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Introduction to Veterinary Genetics


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Table of Contents

Preface 1 Basic genetics Chromosomes Meiosis and mitosis The biochemistry of inheritance What is a gene? Gene regulation Mutation Genes, alleles, and loci Simple or Mendelian inheritance Linkage Inactivation Types of DNA Further reading Appendix 1.1 Banded karyotypes of domestic species 2 Molecular biology Restriction enzymes Recombinant DNA and DNA cloning Complementary DNA DNA sequencing Polymerase chain reaction Southern analysis and related technologies DNA expression microarrays The detection of variation in base sequence Veterinary diagnosis Variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), DNA fingerprints, and microsatellites Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) Copy number variation (CNV) Gene mapping Whole-genome sequence assembly Production of polypeptide from cloned DNA Transgenesis Antisense technology RNA interference Further reading 3 Single-gene disorders Inborn errors of metabolism Sex-limited inheritance Genetic heterogeneity of disease Type of gene action and type of disease Phenocopies A sample of single-gene disorders A revolution in mapping and identifying the causal mutation of single-gene disorders Further reading Appendix 3.1 A sample of single-gene traits that have been characterized at the molecular level 4 Chromosomal aberrations Abnormal chromosome number Abnormal chromosome structure Chromosomal aberrations in cancer Evolution of karyotypes Interspecific hybridization Freemartins Biological basis of sex Classification of intersex 116 A sample of chromosomal aberrations Further reading Appendix 4.1 A sample of chromosomal aberrations in animals 5 Single genes in populations Gene and genotype frequencies Random mating The Hardy?Weinberg law Extensions to the Hardy?Weinberg law Selection and mutation Genetic drift and the founder effect Extending population genetics to more than one locus Further reading 6 Familial disorders not due to a single gene Liability and threshold The multifactorial model More than one threshold Some final points Further reading 7 Is it inherited? General evidence for a genetic aetiology The four types of simple, Mendelian inheritance Studying and analysing the data Further reading 8 Immunogenetics Antibodies Red-cell antigens The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Further reading 9 Pharmacogenetics Genetic polymorphisms affecting drug metabolism Genetics and anaesthesia Warfarin resistance Multifactorial pharmacogenetics Further reading 10 Hosts, parasites, and pathogens Host?pathogen interactions Resistance in hosts Resistance in parasites and pathogens Control of parasites and pathogens Increasing the level of resistance in hosts Further reading 11 Single genes in animal breeding Coat colour Examples of coat-colour genes Carpet wool Prolificacy in sheep Polledness Muscular hypertrophy in cattle and sheep Dwarf poultry Genes for sexing chickens Pedigree checking Further reading 12 Relationship and inbreeding The inbreeding coefficient Relationship The inbreeding coefficient revisited A general expression for relationship and inbreeding The base population Inbreeding in populations Inbreeding depression Further reading 13 Quantitative variation Quantitative traits The performance of an individual animal The differences between animals Heritability Correlations between traits Quantitative trait loci (QTL) Further reading 14 Selection between populations Comparison between populations Genotype?environment interaction Further reading 15 Selection within populations Estimated breeding values and accuracy of selection Clues to a candidate?s breeding value for a trait Combining clues from more than one source Best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) Correlated traits Selection for more than one trait The importance of inbreeding and genetic drift Sire-reference schemes Marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genome-wide selection (GWS) Further reading 16 Breed structure The traditional pyramid Closed-nucleus breeding schemes Open-nucleus breeding schemes Further reading 17 Crossing Regular crossing Crossing to produce a synthetic Grading-up Further reading 18 Selection and regular crossing Selection Selection and regular crossing Further reading 19 Biotechnology and the future Artificial insemination (AI) Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) In vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of ova Control of sex ratio Recombinant proteins Transgenesis Animal cloning Further reading 20 Conservation genetics Measurement of genetic diversity within populations Measurement of genetic diversity among populations Importance of genetic diversity Loss of genetic diversity Conservation of genetic diversity Further reading 21 Genetic and environmental control of inherited disorders Environmental control of inherited disorders Genetic control of single-gene disorders Gene therapy Genetic control of multifactorial disorders Genetic control ? some final points Crossing: thinking outside the square Further reading Glossary Index

About the Author

Frank Nicholas is Emeritus Professor of Animal Genetics in the Faculty of Veterinary Science at the University of Sydney . He has edited and co-authored several books about genetics and one about Charles Darwin, and he created and maintains Online Mendelian Inheritance of Animals (OMIA; omia.angis.org.au), a comparative knowledge-base of genetic disorders and other familial traits in non-laboratory animals.

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