Table of Contents: Part 1 Foundations for Teaching in an Increasingly Intercultural Context Chapter 1 Education in a Changing Society Case Study: Samantha Carter's Diversity Class The Reality of Social Change Institutions in Transition The Impact of Specific Changes on Basic Institutions Rethinking Schools and Learning: The Effort to Reform Our Schools The Difficulty of Change Ideological Perspectives on Multicultural Education Goals of This Book Goal 1: To Recognize Social and Cultural Change Goal 2: To Understand Culture, Learning, and the Culture-Learning Process Goal 3: To Improve Intergroup and Intragroup Interactions Goal 4: To Transmit Intercultural Understanding and Skills to Students The Role of Stories, Cases, and Activities Stories Case Studies and Critical Incidents Summary Chapter Review Key Terms Reflective Questions References Chapter 2 Multicultural and Global Education: Historical and Curricular Perspectives Historical Perspectives on Diversity in the United States We Have Been Different From the Beginning Case StudyIndustrialization, Immigration, and Religious Pluralism The Civil War: Freedmen's Schools and the Issue of Race Historical Perspectives on Approaches to Diversity in U.S. SchoolsAnglo-Conformity and Assimilationist Ideology Multiculturalism and Pluralist Ideology: The Civil Rights Movement and the SchoolsThe Emergence of Global Education in the United StatesMulticultural and Global Education: Differences and Similarities Challenges to Multicultural and Global Education in American SchoolsThe Difficulties of ChangeIdeological Resistance to Broader PerspectivesIdeological Shifts in Governmental Politics from Liberal to ConservativeInternationalization in Higher EducationIntercultural Education and the Preparation of Teachers in Higher EducationThe Impact of Global Perspectives on American EducationSummary Chapter Review Key Terms Active Exercise Reflective QuestionsReferences Chapter 3 Culture and the Culture-Learning Process Exploring the Concept of Culture Case Study: Beechland Heights: A Thought Experiment Defining Culture Culture in Everyday Use Commonalities in Definitions of Culture Humans Construct Culture Culture Is Shared Culture Is Both Objective and Subjective Culture Is Nurtured Applying the Concept of Culture Culture-Specific Versus Culture-General Frameworks The Culture-Learning Process What Is Learned: The Sources of Cultural Knowledge How Culture Is Learned: The Socializing Agents When Culture Is Learned: The Process of Socialization Primary Socialization and Cultural Similarities Secondary Socialization Some Consequences of Socialization Perception and Categorization Some Limits on Socialization Understanding Cultural Differences Variations in Cultural Environments: Returning to Beechland Heights Variations in Cultural Attributes, Socializing Agents, and Cultural Learners Summary Chapter Review Key Terms Active Exercise Refl ective Questions References Chapter 4 Classrooms and Schools as Cultural Crossroads Case Study: Melinda's Induction Year Dilemma Schools and Classrooms: Where Cultures Intersect Student Culture Teacher Culture Parent Culture School Culture Teachers as Cultural Mediators Cross-Cultural Adaptation Acculturation and Identity Themes From Cross-Cultural PsychologyA Model of Intercultural Interaction Stage 1: Understanding Emotional Responses in Intercultural Interaction Stage 2: Understanding the Cultural Basis of Unfamiliar Behavior Stage 3: Making Adjustments and Reshaping Cultural Identity Applying the Culture-General Model Identifying Commonalities Among Groups Identifying Differences Within a Group Critical Incidents at Wake Central High Discussion of Critical Incidents Summary Chapter Review Key Terms Active Exercise Reflective Questions References Chapter 5 Intercultural Development: Considering the Growth of Self and Others Intercultural Competence Case Study: Dissent at Maplewood School Developing Intercultural Sensitivity Ethnocentric Stages of the DMIS Ethnorelative Stages of the DMIS Where are You, and Most Teachers, on the Intercultural Continuum?Critical Incidents at Maplewood Summary Chapter Review Key Terms Active Exercise Refl ective Questions References Part 2 Multicultural Teaching in Action Chapter 6 Creating Classrooms That Address Race and Ethnicity Case Study: The Chameleon Lay Versus Scientifi c Understanding of Race and Ethnicity Pedagogies: Old and New Roles: Old and New Place of Content Knowledge: Old and New Assessment: Old and New Understanding Prejudice and Racism The Functions of Prejudice Prejudice Formation: The Components of Prejudice How Children Learn Prejudice Extreme Cases of Prejudice Strategies for Prejudice Reduction Parent and Teacher Talk Curriculum Transformation
Comprehensive Programs That Improve Intergroup Relations Antibias Education for Young Children Cooperative Learning A World of Difference Facing History and Ourselves Critical Incidents Summary Chapter Review Key Terms Active Exercise Classroom Activities Refl ective Questions References Chapter 7 The Classroom as a Global Community: Nationality and Region Case Study: A Global Classroom Education in a Global Society What Is Globalization? Characteristics of Globalization Teaching With a Global Purpose Education for a Global Perspective How Do We Achieve the Cognitive Demands Required for a Global Mind-Set? Is Technology Facilitating a Global Mind-Set? Curriculum Transformation: The International Perspective Perspective Consciousness State of the Planet Awareness Cross-Cultural Awareness Knowledge of Global Dynamics or World Systems Awareness of Human Choice What, Specifi cally, Should Students Study? Characteristics of a Global Classroom Pedagogies: Old and New Roles: Old and New Place of Content Knowledge: Old and New Assessment: Old and New Teaching the Global Perspective Comprehensive International Education Frameworks Programs for the K-12 ContextInternational Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) Asia Society/EdSteps Programs for Teacher EducationPrograms That Link Schools Perspectives on a Globally Oriented Curriculum Ethical Concerns Summary Chapter Review Key Terms Active Exercise Classroom Activities Reflective Questions References Chapter 8 Teaching in a Linguistically Diverse Classroom: Understanding the Power of Language Case Study: Emma Lansing Learns to Listen to Language Case Analysis Characteristics of a Linguistically Diverse Classroom The Need for Effective Linguistically Diverse Classrooms Pedagogies: Old and New Roles: Old and New Place of Content Knowledge: Old and New Assessment: Old and New Perspectives on First Language Acquisition Language and the Family Institutional Aspects of Language in the Family Perspectives on Language Variation Verbal Communication Nonverbal Communication Perspectives on Second-Language Acquisition Bilingualism and the Law: 1960-2015The Current Debate on How to Teach English Learners (ELs)Understanding TerminologyStages in Second Language AcquisitionUnderstanding the Difference Between Social and Academic Language AcquisitionOther Important Concepts in Second-Language Acquisition Ethical Issues: Local and Global Summary Chapter Review Key Terms Active Exercise Classroom Activities Refl ective Questions Endnote References Chapter 9 Religious Pluralism in Secular Classrooms Case Study: Religion in a Secular Classroom Rationale for Attending to Religion in Public Schools Defi nitions of Religion Religious Pluralism in the United States European Infl uences on Religion in the United States African Infl uences on Religion in the United States Middle Eastern Infl uences on Religion in the United States Characteristics of a Classroom That Attends to Religious Pluralism Pedagogies: Old and New Roles: Old and New Place of Content Knowledge: Old and New Assessment: Old and New Case Analysis Perspectives on Religion and Schooling in the United States Private Freedoms: Religion and Compulsory School Attendance Private Freedoms: The Practice of Religious Beliefs in Classrooms Public Freedoms: Public Funding for Religious Schools Charter Schools, Home Schooling, and Voucher Programs Public Freedoms: The Provision of Religious Instruction Perspectives on Religious Identity Religion as a Form of Personal Identity Organized Religion and the Net Generation The Current Status of Religion in American Public Schools Ethical Issues Summary Chapter Review Key Terms Active Exercise Classroom Activities Reflective Questions Endnote References Chapter 10 Developing Gender Inclusive Schools and Classrooms: The Emergence of Gender and Sexual DiversityCase Study: I Never Expected Such a Firestorm! Case Analysis Rationale for Gender Inclusive Schools Characteristics of a Gender Inclusive Classroom Pedagogies: Old and New Roles: Old and New Place of Content Knowledge: Old and New Assessment: Old and New New Perspectives on Gender Identity Sex and Gender: Different but RelatedGender Expression and Gender Identity The Millennials and BeyondGender in a Global ContextGender Role Socialization in the United StatesSocialization to Gender Role in the Middle Class Socialization to Gender Role in Popular Culture, Books, and Toys Masculine and Feminine Behavior Gender and the Law for SchoolsEarly Legislation More Recent Legislation and Court CasesWho Decides, Federal or State?Major Debates at the Local LevelNew Perspectives on Gender and Schooling Schools as Socializing Agents Re-thinking Gender and Sexual Diversity Changing the Culture of SchoolingThe Importance of AlliancesEthical Issues Summary Chapter Review Key Terms Active Exercise Classroom Activities Refl ective Questions Endnote References Chapter 11 Creating Developmentally Appropriate Classrooms: The Importance of Age and Developmental Status Case Study: Age in Developmentally Appropriate Classrooms Rationale for Developmentally Appropriate Educational Practice Economic Aims for Schooling Early Childhood Education and Developmentally Appropriate Practice Constructivist Thought in Developmentally Appropriate Practice Characteristics of a Developmentally Appropriate Classroom Pedagogies: Old and New Roles: Old and New Place of Content Knowledge: Old and New Assessment: Old and New Perspectives on Age and Development Sensitive Periods and Developmental Crises Socioemotional Implications of Body Size and Body Image Individual Differences and Developmental Domains The Importance of Developmental Knowledge Summary Chapter Review Key Terms Active Exercise Classroom Activities Reflective Questions EndnotesReferences Chapter 12 Creating Inclusive Classrooms: The Ability/Disability Continuum and the Health Dimension Case Study: Schools That Include All Students Rationale for Inclusive Classrooms What Is Exceptionality? The Ability/Disability Continuum Historical Perspectives on Special Education New Perspectives: Being "Neuro-Atypical" and the Mental Health Continuum The Health Dimension Characteristics of an Inclusive Classroom Inclusion and Human Diversity Pedagogies: Old and New Roles: Old and New Place of Content Knowledge: Old and New Assessment: Old and New Making Inclusive Teaching WorkThe Importance of Collaboration What Does Flexibility Involve Ethical Issues in Inclusive Education Summary Chapter Review Key Terms Active Exercise Classroom Activities Refl ective Questions Endnotes References Chapter 13 Improving Schools for All Children: The Role of Social Stratification in Teaching and Learning Case Study: Climate Change and Economic Distress in the Northeast Kingdom Case Analysis Pedagogies: Old and New Roles: Old and New Place of Content Knowledge: Old and New Assessment: Old and New Perspectives on Stratification: Social Class and Social Status Definitions of Social Class Changes in the Definition of Social Class Social Stratification in a Global ContextSocial Status Perspectives on Teaching and Evaluation in the Context of Social ClassThe Importance of Teacher Expectations The Culturally Responsive Teacher The Debate on Multiple Forms of Assessment: Demand vs. SupportSocial Class and School Funding Hopes for the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) Ethical Issues Summary Chapter Review Key Terms Active Exercise Classroom Activities Refl ective Questions Endnotes References
Kenneth Cushner is Professor of Education in the College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services at Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, USA. In addition to this text, Dr. Cushner is author or editor of several books and articles in the field of intercultural education and training, including: Intercultural Student Teaching: A Bridge to Global Competence, (2007, Rowman Littlefield); Human Diversity in Action: Developing Multicultural Competencies in the Classroom, 3rd edition (2006, McGraw-Hill); International Perspectives on Intercultural Education (1998, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates); Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs, volume 2 (with Richard Brislin, Sage Publications, 1997), and Intercultural Interactions: A Practical Guide, 2nd edition (with Richard Brislin, Sage Publications, 1996). A former East-West Center Scholar, he is a frequent contributor to the professional development of educators through writing, workshop presentations, and travel program development. He is a Founding Fellow and Past-President of the International Academy for Intercultural Research, and past Director of COST-the Consortium for Overseas Student Teaching, which regularly sends students to student teach in 16 countries. In his spare time, Dr. Cushner enjoys music (percussion and guitar), photography, and travel. He has developed and led intercultural programs on all seven continents. Averil McClelland is currently Associate Professor and Coordinator of the Cultural Foundations of Education program in the College and Graduate School at Kent State University from which she received her Ph.D. Dr. McClelland has had extensive experience in curriculum design and program evaluation, as well as experience with addressing issues of gender and education and cultural diversity in education. In addition to this text, she is the author of The Education of Women in the United States: A Guide to Theory, Teaching, and Research (Garland, 1992), as well as a number of articles in scholarly journals. She received the Distinguished Teaching award from Kent State University in 1996, and has a long-standing relationship with the National First Ladies Library, where she develops web-based curricula based on the lives of the nation's 44 First Ladies. Her special interests are the history, sociology, and politics of education, the reconstruction of teacher education, and internationalizing the college curriculum for pre-service and practicing teachers. Philip Safford, Adjunct Professor of Psychology at Case Western Reserve University, is Emeritus Professor and former chair of Special Education at Kent State University. Prior to earning his Ph.D. through the Combined Program in Education and Psychology at the University of Michigan, with specialization in special education and child development, he had been a teacher and administrator in residential treatment programs for children with emotional disorders. Dr. Safford has authored or edited six books and numerous articles dealing with special education history, early intervention for young children with disabilities, and related topics. He has directed or co-directed a number of training, research, and demonstration projects in special education supported by federal and state grants.