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Introduction to the Human Body
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Table of Contents

1 Organization of The Human Body 1 1.1 Anatomy and Physiology Defined 1 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems 1 1.3 Life Processes 6 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits 6 1.5 Aging and Homeostasis 9 1.6 Anatomical Terms 10 1.7 Body Cavities 15 2 Introductory Chemistry 22 2.1 Introduction to Chemistry 22 2.2 Chemical Compounds and Life Processes 29 3 Cells 41 3.1 A Generalized View of the Cell 41 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 41 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane 43 3.4 Cytoplasm 49 3.5 Nucleus 54 3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis 56 3.7 Somatic Cell Division 59 3.8 Cellular Diversity 61 3.9 Aging and Cells 61 4 Tissues 68 4.1 Types of Tissues 68 4.2 Epithelial Tissue 68 4.3 Connective Tissue 77 4.4 Membranes 85 4.5 Muscular Tissue 87 4.6 Nervous Tissue 87 4.7 Tissue Repair: Restoring Homeostasis 87 4.8 Aging and Tissues 87 5 The Integumentary System 92 5.1 Skin 92 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin 96 5.3 Functions of the Skin 99 5.4 Aging and the Integumentary System 100 6 The Skeletal System 107 6.1 Functions of Bone and the Skeletal System 107 6.2 Types of Bones 107 6.3 Structure of Bone 108 6.4 Bone Formation 111 6.5 Exercise and Bone Tissue 116 6.6 Divisions of the Skeletal System 117 6.7 Skull and Hyoid Bone 118 6.8 Vertebral Column 127 6.10 Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle 134 6.11 Upper Limb 135 6.12 Pelvic (Hip) Girdle 139 6.13 Lower Limb 141 6.14 Comparison of Female and Male Skeletons 146 6.15 Aging and the Skeletal System 147 7 Joints 154 7.1 Classification of Joints 154 7.2 Fibrous Joints 155 7.3 Cartilaginous Joints 156 7.4 Synovial Joints 156 7.5 Types of Movements at Synovial Joints 158 7.6 Types of Synovial Joints 162 7.7 Aging and Joints 166 8 The Muscular System 170 8.1 Overview of Muscular Tissue 170 8.2 Skeletal Muscle Tissue 171 8.3 Contraction and Relaxation of Skeletal Muscle 174 8.4 Metabolism of Skeletal Muscle Tissue 179 8.5 Control of Muscle Tension 180 8.6 Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Tissue 182 8.7 Cardiac Muscle Tissue 182 8.8 Smooth Muscle Tissue 183 8.9 Aging and Muscular Tissue 185 8.10 How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement 185 8.11 Principal Skeletal Muscles 186 9 Nervous Tissue 220 9.1 Overview of the Nervous System 220 9.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue 222 9.3 Action Potentials 226 9.4 Synaptic Transmission 230 10 Central Nervous System, Spinal Nerves, and Cranial Nerves 236 10.1 Spinal Cord Structure 236 10.2 Spinal Nerves 237 10.3 Spinal Cord Functions 240 10.4 Brain 242 10.5 Cranial Nerves 255 10.6 Aging and the Nervous System 256 11 Autonomic Nervous System 261 11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems 261 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System 263 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System 267 12 Somatic Senses and Special Senses 271 12.1 Overview of Sensations 271 12.2 Somatic Senses 272 12.3 Special Senses 275 12.4 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 275 12.5 Gustation: Sense of Taste 277 12.6 Vision 279 12.7 Hearing and Equilibrium 286 13 The Endocrine System 299 13.1 Introduction 299 13.2 Hormone Action 301 13.3 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 302 13.4 Thyroid Gland 307 13.5 Parathyroid Glands 309 13.6 Pancreatic Islets 310 13.7 Adrenal Glands 314 13.8 Ovaries and Testes 316 13.9 Pineal Gland 317 13.10 Other Hormones 317 13.11 The Stress Response 318 13.12 Aging and the Endocrine System 319 14 The Cardiovascular System: Blood 326 14.1 Functions of Blood 326 14.2 Components of Whole 14.3 Hemostasis 333 14.4 Blood Groups and Blood Types 336 15 The Cardiovascular System: Heart 342 15.1 Structure and Organization of the Heart 342 15.2 Blood Flow and Blood Supply of the Heart 348 15.3 Conduction System of the Heart 350 15.4 Electrocardiogram 351 15.5 The Cardiac Cycle 351 15.6 Cardiac Output 353 15.7 Exercise and the Heart 355 16 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation 360 16.1 Blood Vessel Structure and Function 360 16.2 Blood Flow Through Blood Vessels 364 16.3 Circulatory Routes 367 16.4 Checking Circulation 384 16.5 Aging and the Cardiovascular System 385 17 The Lymphatic System and Immunity 391 17.1 Lymphatic System 391 17.2 Innate Immunity 396 17.3 Adaptive Immunity 399 17.4 Aging and the Immune System 407 18 The Respiratory System 415 18.1 Organs of the Respiratory System 415 18.2 Pulmonary Ventilation 421 18.3 Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide 426 18.4 Transport of Respiratory Gases 428 18.5 Control of Breathing 430 18.6 Exercise and the Respiratory System 433 18.7 Aging and the Respiratory System 433 19 The Digestive System 440 19.1 Overview of the Digestive System 440 19.2 Layers of the GI Tract and the Omentum 441 19.3 Mouth 443 19.4 Pharynx and Esophagus 446 19.5 Stomach 447 19.6 Pancreas 450 19.7 Liver and Gallbladder 451 19.8 Small Intestine 453 19.9 Large Intestine 458 19.10 Phases of Digestion 461 19.11 Aging and the Digestive System 462 20 Nutrition and Metabolism 469 20.1 Nutrients 469 20.2 Metabolism 474 21 The Urinary System 485 21.1 Overview of the Urinary System 485 21.2 Structure of the Kidneys 487 21.3 Functions of the Nephron 490 21.4 Transportation, Storage, and Elimination of Urine 496 21.5 Aging and the Urinary System 498 22 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 503 22.1 Fluid Compartments and Fluid Balance 503 22.2 Electrolytes in Body Fluids 507 22.3 Acid-Base Balance 510 22.4 Aging and Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 512 23 The Reproductive Systems 515 23.1 Male Reproductive System 515 23.2 Female Reproductive System 523 23.3 The Female Reproductive Cycle 530 23.4 Birth Control Methods and Abortion 533 23.5 Aging and the Reproductive Systems 536 24 Development and Inheritance 544 24.1 Embryonic Period 544 24.2 Fetal Period 552 24.3 Maternal Changes During Pregnancy 552 24.4 Exercise and Pregnancy 555 24.5 Labor and Delivery 555 24.6 Lactation 556 24.7 Inheritance 557 Answers A-1 Glossary G-1 Credits C-1 Index I-1

About the Author

Gerard J. Tortora is Professor of Biology at Bergen Community College in Paramus, New Jersey. He teaches human anatomy and physiology as well as microbiology. He received his bachelor's degree in biology from Fairleigh Dickinson University and his master's degree in science education from Montclair State College. He is active in professional organizations such as the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society, the American Society of Microbiology, American Association for the Advancement of Science, National Education Association, and the Metropolitan Association of College and University Biologists. Bryan Derrickson is Professor of Biology at Valencia Community College in Orlando, Florida, where he teaches human anatomy and physiology. He received his bachelor's degree in biology from Morehouse College and his Ph.D. in Cell Biology from Duke University. He is a member of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society and the National Association of Biology Teachers.

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