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Introduction to Occupational Health in Public Health Practice


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Table of Contents

Figures, Tables, and Exhibits xi Introduction xv Acknowledgments xix The Authors xxi The Contributors xxiii Part One Public Health Prevention Focus 1 1 History and Importance of Public Health 3 A Brief History of U.S. Public Health 4 Healthy People 2010 8 Responsibilities of Public Health 11 Public Health Accomplishments 11 Emphasis on Prevention Not Control 14 Public Health and Occupational Health 16 Summary 25 Key Terms 25 Questions for Discussion 25 2 Epidemiology of Occupational Safety and Health 27 Introduction to Epidemiology 28 Surveillance Systems 31 Epidemiology Studies 33 Health Hazard Evaluations 35 Public Health Systems in the Workplace 37 Chronic Disease Epidemiology in the Workplace 38 Summary 39 Key Terms 39 Questions for Discussion 39 Part Two Occupational Safety and Health 41 3 History and Importance of Occupational Safety and Health 43 Health, Disease, and Prevention 48 The Role for Public Health 51 Summary 54 Key Terms 55 Questions for Discussion 55 4 Occupational Injuries 57 Epidemiology of Injuries 58 The Case for an Epidemiological Approach 59 Epidemiology of Accidents 66 Epidemiology of Violence 68 Surveillance Systems for Occupational Injuries 69 Surveillance Results 70 Injury Prevention Programs 73 Future Challenges 77 Summary 78 Key Terms 80 Questions for Discussion 80 5 Compliance versus Prevention 81 OSHA Standards Development 84 The Inspection Process 88 Compliance or Prevention 90 Prevention of Cumulative Problems 93 Summary 93 Key Terms 93 Questions for Discussion 93 Part Three Public Health Issues in Occupational Safety and Health 95 6 Toxicology 97 Application to Occupational Epidemiology 98 Subdisciplines in Toxicology 99 Classification of Toxic Agents 100 Environmental Tobacco Smoke 103 Risk Assessment 104 Toxicology Case Studies 105 Toxin Regulation and Research 105 Summary 108 Key Terms 109 Questions for Discussion 109 7 Stress 111 Stress Basics 112 Workplace Characteristics and Stress 116 Organizational Response to Stress 117 When to Get Help 122 Summary 122 Key Terms 122 Questions for Discussion 123 8 The Impaired Employee 125 Drug Use Frequency and Demographics 127 Epidemiology of Addiction 129 Substances Often Abused 134 Drug-Free Workplaces and EAPs 136 Summary 140 Key Terms 140 Questions for Discussion 141 9 Wellness Programs 143 Chronic Diseases in the Workplace 145 The Value of Wellness Programs 146 Addressing Obesity and Nutrition 147 Addressing Physical Inactivity 151 Addressing Tobacco Use 153 Developing Comprehensive Health Programs 155 The Role for Public Health 157 Summary 159 Key Terms 160 Questions for Discussion 160 10 Emergency Response Planning 161 Definitions 162 Emergency Management Planning Steps 162 Terrorism and Bioterrorism 164 Workplace Preparedness for Terrorism 167 CDC's Strategic Workplace Plan 168 Applying Epidemiology to Preparedness 168 Applying an Information Model to Preparedness 174 Involving OSHA and NIOSH in Planning 175 Summary 176 Key Terms 177 Questions for Discussion 177 11 Ergonomics 179 Two Approaches: Broad and Narrow 181 Ergonomists' Roles and Experience 187 Few Absolute Limits 188 Cumulative Trauma Disorders 189 The Industrial Athlete 195 Summary 198 Key Terms 198 Questions for Discussion 198 12 Communicable Diseases 199 Epidemiology of Communicable Diseases 200 Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases 202 Tuberculosis 203 Hepatitis 204 HIV and AIDS 207 Influenza 208 Emerging Infections 209 Summary 213 Key Terms 213 Questions for Discussion 214 13 Vision and Hearing Issues 215 Protecting Vision in the Workplace 216 Protecting Hearing in the Workplace 223 Summary 231 Key Terms 232 Questions for Discussion 232 14 Occupational Health Disparities 233 Disparate Populations 234 How Do Health Disparities Persist? 251 Future Trends in Health Disparities 256 Summary 257 Key Terms 258 Questions for Discussion 258 Part Four Evaluation and Leadership Issues in Prevention 259 15 Economic Impacts of Prevention 261 Premature Mortality 262 Employer Health Insurance Costs 262 The Purposes of Economic Evaluation 264 The Burden of Injury and Illness 264 Types of Economic Analysis 266 Target Areas for Evaluation 268 Summary 276 Key Terms 277 Questions for Discussion 277 16 Impacts of Leadership and Culture 279 Using Vision and Management Skills 282 Using Power Effectively 284 Exercising Transformational Leadership 286 Changing the Process of Work 287 Motivating Employees 287 Building a Culture 288 Empowering Workers 290 Improving Team Effectiveness 291 Summary 292 Key Terms 292 Questions for Discussion 292 References 293 Index 313

About the Author

Bernard J. Healey, PhD, is director of the Graduate Program in Health Care Administration, King's College, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, and Professor of Health Care Administration. Formerly, he was a public health epidemiologist for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Kenneth T. Walker, CSP, is president of Endless Mountains Safety Consulting, Inc., Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania and adjunct professor at the University of Scranton. Previously, he was Industrial Hygiene, Safety, Emergency Response, and Technical Equipment Safety Manager for Proctor and Gamble Corporation. In 2009 he was elected a regional director for the American Society of Safety Engineers.

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