*=New to this Edition Philosopher Biographies: Preface: History of Philosophy: INTRODUCTION A. Socrates Aristophanes, from Clouds Plato, from Apology; from Crito; from Phaedo; from Republic B. What Is Philosophy? Plato, from Apology Karl Jaspers, from "The 'Axial Period'" Laozi, from Dao De Jing C. A Modern Approach to Philosophy Rene Descartes, from Discourse on Method D. A Brief Introduction to Logic Key Terms Bibliography and Further Reading PART ONE. THE WORLD AND BEYOND CHAPTER 1. REALITY A. "The Way the World Really Is" Aristotle, from Metaphysics B. The First Greek Philosophers Parmenides, from Fragments C. Ultimate Reality in the East: India, Persia, and China From Upanishads From Zend-Avesta From The Confucian Analects Laozi, from Dao De Jing Buddha, from "Fire-Sermon" D. Two Kinds of Metaphysics: Plato and Aristotle Plato, from Symposium; from Republic; from Meno Aristotle, from Metaphysics; from Physics; from Metaphysics E. Modern Metaphysics Rene Descartes, On Substance; from "Meditation VI" Benedictus de Spinoza, from Ethics Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from Monadology * David Lewis, From Counterfactuals Martin Heidegger, from "The Fundamental Question of Metaphysics" CHAPTER 2. RELIGION A. What Is Religion? John Wisdom, from "Gods" Albert Einstein, On the Design of the Universe Keiji Nishitani, from "What Is Religion?" B. The Western Religions C. Proving God: The Ontological Argument St. Anselm, On The Ontological Argument Rene Descartes, On the Ontological Argument Immanuel Kant, Against the Ontological Argument D. God as Creator: Intelligence and Design St. Thomas Aquinas, Five Arguments for the Existence of God William Paley, from "The Watch and the Watchmaker" St. Thomas Aquinas, On the "Fifth Way" David Hume, from Dialogues on Natural Religion * Cory Juhl, On the "Fine-Tuning" Argument E. Religion, Morality, and Evil Immanuel Kant, On God and Morality William James, from "The Will to Believe" St. Augustine, from Confessions From the Bhagavadgita F. Beyond Reason: Faith and Irrationality Mohammad al-Ghazali, from The Deliverance from Error Soren Kierkegaard, On Subjective Truth Paul Tillich, On the Ultimate Concern G. Doubts about God and Religion Fyodor Dostoyevsky, from The Brothers Karamazov Karl Marx, from Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right Friedrich Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil; from The Antichrist; from The Gay Science Sigmund Freud, from The Future of an Illusion * Mary Daly, "Wanted: 'God' or 'the Goddess'?" * Victor A. Gunasekara, "The Buddhist Attitude to God" CHAPTER 3. KNOWLEDGE Bertrand Russell, from The Problems of Philosophy * Plato, from Republic Plato, from Theatetus A. The Rationalist's Confidence: Descartes Rene Descartes, from "Meditation I"; from "Meditation II"; from "Meditation VI" B. Innate Ideas Concerning Human Understanding: John Locke John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from New Essays on Human Understanding C. Two Empiricist Theories of Knowledge John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Bishop George Berkeley, from Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge D. The Congenial Skeptic: David Hume David Hume, from A Treatise of Human Nature; from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding * E. A Contemporary Conundrum: Knowledge as Justified True Belief CHAPTER 4. TRUTH & RELATIVISM A.What Is Truth? B.Theories of Truth * Brand Blanshard, On The Coherence Theory * Charles Peirce, from "How to Make Our Ideas Clear" * William James, On the Pragmatic Theory * Alfred Tarski, from "The Semantic Theory of Truth" C. Kant's Revolution Immanuel Kant, from The Critique of Pure Reason; from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics D. The Battle in Europe After Kant: Relativism and Absolutism G. W. F. Hegel, from The Phenomenology of Spirit; from Reason in History Friedrich Nietzsche, On Truth E. Phenomenology Edmund Husserl, from "Philosophy as Rigorous Science"; from The 1929 Paris Lectures F. Hermeneutics and Pragmatism: Relativism Reconsidered Richard Rorty, from "Solidarity or Objectivity?" Isamu Nagami, from "Cultural Gaps: Why Do We Misunderstand?" G. The Analytic Turn Bertrand Russell, from The Problems of Philosophy W. V. O. Quine, from "Epistemology Naturalized" H. Feminist Epistemology Elizabeth Grosz, On Feminist Knowledge Uma Narayan, On Feminist Epistemology PART TWO. KNOW THYSELF CHAPTER 5. MIND AND BODY A. What Is Consciousness? Rene Descartes, from "Meditation VI"; from "Meditation III" B. The Problem of Dualism Rene Descartes, from "The Passions of the Soul" C. The Rejection of Dualism Gilbert Ryle, from The Concept of Mind J. J. C. Smart, from "Sensations and Brain Processes" Jerome Shaffer, Against the Identity Theory Paul M. Churchland, On Eliminative Materialism David Braddon-Mitchell and Frank Jackson, from Philosophy of Mind and Cognition John R. Searle, from "The Myth of the Computer"; from Minds, Brains, and Science D. The Problem of Consciousness Sigmund Freud, On the "Unconscious" Thomas Nagel, from Mortal Questions E. Changing Our Minds: Holism and Consciousness Aristotle, from De Anima Galen Strawson, On "Cognitive Experience" F. The Politics of the Mind-Body Problem * Elizabeth V. Spelman, from "Woman as Body: Ancient and Contemporary Views" CHAPTER 6. SELF A. Consciousness and the Self: From Descartes to Kant Rene Descartes, from "Meditation VI" John Locke, On Personal Identity David Hume, On the Idea of the Self Immanuel Kant, Against the Soul as Substance Meredith Michaels, On "Personal Identity" * Derek Parfit, from Reasons and Persons B. Existentialism: Self-Identity and the Responsibility of Choice Jean-Paul Sartre, On Existentialism; * On Bad Faith; from No Exit C. The Individual and the Community Soren Kierkegaard, On "The Public"; On Self and Passion Martin Heidegger, On "Dasein" and the "They" David Reisman, On Individualism Malcolm X, On Being "African"; from "At the Audubon" Sherry Ortner, from "Is Female to Male as Nature Is to Culture?" Ann Ferguson, On Androgyny * Deirdre McClosky, from Crossing D. One Self? Any Self? Questioning the Concept of Personal "Essence" Hermann Hesse, from Steppenwolf Luce Irigaray, from This Sex Which Is Not One Genevieve Lloyd, from "The Man of Reason" From the Dhammapada Laozi, from Dao De Jing CHAPTER 7. FREEDOM A. Fatalism and Karma Sophocles, from Oedipus the King Keiji Nishitani, On Fate B. Predestination St. Augustine, from On Free Choice of the Will Muhammad Iqbal, from The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam Jacqueline Trimier, On the Yoruba Ori Jonathan Edwards, from "Freedom of the Will" C. Determinism Baron Paul Henri d'Holbach, from System of Nature Daniel Dennett, from Elbow Room Robert Kane, On Indeterminism John Stuart Mill, On Causation and Necessity David Hume, On Causation and Character Robert Kane, On "Wiggle Room" Harry Frankfurt, from "Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person" D. Compulsion and Ignorance Aristotle, On Voluntary Action Judith Orr, "Sex, Ignorance, and Freedom" John Hospers, from "What Means This Freedom?" B. F. Skinner, Beyond Freedom B. F. Skinner, from Walden Two Robert Kane, Beyond Skinner Anthony Burgess, from A Clockwork Orange Catharine MacKinnon, On Coercion of Women's Sexuality E. Freedom in Practice: Kant's Solution F. Radical Freedom: Existentialism Jean-Paul Sartre, On "Absolute Freedom" Fyodor Dostoyevsky, from "The Most Advantageous Advantage" Thich Nhat Hanh, from "Turning on the Television" PART THREE. THE GOOD AND THE RIGHT CHAPTER 8. ETHICS A. Morality B. Is Morality Relative? Gilbert Harman, from "Moral Relativism Defended" St. Thomas Aquinas, from The Summa Theologica John Corvino, from Same Sex: Debating the Ethics, Science, and Culture of Homosexuality C. Egoism and Altruism Plato, from Republic * Tara Smith, The Necessity of Egoism (Ayn Rand) D. Are We Naturally Selfish? A Debate Mencius, On Human Nature: Man Is Good Xunzi, from "Human Nature Is Evil" Joseph Butler, Against Egoism E. Morality as Virtue: Aristotle Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics F. Morality and Sentiment: Hume and Rousseau David Hume, On "Reason as Slave of the Passions" Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from Emile G. Morality and Practical Reason: Kant Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals H. Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham, from An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism I. The Creation of Morality: Nietzsche and Existentialism Friedrich Nietzsche, On "Morality as Herd-Instinct"; On "Master and Slave Morality" Jean-Paul Sartre, from Existentialism Is a Humanism * Simone de Beauvoir, from The Ethics of Ambiguity J. Ethics and Gender Virginia Held, On Feminist Ethics CHAPTER 9. JUSTICE A. The Problem of Justice B. Two Ancient Theories of Justice: Plato and Aristotle Plato, from Republic Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics C. Two Modern Theories of Justice: Hume and Mill on Utility and Rights David Hume, On "Justice and Utility" John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism D. The Social Contract Thomas Hobbes, from Leviathan Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from The Social Contract Thomas Jefferson et al., from The Declaration of Independence E. Fairness and Entitlement John Rawls, from "Justice as Fairness" Robert Nozick, from Anarchy, State, and Utopia F. Justice or Care: A Feminist Perspective Cheshire Calhoun, from "Justice, Care, Gender Bias" * Maria Lugones, from "Playfulness, 'World'-Traveling, and Loving Perception" G. Individual Rights and Freedom John Locke, from The Second Treatise on Government; John Stuart Mill, from On Liberty Malcolm X, On Civil and Human Rights Amartya Sen, from "Property and Hunger" H. Fighting for Rights and Justice: Civil Disobedience Henry David Thoreau, from "Resistance to Civil Government" ("Civil Disobedience") Martin Luther King, Jr., from "Letter from Birmingham Jail" Glossary: Index:
The late Robert C. Solomon was Quincy Lee Centennial Professor of Business and Philosophy and Distinguished Teaching Professor at the University of Texas at Austin. He is the author, coauthor, editor, or coeditor of more than forty books, including Honest Work, Third Edition (2013), Ethics Across the Professions (2009), and The Little Philosophy Book (2007), all published by OUP. Kathleen M. Higgins is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Texas at Austin. She is the author, coauthor, editor, or coeditor of more than twenty books, including, with Robert C. Solomon, A Passion for Wisdom (1997) and A Short History of Philosophy (1996), both published by OUP. Clancy Martin is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. A Guggenheim Fellow, he is the author, coauthor, editor, or coeditor of several books in philosophy, including Honest Work, Third Edition (2013), Ethics Across the Professions (2009), and The Philosophy Of Deception (2009), all published by OUP.
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