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Introduction to Lie Algebras and Representation Theory


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Table of Contents

I. Basic Concepts.- 1. Definitions and first examples.- 1.1 The notion of Lie algebra.- 1.2 Linear Lie algebras.- 1.3 Lie algebras of derivations.- 1.4 Abstract Lie algebras.- 2. Ideals and homomorphisms.- 2.1 Ideals.- 2.2 Homomorphisms and representations.- 2.3 Automorphisms.- 3. Solvable and nilpotent Lie algebras.- 3.1 Solvability.- 3.2 Nilpotency.- 3.3 Proof of Engel's Theorem.- II. Semisimple Lie Algebras.- 4. Theorems of Lie and Cartan.- 4.1 Lie's Theorem.- 4.2 Jordan-Chevalley decomposition.- 4.3 Cartan's Criterion.- 5. Killing form.- 5.1 Criterion for semisimplicity.- 5.2 Simple ideals of L.- 5.3 Inner derivations.- 5.4 Abstract Jordan decomposition.- 6. Complete reducibility of representations.- 6.1 Modules.- 6.2 Casimir element of a representation.- 6.3 Weyl's Theorem.- 6.4 Preservation of Jordan decomposition.- 7. Representations of sl (2, F).- 7.1 Weights and maximal vectors.- 7.2 Classification of irreducible modules.- 8. Root space decomposition.- 8.1 Maximal toral subalgebras and roots.- 8.2 Centralizer of H.- 8.3 Orthogonality properties.- 8.4 Integrality properties.- 8.5 Rationality properties Summary.- III. Root Systems.- 9. Axiomatics.- 9.1 Reflections in a euclidean space.- 9.2 Root systems.- 9.3 Examples.- 9.4 Pairs of roots.- 10. Simple roots and Weyl group.- 10.1 Bases and Weyl chambers.- 10.2 Lemmas on simple roots.- 10.3 The Weyl group.- 10.4 Irreducible root systems.- 11. Classification.- 11.1 Cartan matrix of ?.- 11.2 Coxeter graphs and Dynkin diagrams.- 11.3 Irreducible components.- 11.4 Classification theorem.- 12. Construction of root systems and automorphisms.- 12.1 Construction of types A-G.- 12.2 Automorphisms of ?.- 13. Abstract theory of weights.- 13.1 Weights.- 13.2 Dominant weights.- 13.3 The weight ?.- 13.4 Saturated sets of weights.- IV. Isomorphism and Conjugacy Theorems.- 14. Isomorphism theorem.- 14.1 Reduction to the simple case.- 14.2 Isomorphism theorem.- 14.3 Automorphisms.- 15. Cartan subalgebras.- 15.1 Decomposition of L relative to ad x.- 15.2 Engel subalgebras.- 15.3 Cartan subalgebras.- 15.4 Functorial properties.- 16. Conjugacy theorems.- 16.1 The group g (L).- 16.2 Conjugacy of CSA's (solvable case).- 16.3 Borel subalgebras.- 16.4 Conjugacy of Borel subalgebras.- 16.5 Automorphism groups.- V. Existence Theorem.- 17. Universal enveloping algebras.- 17.1 Tensor and symmetric algebras.- 17.2 Construction of U(L).- 17.3 PBW Theorem and consequences.- 17.4 Proof of PBW Theorem.- 17.5 Free Lie algebras.- 17. Generators and relations.- 17.1 Relations satisfied by L.- 17.2 Consequences of (S1)-(S3).- 17.3 Serre's Theorem.- 17.4 Application: Existence and uniqueness theorems.- 18. The simple algebras.- 18.1 Criterion for semisimplicity.- 18.2 The classical algebras.- 18.3 The algebra G2.- VI. Representation Theory.- 20. Weights and maximal vectors.- 20.1 Weight spaces.- 20.2 Standard cyclic modules.- 20.3 Existence and uniqueness theorems.- 21. Finite dimensional modules.- 21.1 Necessary condition for finite dimension.- 21.2 Sufficient condition for finite dimension.- 21.3 Weight strings and weight diagrams.- 21.4 Generators and relations for V(?).- 22. Multiplicity formula.- 22.1 A universal Casimir element.- 22.2 Traces on weight spaces.- 22.3 Freudenthal's formula.- 22.4 Examples.- 22.5 Formal characters.- 23. Characters.- 23.1 Invariant polynomial functions.- 23.2 Standard cyclic modules and characters.- 23.3 Harish-Chandra's Theorem.- 24. Formulas of Weyl, Kostant, and Steinberg.- 24.1 Some functions on H*.- 24.2 Kostant's multiplicity formula.- 24.3 Weyl's formulas.- 24.4 Steinberg's formula.- VII. Chevalley Algebras and Groups.- 25. Chevalley basis of L.- 25.1 Pairs of roots.- 25.2 Existence of a Chevalley basis.- 25.3 Uniqueness questions.- 25.4 Reduction modulo a prime.- 25.5 Construction of Chevalley groups (adjoint type).- 26. Kostant's Theorem.- 26.1 A combinatorial lemma.- 26.2 Special case: sl (2, F).- 26.3 Lemmas on commutation.- 26.4 Proof of Kostant's Theorem.- 27. Admissible lattices.- 27.1 Existence of admissible lattices.- 27.2 Stabilizer of an admissible lattice.- 27.3 Variation of admissible lattice.- 27.4 Passage to an arbitrary field.- 27.5 Survey of related results.- References.- Afterword (1994).- Index of Terminology.- Index of Symbols.

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