1. Introduction to Geography: A Look Ahead 1.1 What is Geography? 1.1.1 The Development of Geography 1.2 Contemporary Approaches in Geography 1.2.1 Area Analysis 1.2.2 Spatial Analysis 1.2.3 Geographic Systems Analysis 1.2.4 Human-Environmental Interaction 1.3 Describing Earth 1.3.1 The Geographic Grid 1.3.2 Communicating Geographic Information: Maps 1.3.3 Geographic Information Technology 1.3.4 GIS: A Type of Database Software 1.3.5 Integration of Information Technologies Connections: Thematic Mapping Connections: Online Mapping 2. Weather and Climate 2.1 Energy and Weather 2.1.1 Incoming Solar Radiation 2.1.2 Storage of Heat in Land and Water 2.1.3 Heat Transfer Between the Atmosphere and Earth 2.1.4 Heat Exchange and Atmospheric Circulation 2.2 Precipitation 2.2.1 Condensation 2.2.2 Causes of Precipitation 2.3 Circulation patterns 2.3.1 Pressure and Winds 2.3.2 Global Atmospheric Circulation 2.3.3 Seasonal Variations in Global Circulation 2.3.4 Ocean Circulation Patterns 2.3.5 Storms: Regional-Scale Circulation Patterns 2.3.6 A Snapshot of Global Circulation and Weather 2.4 Climate 2.4.1 Air Temperature 2.4.2 Precipitation 2.5 Classifying Climate 2.6 Earth's Climate Regions 2.6.1 Humid Low-Latitude Tropical Climates 2.6.2 Dry Climates 2.6.3 Warm Midlatitude Climates 2.6.4 Cold Midlatitude Climates 2.6.5 Polar Climates 2.7 Climate Change 2.7.1 Climatic Change Over Geologic Time 2.7.2 Possible Causes of Climatic Variation 2.7.3 Global Warming Connections: Climates in Urban Areas Global and Local: El Nino/ La Nina Rapid change: Assessment of Global Warming and Its Impacts 3. Landforms 3.1 Plate Tectonics 3.1.1 Earth's Moving Crust 3.1.2 Types of Boundaries Between Plates 3.1.3 Rock Formation 3.2 Slopes and Streams 3.2.1 Weathering 3.2.2 Moving Weathered Material 3.3 Ice, Wind and Waves 3.3.1 Glaciers 3.3.2 Impact of Past Glaciations 3.3.3 Effects of Wind on Landforms 3.3.4 Coastal Erosion 3.4 The Dynamic Earth 3.4.1 Rates of Landform Change 3.4.2 Environmental Hazards Global and Local: New Orleans: Rising Sea level, Hurricanes and Coastal Vulnerability Connections: Wealth and Natural Hazards 4. Biogeochemical Cycles and the Biosphere 4.1 Biogeochemical Cycles 4.1.1 The Hydrologic Cycle 4.1.2 Water Budgets 4.1.3 Vegetation and the Hydrologic Cycle 4.2 Carbon, Oxygen and Nutrient Flows in the Biosphere 4.2.1 The Carbon and Oxygen Cycles 4.2.2 The Global Carbon Budget 4.2.3 Managing the carbon cycle 4.2.4 Deforestation, reforestation, and carbon offsets 4.3 Soil 4.3.1 Soil Formation 4.3.2 Soil Horizons 4.3.3 Thousands of Soils 4.3.4 Climate, Vegetation, Soil and the Landscape 4.3.5 Soil Problems 4.3.6 Soil Fertility: Natural and Synthetic 4.4 Ecosystems 4.4.1 Ecosystem Processes 4.4.2 Biodiversity 4.5 Biomes: Global Patterns in the Biosphere 4.5.1 Forest Biomes 4.5.2 Savanna, Scrubland, and Open Woodland Biomes 4.5.3 Midlatitude Grassland Biome 4.5.4 Desert Biome 4.5.5 Tundra Biome 4.5.6 Natural and Human Effects on the Biosphere Global and Local: Carbon Emission Offsets Connections: Geography, Geographic Information Systems and the Global Carbon Budget Connections: Human-Dominated Systems Connections: Fire and Forest Management in the Western United States 5. Population and Migration 5.1 The Distribution and Density of Human Settlement 5.1.1 Population Density 5.2 World Population Dynamics 5.2.1 Population Projections 5.2.2 Regional Variation in Population Growth 5.2.3 The Age Structure of the Population 5.2.4 The Demographic Transition 5.2.5 Factors Affecting Fertility Rates 5.2.6 Changes in World Death Rates 5.2.7 Is Earth Overpopulated? 5.3 Other Significant Demographic Patterns 5.3.1 Sex Ratios in National Populations 5.3.2 The Aging Human Population 5.4 Migration 5.4.1 Prehistoric Human Migrations 5.4.2 The Migrations of Peoples Since 1500 5.5 Migration Today 5.5.1 Forced Migration 5.5.2 The Impact of International Migration 5.5.3 Migration to Europe 5.5.4 Migrations of Asians 5.5.5 Migrations to the United States and Canada 5.6 Effects of Emigration Connections: Environmental Disturbance and Disease Rapid change: Demographic Collapse Connections: The Economics of Aging Global and Local: The East-West Exchange of Disease Connections: Race, Culture, and the U.S. Census 6. Cultural Geography 6.1 Cultural Evolution Contrasts with Cultural Diffusion 6.1.1 Theories of Cultural Evolution 6.1.2 Cultures and Environments 6.1.3 Cultural Diffusion 6.2 Identity and Behavioral Geography 6.2.1 Grouping Humans by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender 6.2.2 Behavioral Geography 6.3 Culture Regions 6.3.1 Visible Clues to Culture Areas 6.3.2 Forces that stabilize the pattern of culture regions 6.3.3 Trade and Cultural Diffusion 6.3.4 World Trade and Cultural Diffusion Today 6.3.5 The Acceleration of Diffusion 6.3.6 The Challenge of Change 6.4 The Global Diffusion of European Culture 6.4.1 Europe's Voyages of Contact 6.4.2 Economic Growth Increased Europe's Power 6.4.3 Cultural Imperialism 6.4.4 Westernization Today 6.4.5 America's Role 6.5 Cultural Preservation and Hybridity Global and Local: Lahic Rapid Change: Who Killed the Record Store? Global and Local: Sworn Virgins of the Balkans Connections: Is Latin America a Region? How Did It Get Its Name? Global and Local: The Diffusion of News 7. The Geography of Languages and Religions 7.1 Defining Languages and Language Regions 7.1.1 Linguistic Geography 7.1.2 The World's Major Languages 7.2 The Development and Diffusion of Languages 7.2.1 The Indo-European Language Family 7.2.2 Other Language Families 7.2.3 The Geography of Writing 7.2.4 Toponymy: Language on the Landscape 7.3 Linguistic Differentiation in the Modern World 7.3.1 National Languages 7.4 The Teachings, Origin, and Diffusion of the World's Major Religions 7.4.1 Judaism 7.4.2 Christianity 7.4.3 Islam 7.4.4 Hinduism and Sikhism 7.4.5 Buddhism 7.4.6 Other Eastern Religions 7.4.7 Animism and Shamanism 7.5 The Political and Social Impact of the Geography of Religion 7.5.1 Religion and politics 7.5.2 Indirect Religious Influences on Government 7.5.3 Religion and Dietary Habits 7.5.4 Religion and Economics 7.5.5 Religions, Science, and the Environment Rapid Change: The Rise of English Global and Local: Language in New States Connections: Religious Fundamentalism and Political Terrorism Connections: Liberation Theology Connections: Religious Tensions on the Indian Subcontinent 8. The Human Food Supply 8.1 Food Supplies Over the Past 200 Years 8.1.1 New Crops and Cropland 8.1.2 Transportation and Storage 8.1.3 Other Technological Advances 8.1.4 The Green Revolution 8.2 Agriculture Today 8.2.1 Subsistence Farming Contrasts with Commercial Farming 8.2.2 Types of Agriculture 8.2.3 What Determines Agricultural Productivity? 8.3 Livestock Around the World 8.3.1 The Direct and Indirect Consumption of Grain 8.3.2 Problems Associated with Animal Production 8.3.3 Dairy Farming and the Principle of Value Added 8.4 Aquatic Food Supplies 8.4.1 Traditional Fisheries 8.4.2 Modern Fishing 8.5 Hunger and Food Security 8.5.1 Problems in Increasing Food Production 8.5.2 Rich Countries Subsidize Production and Export of Food 8.5.3 Why Do Some Rich Countries Subsidize Agriculture? 8.6 Food Supplies in the Future 8.6.1 The Importance of Crop Diversity 8.6.2 The Scientific Revolution in Agriculture Continues 8.6.3 Resistance to Biotechnology 8.6.4 Climate Change and Food Security 8.6.5 Sustainable Agriculture Connections: The Economic Geography of Food and Land: Von Thunen's "Isolated City" Model Global and local: New Uses for Old Crops Rapid Change: Goodbye to the Banana? Connections: Soybeans in Brazil 9. Earth's Resources and Environmental Protection 9.1 What is a Natural Resource? 9.1.1 Characteristics of Resources 9.1.2 Substitutability 9.1.3 Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources 9.2 Geologic and Energy Resources 9.2.1 Mineral Resources 9.2.2 Variations in Mineral Use 9.2.3 Depletion and Substitution 9.2.4 Disposal and Recycling of Solid Waste 9.2.5 Energy Resources 9.2.6 Energy from Fossil Fuels 9.2.7 Nuclear and Renewable Energy Resources 9.3 Air and Water Resources 9.3.1 Air Pollution 9.3.2 Water Resources 9.3.3 Water Pollution 9.3.4 Reducing Air and Water Pollution 9.4 Forests 9.4.1 Forests as Fiber Resources 9.4.2 Other Important Forest Uses 9.4.3 Balancing Competing Interests Rapid Change: Peak Oil Connections: Meat Production and Water Pollution 10. Cities and Urbanization 10.1 Urban Functions 10.1.1 The Three Sectors of an Economy 10.1.2 The Economic Bases of Cities 10.2 The Locations of Cities 10.2.1 Central Place Theory 10.2.2 Urban Hierarchies 10.2.3 The Patterns of Urban Hierarchies 10.3 World Urbanization 10.3.1 The Rise of Urbanized Societies 10.3.2 Urbanization Today 10.3.3 Government Policies to Reduce the Pull of Urban Life 10.3.4 Improving Rural Life 10.3.5 The Economic Vitality of Cities 10.4 The Internal Geography of Cities 10.4.1 Economic Forces 10.4.2 Social Factors in Residential Clustering 10.4.3 Government's Role 10.4.4 Other Urban Models in Diverse Cultures 10.5 Cities and Suburbs in the United States 10.5.1 The Growth of Suburbs 10.5.2 The Social Costs of Suburbs 10.5.3 Suburbs as Sites of Change 10.5.4 Developments in the Central City 10.5.5 Efforts to Redistribute Jobs and Housing 10.5.6 Governing Metropolitan Regions 10.6 Cities and the Environment Rapid Change: Urbanizing China Connections: Public Space and Private Property Rapid Change: Controlling Sprawl in Metropolitan Portland, Oregon 11. A World of States 11.1 The Development of the Nation-State Idea 11.1.1 The Idea of the Nation 11.1.2 The Nation-State Idea 11.1.3 The European Nation-States 11.1.4 The Collapse of Empires 11.1.5 British Empire to Commonwealth 11.1.6 The French Empire 11.1.7 The Successor States of the Ottoman Empire 11.2 A Changing World Political Map 11.2.1 Centripetal Forces 11.2.2 Centrifugal Forces 11.2.3 Ethnic Cleansing and Genocide 11.3 The Internal Organization of States 11.3.1 Types of Regimes 11.3.2 The Shapes of States 11.3.3 International Borders 11.3.4 Territorial Subdivision and Systems of Representation 11.3.5 Districting and Redistricting 11.3.6 Individual Rights and Freedoms 11.4 Relations Among States 11.4.1 Patterns of Cooperation 11.4.2 Geographies of Conflict 11.4.3 Jurisdiction over Earth's Open Spaces 11.4.4 Globalization's Challenge Rapid Change: Geopolitics Connections: Nigeria Rapid Change: Continuous Redistricting and Gerrymandering in the United States Global and Local: U.S. Border Security 12. Paths to Economic Growth 12.1 Analyzing and Comparing Countries' Economies 12.1.1 Measures of Gross Product and Their Limitations 12.1.2 Gross Domestic Product and the environment 12.1.3 The Gross National Product and the Quality of Life 12.1.4 Preindustrial, Industrial, and Postindustrial Societies 12.1.5 Why Some Countries Are Rich and Some Countries Are Poor 12.2 The Geography of Manufacturing 12.2.1 Locational Determinants for Manufacturing Today 12.2.2 Locational Determinants Migrate 12.2.3 Manufacturing in the United States 12.2.4 The Economy of Japan 12.2.5 Technology and the Future Geography of Manufacturing 12.3 National Economic-Geographic Policies 12.3.1 Political Economy 12.3.2 Wealth Variations within States 12.3.3 How Do Governments Distribute Economic Activities? 12.3.4 National Transportation Infrastructures 12.4 National Trade Policies 12.4.1 The Import-Substitution Method of Growth 12.4.2 Export-Led Economic Growth 12.5 The Formation of the Global Economy 12.5.1 Transnational Investment and Production 12.5.2 The International Tertiary Sector 12.5.3 The Geography of Foreign Direct Investment 12.5.4 The Globalization of Finance and Risk 12.5.5 International Regulation of the Global Economy Rapid Change: Recession and the Crisis for U.S. Automakers Connections: Socks and Politics Global and Local: India's New Roads Global and Local: Tourism Rapid Change: The Financial Crisis Rapid Change: The Rise of the BRIC and the G-20 13. Global Challenges and the Scale of Response 13.1 Protecting the Global Environment 13.1.1 Energy Consumption 13.1.2 Energy Efficiency Trends 13.1.3 Development, Pollution and the Quality of Life 13.1.4 International Equity in Environmental Management 13.2 Global Security and Human Rights 13.2.1 Interests Versus Principles 13.2.2 Human Rights and National Sovereignty 13.2.3 Humanitarian Intervention 13.2.4 Kosovo and Iraq: Signs of the Times? 13.2 Regional Cooperation 13.2.1 European Integration 13.2.2 NAFTA and the Americas 13.2.3 Expanding Western Hemisphere Free Trade 13.2.4 Other Forms of Regional Cooperation 13.3 Human Development 13.3.1 Measuring Development 13.3.2 The Role of the Environment 13.3.3. Millennium Development Goals 13.4 Geography and Thinking Globally Connections: Water Privatization Connections: Malaria and DDT Global and Local: Living with Landmines Connections: The Importance of Water for Human Development
Carl T. Dahlman earned degrees in sociology, music, and urban affairs before receiving his Ph.D. in geography from the University of Kentucky in 2001. He is an Associate Professor of Geography at Miami University where his teaching focuses on political geography, migration and mobility, and globalization. His current research includes the role of European integration in the geopolitics of Southeastern Europe. He enjoys photography and hunting for fossils with his son. William H. Renwick earned a B.A. from Rhode Island College in 1973 and a Ph.D. in geography from Clark University in 1979. He has taught at the University of California, Los Angeles, and Rutgers University, and is currently Associate Professor of Geography at Miami University. A physical geographer with interests in geomorphology and environmental issues, his research focuses on impacts of land-use change on rivers and lakes, particularly in agricultural landscapes in the Midwest. When time permits, he studies these environments from the seat of a wooden canoe. Edward F. Bergman was born in Wisconsin and received a B.A. from the University of Wisconsin, an M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Washington. He taught at the City University of New York and widely in Europe, South America and South Africa. Now retired as a professor emeritus, he still travels and occasionally lectures and advises museums on the writing of labels for exhibits.