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Information Modeling and Relational Databases

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1.1 Information Modeling 1.2 Modeling Approaches 1.3 Some Historical Background 1.4 The Relevant Skills 1.5 Summary 2 Information Levels and Frameworks 2.1 Four Information Levels 2.2 The Conceptual Level 2.3 Database Design Example 2.4 Development Frameworks 2.5 Summary 3 Conceptual Modeling: First Steps 3.1 Conceptual Modeling Language Criteria 3.2 Conceptual Schema Design Procedure 3.3 CSDP Step 1: From Examples to Elementary Facts 3.4 CSDP Step 2: Draw Fact Types, and Populate 3.5 CSDP Step 3: Trim Schema; Note Basic Derivations 3.6 Summary 4 Uniqueness Constraints 4.1 CSDP Step 4: Uniqueness Constraints; Arity Check 4.2 Uniqueness Constraints on Unaries and Binaries 4.3 Uniqueness Constraints on Longer Fact Types 4.4 External Uniqueness Constraints 4.5 Key Length Check 4.6 Projections and Joins 4.7 Summary 5 Mandatory Roles 5.1 Introduction to CSDP Step 5 5.2 Mandatory and Optional Roles 5.3 Reference Schemes 5.4 Case Study: A Compact Disc Retailer 5.5 Logical Derivation Check 5.6 Summary 6 Value, Set-Comparison and Subtype Constraints 6.1 CSDP Step 6: Value, Set-Comparison and Subtype constraints 6.2 Basic Set Theory 6.3 Value Constraints and Independent Objects 6.4 Subset, Equality, and Exclusion Constraints 6.5 Subtyping 6.6 Generalization of Object Types 6.7 Summary 7 Other Constraints and Final Checks 7.1 CSDP Step 7: Other Constraints and Final Checks 7.2 Occurrence Frequencies 7.3 Ring Constraints 7.4 Other Constraints and Rules 7.5 Final Checks 7.6 Summary 8 Entity Relationship Modeling 8.1 Overview of ER 8.2 Barker notation 8.3 Information Engineering notation 8.4 IDEF1X 8.5 Mapping from ORM to ER 8.6 Summary 9 Data Modeling in UML 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Object-Orientation 9.3 Attributes 9.4 Associations 9.5 Set-Comparison constraints 9.6 Subtyping 9.7 Other Constraints and Derivation Rules 9.8 Mapping from ORM to UML 9.9 Summary 10 Advanced Modeling Issues 10.1 Join Constraints 10.2 Deontic Rules 10.3 Temporality 10.4 Collection Types 10.5 Nominalization and Objectification 10.6 Open/Closed World Semantics 10.7 Higher-Order Types 10.8 Summary 11 Relational Mapping 11.1 Implementing a Conceptual Schema 11.2 Relational Schemas 11.3 Relational Mapping Procedure 11.4 Advanced Mapping Aspects 11.5 Summary 12 Data Manipulation with Relational Languages 12.1 Relational Algebra 12.2 Relational Database Systems 12.3 SQL: Historical and Structural Overview 12.4 SQL: Identifiers and Data Types 12.5 SQL: Choosing Columns, Rows, and Order 12.6 SQL: Joins 12.7 SQL: In, Between, Like, and Null Operators 12.8 SQL: Union and Simple Subqueries 12.9 SQL: Scalar Operators and Bag Functions 12.10 SQL: Grouping 12.11 SQL: Correlated and Existential Subqueries 12.12 SQL: Recursive Queries 12.13 SQL: Updating Table Populations 12.14 SQL: Other Useful Constructs 12.15 Summary 13 Using Other Database Objects 13.1 SQL: Data Definition 13.2 SQL: User Defined Functions 13.3 SQL: Views and Computed Columns 13.4 SQL: Triggers 13.5 SQL: Stored Procedures 13.6 SQL: Indexes 13.7 Other Objects 13.8 Exploiting 3GLs 13.9 Exploiting XML 13.10 Security and Meta-Data 13.11 Concurrency 13.12 Summary 14 Schema Transformations 14.1 Schema Equivalence and Optimization 14.2 Predicate Specialization and Generalization 14.3 Nesting, Coreferencing, and Flattening 14.4 Other Transformations 14.5 Conceptual Schema Optimization 14.6 Normalization 14.7 Denormalization and Low Level Optimization 14.8 Reengineering 14.9 Data Migration and Query Transformation 14.10 Summary 15 Process and State Modeling 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Processes and Workflow 15.3 Foundations for Process Theory 15.4 State Models versus Process Models 15.5 Modeling Information Dynamics in UML 15.6 Standard Process Patterns 15.7 Business Process Standards Initiatives 15.8 Integration of Process Models and Information Models 15.9 Summary 16 Other Modeling Aspects and Trends 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Data Warehousing and OLAP 16.3 Conceptual Query Languages 16.4 Schema Abstraction Mechanisms 16.5 Further Design Aspects 16.6 Ontologies and the Semantic Web 16.7 Post-Relational Databases 16.8 Metamodeling 16.9 Summary ORM glossary (ORM 1 and ORM 2) ER glossary UML glossary Bibliography Index

About the Author

Dr. Terry Halpin is a professor at Northface University. He has led database research teams at several companies including Visio Corporation and Microsoft Corporation, where he worked on the conceptual and logical database modeling technology in Microsoft Visio for Enterprise Architects. His publications include over 100 technical papers and five books.


This book is an excellent introduction to both information modeling in ORM and relational databases. The book is very clearly written in a step-by-step manner, and contains an abundance of well-chosen examples illuminating practice and theory in information modeling. I strongly recommend this book to anyone interested in conceptual modeling and databases. Dr. Herman Balsters, Director of the Faculty of Industrial Engineering, University of Groningen, The Netherlands

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