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Isotopic Analysis
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Table of Contents

Preface THE ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF THE ELEMENTS Atomic Structure Isotopes Relation Between Atomic Structure and Natural Abundance of Elements and Isotopes Natural Isotopic Composition of the Elements SINGLE-COLLECTOR INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY Mass Spectrometry The Inductively Coupled Plasma Ion Source Basic Operating Principles of Mass Spectrometers Quadrupole-Based ICP-MS Sample Introduction Strategies in ICP-MS Spectral Interferences Measuring Isotope Ratios with Single-Collector ICP-MS MULTI-COLLECTOR INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY Introduction Early Multi-Collector Mass Spectrometers Variable Multi-Collector Mass Spectrometers Mass Resolution and Resolving Power Three-Isotope Plots for Measurement Validation Detector Technologies for Multi-Collection Conclusion ADVANCES IN LASER ABLATION-MULTI-COLLECTOR INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY Precision of Isotope Ratio Measurements Stable Signal Intensity Profiles: Why So Important? Signal Smoothing Device Multiple Ion Counting Isotope Fractionation During Laser Ablation and Ionization Standardization of the Isotope Ratio Data CORRECTION OF INSTRUMENTAL MASS DISCRIMINATION FOR ISOTOPE RATIO DETERMINATION WITH MULTI-COLLECTOR INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY Historical Introduction Mass Bias in MC-ICP-MS Systematics of Mass Bias Correction Models Logic of Conventional Correction Models Pitfalls with Some Correction Models Integrity of the Correction Models The Regression Model Calibration with Double Spikes Calibration with Internal Correction Uncertainty Evaluation Conclusion REFERENCE MATERIALS IN ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS Introduction Terminology Determination of Isotope Amount Ratios Isotopic Reference Materials Present Status, Related Problems, and Solutions Conclusion and Outlook QUALITY CONTROL IN ISOTOPE RATIO APPLICATIONS Introduction Terminology and Definitions Measurement Uncertainty Conclusion DETERMINATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS AND ELEMENTAL SPECIES USING ISOTOPE DILUTION INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY Introduction Fundamentals Selected Examples of Trace Element Determination via ICP-IDMS GEOCHRONOLOGICAL DATING Geochronology: Principles Practicalities Various Isotopic Systems Systems for Which ICP-MS Analysis Brings Fewer Advantages APPLICATION OF MULTIPLE-COLLECTOR INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY TO ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS IN COSMOCHEMISTRY Introduction Extraterrestrial Samples Origin of Cosmochemical Isotopic Variations Use of MC-ICP-MS in Cosmochemistry Applications of MC-ICP-MS in Cosmochemistry Conclusion ESTABLISHING THE BASIS FOR USING STABLE ISOTOPE RATIOS OF METALS AS PALEOREDOX PROCIES Introduction Isotope Ratios of Metals as Paleoredox Proxies Diagenesis: a Critical Area for Further Work ISOTOPES AS TRACERS OF ELEMENTS ACROSS THE GEOSPHERE-BIOSPHERE INTERFACE Description of the Geosphere-Biosphere Interface Elements That Typify the Geosphere-Biosphere Interface Microbes at the Interface Element Tracing in Environmental Science and Exploration of Metal Deposits Isotopes as Indicators of Paleoenvironments Tracing the Geosphere Effect on Vegetation and Animals Tracing in the Marine Environment Future Directions ARCHEOMETRIC APPLICATIONS Introduction Current Applications New Applications Conclusion FORENSIC APPLICATIONS Introduction Forensic Applications Based on ICP-MS Isotopic Analysis Future Outlook NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS Introduction Rationale Process Control and Monitoring in the Nuclear Industry Isotopic Studies of the Distribution of U and Pu in the Environment Nuclear Forensics Prospects for Future Developments THE USE OF STABLE ISOTOPE TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING MINERAL AND TRACE ELEMENT METABOLISM IN HUMANS Essential Elements Stable Isotopic Labels Versus Radiotracers Quantification of Stable Isotopic Tracers Isotope Labeling Techniques Concepts of Using Tracers in Studies of Element Metabolism in Humans ICP-MS in Stable Isotope-Based Metabolic Studies Element-by-Element Review ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS VIA MULTI-COLLECTOR INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY IN ELEMENTAL SPECIATION Introduction Advantage of On-Line versus Off-Line Separation of Elemental Species Coupling Chromatography with MC-ICP-MS Environmental and Other Applications Conclusion and Future Trends

About the Author

Frank Vanhaecke (?1966) is Professor in Analytical Chemistry at Ghent University (Belgium), where he leads the 'Atomic & Mass Spectrometry & A&MS' research unit that focuses on the determination, speciation and isotopic analysis of (trace) elements via ICP-mass spectrometry (ICPMS).One of the specific topics studied, is isotope ratio determination using single- and multi-collector ICP-MS in the context of elemental assay via isotope dilution, tracer experiments with stable isotopes and the use of small natural variations in the isotopic composition of metals and metalloids for provenance determination and for obtaining better insight into biological, environmental and geological problems. Frank is (co-)author of some 200 scientific papers in international journals, 15 book chapters and more than 350 conference presentations and is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry RSC. In 2011, he received a 'European Award for Plasma Spectrochemistry' for his contributions to the field. Patrick Degryse (?1974) is Professor of Archaeometry at the department of Earth and Environmental Sciences and director of the Centre for Archaeological Sciences at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium). His main research efforts focus on the use of mineral raw materials in ancient ceramic, glass, metal and building stone production, using petrographical, mineralogical and isotope geochemical techniques. He teaches geology, geochemistry, archaeometry and natural sciences in archaeology, and outside the lab is active in several field projects in the eastern Mediterranean. Patrick is author of over 100 scientific papers in international journals, conference proceedings and books and is an A. von Humboldt Fellow and European Research Council Grantee.

Reviews

"This is a book that consists of a collection of highlytechnical but practical chapters written by experts in the field.Given the rapidly advancing field of isotopic mass spectrometricanalysis, it will be valuable as a reference guide for researchworkers and advanced students of these topics." (Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 27 October2012)

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