265PRIMARY SOURCES: St. Theodore the Studite (759-826 CE) 266Late Byzantine Art 273INFORMING ART: Biblical and Celestial Beings 273 Chapter 9: Islamic ArtReligious Architecture 280PRIMARY SOURCES: Muhammad Ibn Mahmud Al-Amuli (Iran, 14th Century) 280THE FORMATION OF ISLAMIC ART 281INFORMING ART: Islam and Its Messenger 283Secular Architecture 284THE DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC STYLE 285Religious Architecture 285Luxury Arts 287ISLAMIC ART AND THE PERSIAN INHERITANCE 287Architecture 287Figural Art Forms in Iran 288THE CLASSICAL AGE 290THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: Spanish Islamic Art and Europe in the Middle Ages 290The Fatimid Artistic Impact 291The Ayyubids and the Seljuk Turks of Asia Minor 292LATER CLASSICAL ART AND ARCHITECTURE 294Mongol Patronage 295Timurid Patronage 295Mamluk Patronage 296Nasrid Patronage: The Alhambra 299THE THREE LATE EMPIRES 300PRIMARY SOURCES: The Ottoman Sultan Selim II (1524-1574) 300 MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: The Oriental Carpet 301The Ottomans in Europe and Asia 302The Safavid Period in Iran 304The Mughal Period in India 308PRIMARY SOURCES: Abd Al-Hamid Lahori (d. 1654) 309CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN ISLAMIC ART 310 Chapter 10: Early Medieval ArtANGLO-SAXON ART 314MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Metalwork 315The Animal Style 316HIBERNO-SAXON ART 318Manuscripts 318PRIMARY SOURCES: Lindisfarne Gospels 320VIKING ART 322CAROLINGIAN ART 324Sculpture 324Illuminated Books 325Architecture 328PRIMARY SOURCES: Hariulf (ca.1060-1143) 331PRIMARY SOURCES: St. Angilbert (ca. 750-814) 332OTTONIAN ART 333Architecture 333Metalwork 336Ivories and Manuscripts: Conveyors of Imperial Grandeur 340Sculpture 343 Chapter 11: Romanesque ArtFIRST EXPRESSIONS OF ROMANESQUE STYLE 349Architecture 349Monumental Stone Sculpture 350MATURE ROMANESQUE 351Pilgrimage Churches and Their Art 351PRIMARY SOURCES: The Pilgrim's Guide 352Cluniac Architecture and Sculpture 356PRIMARY SOURCES: St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) 359Cluniac Wall Painting 365Cistercian Architecture and Art 366Other Benedictine Architecture and Wall Painting 367Book Illustration 368THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: Preserving and Restoring Architecture 369 OTHER REGIONAL VARIANTS OF ROMANESQUE STYLE 372Western France: Poitou 372Southeastern France: Provence 373The Holy Land 374Tuscany 375Germany 378The Meuse Valley: Mosan Style 379MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Vaulting 380Normandy and England 381THE PARADOXICAL MEANING OF ROMANESQUE 386 Chapter 12: Gothic ArtEARLY GOTHIC ART IN FRANCE 391Saint-Denis: Suger and the Beginnings of Gothic Architecture 391PRIMARY SOURCES: Suger of Saint-Denis (1081-1151) 393Chartres Cathedral 395Laon Cathedral 397Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris 398HIGH GOTHIC ART IN FRANCE 399The Rebuilding of Chartres Cathedral 400PRIMARY SOURCES: Theophilus Presbyter (12th Century) 402MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Stained Glass 405THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: Modules and Proportions 406Amiens Cathedral 408Reims Cathedral 408RAYONNANT OR COURT STYLE 413Sainte-Chapelle 413Saint-Urbain in Troyes 415Manuscript Illumination 416LATE GOTHIC ART IN FRANCE 418Manuscript Illumination 418Sculpture 420Architecture: The Flamboyant Phase 422THE SPREAD OF GOTHIC ART 423Spain 423England 426Germany 430 PART THREE: THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH ROCOCO Chapter 13: Art in Thirteenth- and Fourteenth-Century ItalyTHE GROWTH OF MENDICANT ORDERS AND THE VISUAL ARTS IN ITALY 438The Franciscans at Assisi and Florence 438Churches and Their Furnishings in Urban Centers 441MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Fresco Painting and Conservation 441Pulpits in Pisan Churches 442Expanding Florence Cathedral 445Building for the City Government: The Palazzo della Signoria 448PAINTING IN TUSCANY 449Cimabue and Giotto 449Siena: Devotion to Mary in Works by Duccio and Simone 453PRIMARY SOURCES: Agnolo di Tura del Grasso 454THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: The Social Work of Images 455Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti 458Artists and Patrons in Times of Crisis 461PRIMARY SOURCES: Inscriptions on the Frescoes in the Palazzo Pubblico, Siena 461NORTHERN ITALY 465Venice: Political Stability and Sumptuous Architecture 465Milan: The Visconti Family and Northern Influences 465 Chapter 14: Artistic Innovations in Fifteenth-Century Northern EuropeCOURTLY ART: THE INTERNATIONAL GOTHIC 471Sculpture for the French Royal Family 471Illuminated Manuscripts: Books of Hours 473Bohemia and England 474URBAN CENTERS AND THE NEW ART 476Robert Campin in Tournai 477Jan van Eyck in Bruges 479MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Panel Painting in Tempera and Oil 479Rogier van der Weyden in Brussels 485PRIMARY SOURCES: Cyriacus of Ancona (1449) 485LATE FIFTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN THE NETHERLANDS 487Aristocratic Tastes for Precious Objects, Personal Books, and Tapestries 487THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: Scientific and Technical Study of Paintings 488Panel Paintings in the Southern Netherlands 490The Northern Netherlands 492REGIONAL RESPONSES TO THE EARLY NETHERLANDISH STYLE 494France 494PRIMARY SOURCES: Fray Jose De Siguenza (1544?-1606) 494Spain 495Central Europe 495PRIMARY SOURCES: From the Contract for the St. Wolfgang Altarpiece 499PRINTING AND THE GRAPHIC ARTS 499Printing Centers in Colmar and Basel 501MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Printmaking 501 Chapter 15: The Early Renaissance in Fifteenth-Century ItalyFLORENCE IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 507The Baptistery Competition 507PRIMARY SOURCES: In Praise of the City of Florence (ca. 1403-04) by Leonardo Bruni 507Architecture and Antiquity in Florence 509PRIMARY SOURCES: Lorenzo Ghiberti (ca. 1381-1455) 509MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Brunelleschi's Dome 512PRIMARY SOURCES: Leon Battista Alberti on what makes a building beautiful 514Ancient Inspirations in Florentine Sculpture 515MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Perspective 516Painting in Florentine Churches and Chapels 525THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: Patronage Studies 525Florentine Painters in the Age of the Medici 530DOMESTIC LIFE: PALACES, FURNISHINGS,AND PAINTINGS IN MEDICEAN FLORENCE 533Palace Architecture 533PRIMARY SOURCES: Domenico Veneziano Solicits Work 534Paintings for Palaces 536PRIMARY SOURCES: Giovanni Dominici Urges Parents to Put Religious Images in Their Homes 539Portraiture 541RENAISSANCE ART THROUGHOUT ITALY, 1450-1500 543Piero della Francesca in Central Italy 543Alberti and Mantegna in Mantua 546Venice 550Rome and the Papal States 553 Chapter 16: The High Renaissance in Italy, 1495-1520THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN FLORENCE AND MILAN 558Leonardo da Vinci in Florence 559Leonardo in Milan 559PRIMARY SOURCES: Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) 562Leonardo Back in Florence and Elsewhere 564ROME RESURGENT 566Bramante in Rome 566Michelangelo in Rome and Florence 568PRIMARY SOURCES: Michelangelo Interprets the Vatican Pieta 568Michelangelo in the Service of Pope Julius II 571MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Drawings 575Raphael in Florence and Rome 577THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: Cleaning and Restoring Works of Art 578PRIMARY SOURCES: On Raphael's Death 583VENICE 584Giorgione 584Titian 585 Chapter 17: The Late Renaissance and Mannerism in Sixteenth-Century ItalyLATE RENAISSANCE FLORENCE: THE CHURCH, THE COURT, AND MANNERISM 593Florentine Religious Painting in the 1520s 593The Medici in Florence: From Dynasty to Duchy 595PRIMARY SOURCES: Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1571) 600ROME REFORMED 603Michelangelo in Rome 603PRIMARY SOURCES: Michelangelo the Poet 603The Catholic Reformation and Il Gesu 607NORTHERN ITALY: DUCAL COURTS AND URBAN CENTERS 609The Palazzo del Te 609PARMA AND CREMONA 611Correggio and Parmigianino in Parma 611Cremona 613VENICE: THE SERENE REPUBLIC 613Sansovino in Venice 613Andrea Palladio and Late Renaissance Architecture 614PRIMARY SOURCES: Andrea Palladio (1508-1580) 616Titian 617MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Oil on Canvas 618PRIMARY SOURCES: From a Session of the Inquisition Tribunal in Venice of Paolo Veronese 620Titian's Legacy 621 Chapter 18: Renaissance and Reformation in Sixteenth-Century Northern EuropeFRANCE: COURTLY TASTES FOR ITALIAN FORMS 625Chateaux and Palaces: Translating Italian Architecture 626Art for Castle Interiors 628MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Making and Conserving Renaissance Tapestries 629SPAIN: GLOBAL POWER AND RELIGIOUS ORTHODOXY 631The Escorial 632El Greco and Religious Painting in Spain 633CENTRAL EUROPE: THE REFORMATION AND ART 634Catholic Contexts: The Isenheim Altarpiece 635Albrecht Durer and the Northern Renaissance 638PRIMARY SOURCES: Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) 641Religious and Courtly Images in the Era of Reform 643Painting in the Cities: Humanist Themes and Religious Turmoil 646ENGLAND: REFORMATION AND POWER 647PRIMARY SOURCES: Elizabethan Imagery 649THE NETHERLANDS: WORLD MARKETPLACE 650The City and the Court: David and Gossaert 651THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: The Economics of Art 651Antwerp: Merchants, Markets, and Morality 652PRIMARY SOURCES: Karel van Mander Writes About Pieter Bruegel the Elder 656 Chapter 19: The Baroque in Italy and SpainPAINTING IN ITALY 663Caravaggio and the New Style 664Artemisia Gentileschi 667PRIMARY SOURCES: Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-ca. 1653) 669Ceiling Painting and Annibale Carracci 670ARCHITECTURE IN ITALY 675The Completion of St. Peter's and Carlo Maderno 675Bernini and St. Peter's 676Architectural Components in Decoration 678A Baroque Alternative: Francesco Borromini 679The Baroque in Turin: Guarino Guarini 682The Baroque in Venice: Baldassare Longhena 684SCULPTURE IN ITALY 684Early Baroque Sculpture: Stefano Maderno 684The Evolution of the Baroque: Gianlorenzo Bernini 684A Classical Alternative: Alessandro Algardi 687MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Bernini's Sculptural Sketches 688PAINTING IN SPAIN 689Spanish Still Life: Juan Sanchez Cotan 690Naples and the Impact of Caravaggio: Jusepe de Ribera 690Diego Velazquez: From Seville to Court Painter 691Monastic Orders and Zurbaran 695PRIMARY SOURCES: Antonio Palomino (1655-1726) 695Culmination in Devotion: Bartolome Esteban Murillo 696 Chapter 20: The Baroque in the NetherlandsFLANDERS 701Peter Paul Rubens and Defining the Baroque 701PRIMARY SOURCES: Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) 704Anthony van Dyck: History and Portraiture at the English Court 707Local Flemish Art and Jacob Jordaens 708The Bruegel Tradition 709Still-Life Painting 710THE DUTCH REPUBLIC 713The Haarlem Academy: Hendrick Goltzius 713The Caravaggisti in Holland: Hendrick Terbrugghen 713The Haarlem Community and Frans Hals 714The Next Generation in Haarlem: Judith Leyster 717Rembrandt and the Art of Amsterdam 718THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: Authenticity and Workshops: Rubens and Rembrandt 718MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Etching, Drypoint, and Selective Wiping 722THE MARKET: LANDSCAPE, STILL-LIFE, AND GENRE PAINTING 725Landscape Painting: Jan van Goyen 725City Views: Jacob van Ruisdael 726Architectural Painting: Pieter Saenredam 728Still-life Painting: Willem Claesz. Heda 729Flower Painting: Rachel Ruysch 730Genre Painting: Jan Steen 730Intimate Genre Painting: Jan Vermeer 732Exquisite Genre Painting: Gerard ter Borch 734 Chapter 21: The Baroque in France and EnglandFRANCE: THE STYLE OF LOUIS XIV 738Painting and Printmaking in France 739PRIMARY SOURCES: Nicolas Poussin (ca. 1594-1665) 742THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: Forgeries and The Book of Truth 747French Classical Architecture 748Sculpture: The Impact of Bernini 754BAROQUE ARCHITECTURE IN ENGLAND 754Inigo Jones and the Impact of Palladio 755Sir Christopher Wren 757John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor 760 Chapter 22: The RococoFRANCE: THE RISE OF THE ROCOCO 762Painting: Poussinistes versus Rubenistes 763PRIMARY SOURCES: Jean de Jullienne (1686-1767) 766MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Pastel Painting 769Chinoiserie 771The French Rococo Interior 772THE ROCOCO IN WESTERN EUROPE OUTSIDE OF FRANCE 774William Hogarth and the Narrative 774Canaletto 775THE ROCOCO IN CENTRAL EUROPE 776Johann Fischer von Erlach 777Egid Quirin Asam 779Dominikus Zimmermann 779Balthasar Neumann 780Giovanni Battista Tiepolo and Illusionistic Ceiling Decoration 781 PART FOUR: THE MODERN WORLD Chapter 23: Art in the Age of the Enlightenment, 1750-1789ROME TOWARD 1760: THE FONT OF NEOCLASSICISM 787Artistic Foundations of Neoclassicism: Mengs and Hamilton 788ROMANTICISM IN ROME: PIRANESI 789NEOCLASSICISM IN BRITAIN 790Sculpture and Painting: Historicism, Morality, and Antiquity 791MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Josiah Wedgwood and Neoclassical Jasperware 792The Birth of Contemporary History Painting 793Grand Manner Portraiture in the Neoclassical Style: Joshua Reynolds 795THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: The Elusive Meaning of West's The Death of General Wolfe 795Architecture and Interiors: The Palladian Revival 796EARLY ROMANTICISM IN BRITAIN 798Architecture and Landscape Design: The Sublime and the Picturesque 799Early Romantic Painting in Britain 801Romanticism in Grand Manner Portraiture: Thomas Gainsborough 805NEOCLASSICISM IN FRANCE 806Architecture: Rational Classicism 806The Sublime in Neoclassical Architecture: The Austere and the Visionary 808Painting and Sculpture: Expressing Enlightenment Values 810PRIMARY SOURCES: Denis Diderot (1713-1784) 812The Climax of Neoclassicism: The Paintings of Jacques-Louis David 813PRIMARY SOURCES: Etienne-Jean Delecluze (1781-1863) 813Neoclassical Portraiture: Marie-Louise-Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun 816ITALIAN NEOCLASSICISM TOWARD 1785 817Neoclassical Sculpture: Antonio Canova 817 Chapter 24: Art in the Age of Romanticism, 1789-1848PAINTING 823Spain: Francisco Goya 823Britain: Spiritual Intensity and the Bond with Nature 825MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Blake's Printing Process 827PRIMARY SOURCES: John Constable (1776-1837) 829Germany: Friedrich's Pantheistic Landscape 831America: Landscape as Metaphor 832France: Neoclassical Romanticism 835France: Painterly Romanticism and Romantic Landscape 840PRIMARY SOURCES: Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863) 845Romantic Landscape Painting 847ROMANTIC SCULPTURE 850ROMANTIC REVIVALS IN ARCHITECTURE 851Britain: The Sublime and the Picturesque 851Germany: Creating a New Athens 854America: An Ancient Style for a New Republic 854France: Empire Style 856 Chapter 25: The Age of Positivism: Realism, Impressionism, and the Pre-Raphaelites, 1848-1885REALISM IN FRANCE 860Realism in the 1840s and 1850s: Painting Contemporary Social Conditions 861The Realist Assault on Academic Values and Bourgeois Taste 866Impressionism: A Different Form of Realism 871PRIMARY SOURCES: Lila Cabot Perry (1848?-1933) 872MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Impressionist Color Theory 874BRITISH REALISM 881The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood 881The Aesthetic Movement: Personal Psychology and Repressed Eroticism 884PRIMARY SOURCES: James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834-1903) 885REALISM IN AMERICA 887Scientific Realism: Thomas Eakins 887Iconic Imagery: Winslow Homer 888THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: An Artist's Reputation and Changes in Art Historical Methodology 889PHOTOGRAPHY: A MECHANICAL MEDIUM FOR MASS-PRODUCED ART 890First Innovations 891Recording the World 891Reporting the News: Photojournalism 894Photography as Art: Pictorialism and Combination Printing 895PRIMARY SOURCES: Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867) 896ARCHITECTURE AND THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 897Ferrovitreous Structures: Train Sheds and Exhibition Palaces 898Historic Eclecticism and Technology 899Announcing the Future: The Eiffel Tower 900 Chapter 26: Progress and Its Discontents: Post-Impressionism, Symbolism, and Art Nouveau, 1880-1905POST-IMPRESSIONISM 905Paul Cezanne: Toward Abstraction 905PRIMARY SOURCES: Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) 907Georges Seurat: Seeking Social and Pictorial Harmony 908Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec: An Art for the Demimonde 911MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Lithography 911Vincent van Gogh: Expression Through Color and Symbol 912Paul Gauguin: The Flight from Modernity 915PRIMARY SOURCES: Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) 917SYMBOLISM 917The Nabis 917Other Symbolist Visions in France 918Symbolism Beyond France 920Symbolist Currents in American Art 922THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: Feminist Art History 923The Sculpture of Rodin 924ART NOUVEAU AND THE SEARCH FOR MODERN DESIGN 927The Public and Private Spaces of Art Nouveau 927AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE: THE CHICAGO SCHOOL 931Henry Hobson Richardson: Laying the Foundation for Modernist Architecture 931Louis Sullivan and Early Skyscrapers 932Frank Lloyd Wright and the Prairie House 934PHOTOGRAPHY AND THE ADVENT OF FILM 936Pictorialist Photography and the Photo Secession 936Documentary Photography 939Motion Photography and Moving Pictures 940 Chapter 27: Toward Abstraction: The Modernist Revolution, 1904-1914FAUVISM 946CUBISM 950Reflecting and Shattering Tradition: Les Demoiselles d'Avignon 950THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: The Myth of the Primitive 951Analytic Cubism: Picasso and Braque 952Synthetic Cubism: The Power of Collage 953THE IMPACT OF FAUVISM AND CUBISM 955German Expressionism 955MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: The Woodcut in German Expressionism 958PRIMARY SOURCES: Vasily Kandinsky (1866-1944) 960Austrian Expressionism 962Cubism after Picasso and Braque: Paris 963Italian Futurism: The Visualization of Movement and Energy 964Cubo-Futurism and Suprematism in Russia 966PRIMARY SOURCES: Kazimir Malevich (1878-1935) 968Cubism and Fantasy: Marc Chagall and Giorgio de Chirico 969MARCEL DUCHAMP AND THE ADVENT OF AN ART OF IDEAS 970CONSTANTIN BRANCUSI AND THE BIRTH OF MODERNIST SCULPTURE 972AMERICAN ART 974America's First Modernists: Arthur Dove and Marsden Hartley 975EARLY MODERN ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE 976Austrian and German Modernist Architecture 976German Expressionist Architecture 979 Chapter 28: Art Between the WarsDADA 985Zurich Dada: Jean Arp 985New York Dada: Marcel Duchamp 986Berlin Dada 987Cologne Dada 991PRIMARY SOURCES: Hannah Hoech (1889-1978) 991Paris Dada: Man Ray 992SURREALISM 993Picasso and Surrealism 993Surrealism in Paris: Spurring the Imagination 995Representational Surrealism: Magritte and Dali 996Surrealism and Photography 999The Surrealist Object 999ORGANIC SCULPTURE OF THE 1930S 1000Alexander Calder in Paris 1001Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth in England 1002PRIMARY SOURCES: Barbara Hepworth (1903-1975) 1003CREATING UTOPIAS 1003Russian Constructivism: Productivism and Utilitarianism 1003De Stijl and Universal Order 1005The Bauhaus: Creating the "New Man" 1007PRIMARY SOURCES: Piet Mondrian (1872-1944) 1007The Machine Aesthetic in Paris 1011PRIMARY SOURCES: Le Corbusier (1886-1965) 1012MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Reinforced Concrete 1013ART IN AMERICAN: MODERNITY, SPIRITUALITY, AND REGIONALISM 1015The City and Industry 1015Art Deco and the International Style 1020Seeking the Spiritual 1021Regionalism and National Identity 1023The Harlem Renaissance 1024MEXICAN ART: SEEKING A NATIONAL IDENTITY 1025Diego Rivera 1025THE EVE OF WORLD WAR II 1028America: The Failure of Modernity 1028Europe: The Rise of Fascism 1030 Chapter 29: Postwar to Postmodern, 1945-1980EXISTENTIALISM IN NEW YORK: ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM 1036The Bridge from Surrealism to Abstract Expressionism: Arshile Gorky 1036Abstract Expressionism: Action Painting 1038PRIMARY SOURCES: Jackson Pollock (1912-1956) 1038Abstract Expressionism: Color-Field Painting 1040New York Sculpture: David Smith and Louise Nevelson 1041EXISTENTIALISM IN EUROPE: FIGURAL EXPRESSIONISM 1042Jean Dubuffet 1042Francis Bacon 1043REJECTING ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM: AMERICAN ART OF THE 1950s AND 1960s 1044Re-Presenting Life and Dissecting Painting 1044Environments and Performance Art 1046Pop Art: Consumer Culture as Subject 1049PRIMARY SOURCES: Roy Lichtenstein (1923-1997) 1050FORMALIST ABSTRACTION OF THE 1950s AND 1960s 1053Formalist Painting 1053Formalist Sculpture: Minimal Art 1056PRIMARY SOURCES: Frank Stella (b. 1936) 1056THE PLURALIST 1970s: POST-MINIMALISM 1058Post-Minimal Sculpture: Geometry and Emotion 1058Earthworks and Site-Specific Art 1059THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: Studying the Absent Object 1059Conceptual Art: Art as Idea 1062Television Art: Nam June Paik 1063ART WITH A SOCIAL AGENDA 1064Street Photography 1064African-American Art: Ethnic Identity 1065PRIMARY SOURCES: Romare Bearden (1911-1988) 1066Feminist Art: Judy Chicago and Gender Identity 1068LATE MODERNIST ARCHITECTURE 1069Continuing the International Style: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 1069Sculptural Architecture: Referential Mass 1070 Chapter 30: The Postmodern Era: Art Since 1980ARCHITECTURE 1077Postmodern Architecture: A Referential Style 1077New Modernisms: High-Tech Architecture 1080Deconstructivism: Countering Modernist Authority 1082MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Computer-Aided Design in Architecture 1085POSTMINIMALISM AND PLURALISM: LIMITLESS POSSIBILITIES IN FINE ART 1085The Return of Painting 1085Sculpture 1089APPROPRIATION ART: DECONSTRUCTING IMAGES 1091PRIMARY SOURCES: Cindy Sherman (b. 1954) 1091Photography and LED Signs 1092Context and Meaning in Art: The Institutional Critique and Art as Commodity 1094MULTICULTURALISM AND POLITICAL ART 1096African-American Identity 1096The AIDS Pandemic and a Preoccupation with the Body 1098The Power of Installation, Video, and Large-Scale Photography 1100PRIMARY SOURCES: Ilya Kabakov (b. 1933) 1102THE ART HISTORIAN'S LENS: The Changing Art Market 1104GLOBAL ART 1105El Anatsui, Adinkra Signs, and Postmodern Ambiguity 1105Cai Guo Qing: Projects for Extraterrestrials 1106 GlossaryBibliographyIndexCredits

About the Author

Penelope J. E. Davies is Associate Professor at the University of Texas, Austin. She is a scholar of Greek and Roman art and architecture as well as a field archaeologist. She is author of Death and the Emperor: Roman Imperial Funerary Monuments from Augustus to Marcus Aurelius, winner of the Vasari Award. Walter B. Denny is a Professor of Art History at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. In addition to exhibition catalogues, his publications include books on Ottoman Turkish carpets, textiles, and ceramics, and articles on miniature painting, architecture and architectural decoration. Frima Fox Hofrichter is Professor and former Chair of the History of Art and Design department at Pratt Institute. She is author of Judith Leyster, A Dutch Artist in Holland's Golden Age, which received CAA's Millard Meiss Publication Fund Award. Joseph Jacobs is an independent scholar, critic, and art historian of modern art in New York City. He was the curator of modern art at the John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art in Sarasota, Florida, director of the Oklahoma City Art Museum, and curator of American art at The Newark Museum, Newark, New Jersey. David L. Simon is Jette Professor of Art at Colby College, where he received the Basset Teaching Award in 2005. Among his publications is the catalogue of Spanish and southern French Romanesque sculpture in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and The Cloisters. Ann M. Roberts, Professor of Art at Lake Forest College has published essays, articles and reviews on both Northern and Italian Renaissance topics. Her research focuses on women in the Renaissance, and her most recent publication is entitled Dominican Women and Renaissance Art:The Convent of San Domenico of Pisa. H. W. Janson was a legendary name in art history. During his long career as a teacher and scholar, he helped define the discipline through his impressive books and other publications. Anthony F. Janson forged a distinguished career as a professor, scholar, museum professional and writer. From the time of his father's death in 1982 until 2004, he authored History of Art.

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