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Introduction to Affine Group Schemes
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Table of Contents

I The Basic Subject Matter.- 1 Affine Group Schemes.- 1.1 What We Are Talking About.- 1.2 Representable Functors.- 1.3 Natural Maps and Yoneda's Lemma.- 1.4 Hopf Algebras.- 1.5 Translating from Groups to Algebras.- 1.6 Base Change.- 2 Affine Group Schemes: Examples.- 2.1 Closed Subgroups and Homomorphisms.- 2.2 Diagonalizable Group Schemes.- 2.3 Finite Constant Groups.- 2.4 Cartier Duals.- 3 Representations.- 3.1 Actions and Linear Representations.- 3.2 Comodules.- 3.3 Finiteness Theorems.- 3.4 Realization as Matrix Groups.- 3.5 Construction of All Representations.- 4 Algebraic Matrix Groups.- 4.1 Closed Sets in kn.- 4.2 Algebraic Matrix Groups.- 4.3 Matrix Groups and Their Closures.- 4.4 From Closed Sets to Functors.- 4.5 Rings of Functions.- 4.6 Diagonalizability.- II Decomposition Theorems.- 5 Irreducible and Connected Components.- 5.1 Irreducible Components in kn.- 5.2 Connected Components of Algcbraic Matrix Groups.- 5.3 Components That Coalesce.- 5.4 Spec A.- 5.5 The Algebraic Meaning of Connectedness.- 5 6 Vista: Schemes.- 6 Connected Components and Separable Algebras.- 6.1 Components That Decompose.- 6.2 Separable Algebras.- 6.3 Classification of Separable Algebras.- 6.4 Etale Group Schemes 49 6 5 Separable Subalgcbras.- 6.5 Separable Subalgcbras.- 6.6 Connected Group Schemes.- 6.7 Connected Components of Group Schemes.- 6.8 Finite Groups over Perfect Fields.- 7 Groups of Multiplicative Type.- 7.1 Separable Matrices.- 7.2 Groups of Multiplicative Type.- 7.3 Character Groups.- 7.4 Anisotropic and Split Tori.- 7.5 Examples of Tori.- 7.6 Some Automorphism Group Schcmes.- 7.7 A Rigidity Theorem.- 8 Unipotent Groups.- 8.1 Unipotent Matrices.- 8 2 The Kolchin Fixed Point Theorem.- 8.3 Unipotent Group Schemes.- 8.4 Endomorphisms of Ga..- 8.5 Finite Unipotent Groups.- 9 Jordan Decomposition.- 9.1 Jordan Decomposition of a Matrix.- 9.2 Decomposition in Algebraic Matrix Groups.- 9.3 Decomposition of Abelian Algebraic Matrix Groups.- 9.4 Irreducible Representations of Abelian Group Schemes.- 9.5 Decomposition of Abelian Group Schemes.- 10 Nilpotent and Solvable Groups.- 10.1 Derived Subgroups.- 10.2 The Lie-Kolchin Triangularization Theorem.- 10.3 The Unipotent Subgroup.- 10.4 Decomposition of Nilpotent Groups.- 10.5 Vista: Borel Subgroups.- 10.6 Vista: Differential Algebra.- III The Infinitesimal Theory.- 11 Differentials.- 11.1 Derivations and Differentials.- 11.2 Simple Properties of Differentials.- 11.3 Differentials of Hopf Algebras.- 11.4 No Nilpotents in Characteristic Zero.- 11.5 Differentials of Field Extensions.- 11.6 Smooth Group Schemes.- 11.7 Vista: The Algebro-Geomctric Meaning of Smoothness.- 11.8 Vista: Formal Groups.- 12 Lie Algebras.- 12.1 Invariant Operators and Lie Algebras.- 12.2 Computation or Lie Algebras.- 12.3 Examples.- 12.4 Subgroups and Invariant Subspaces.- 12.5 Vista: Reductive and Semisimple Groups.- IV Faithful Flatness and Quotients.- 13 Faithful Flatness.- 13.1 Definition of Faithful Flatness.- 13.2 Localization Properties.- 13.3 Transition Properties.- 13.4 Generic Faithful Flatness.- 13.5 Proof of the Smoothness Theorem.- 14 Faithful Flatness of Hopf Algebras.- 14.1 Proof in the Smooth Case.- 14.2 Proof with Nilpotents Present.- 14.3 Simple Applications.- 14.4 Structure of Finite Connected Groups.- 15 Quotient Maps.- 15.1 Quotient Maps.- 15.2 Matrix Groups over$$ bar k $$/k.- 15.3 Injections and Closed Kmbeddings.- 15.4 Universal Property of Quotients.- 15.5 Sheaf Property of Quotients.- 15.6 Coverings and Sheaves.- 15.7 Vista: The Etale Topology.- 16 Construction of Quotients.- 16.1 Subgroups as Stabilizers.- 16.2 Difficulties with Coset Spaces.- 16.3 Construction of Quotients.- 16.4 Vista: Invariant Theory.- V Descent Theory.- 17 Descent Theory Formalism.- 17.1 Descent Data.- 17.2 The Descent Theorem.- 17.3 Descent of Algebraic Structure.- 17.4 Example: Zariski Coverings.- 17.5 Construction of Twisted Forms.- 17.6 Twisted Forms and Cohomology.- 17.7 Finite Galois Extensions.- 17.8 Infinite Galois Extensions.- 18 Descent Theory Computations.- 18.1 A Cohomology Exact Sequence.- 18.2 Sample Computations.- 18.3 Principal Homogeneous Spaces.- 18.4 Principal Homogeneous Spaces and Cohomology.- 18.5 Existence of Separable Splitting Fields.- 18.6 Example: Central Simple Algebras.- 18.7 Example: Quadratic Forms and the Arf Invariant.- 18.8 Vanishing Cohomology over Finite Fields.- Appendix: Subsidiary Information.- A.1 Directed Sets and Limits.- A.2 Exterior Powers.- A.3 Localization. Primes, and Nilpotents.- A.4 Noetherian Rings.- A.5 The Hilbert Basis Theorem.- A.6 The Krull Intersection Theorem.- A.7 The Nocthcr Normalization Lemma.- A.8 The Hilbert Nullstellensatz.- A.9 Separably Generated Fields.- A.10 Rudimentary Topological Terminology.- Further Reading.- Index of Symbols.

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