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IP Telephony Interconnection Reference
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New or Used: 2 copies from $107.35
New or Used: 2 copies from $107.35

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Table of Contents

Acronyms and Abbreviations

The Rise of IP-Based Voice and the Need for Global IP Telephony Reachability
Introduction
New Challenges on VoIP Service Offerings
Why Global IP Telephony Reachability Is Needed
The VoIP Protocols Jungle
Overview
SIP
SDP
RTP/RTCP
SIP-I
SIP-T
BICC
IAX
DUNDi
TRIP
TGREP
ENUM
What Is This Book about?

IP TELEPHONY: OVERVIEW

Traffic Analysis VoIP versus PSTN /Mobile
This Chapter at a Glance
Fixed VoIP
Focus on France
Focus on Portugal
Focus on Latin America
Focus on South Korea
Focus on the United States
Mobile VoIP
Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
References

IMS: IP Multimedia Subsystem
What Is IMS?
Transport Layer
Control Layer
Service Layer
IMS Functional Elements
Call Session Control Function (CSCF)
Home Subscription Server (HSS)
PSTN Gateways
Application Servers (AS)
IMS Flow Examples
References
Further Reading

TISP AN Overview
Overview
Brief History Concerning NGN Standardization
Basic Principles
TISPAN Functional Architecture
Brief Description of the Subsystems
Service Level
Transport Layer Protocols
SIP
Diameter
H.248 Interface between NGN and Legacy Networks
PSTN/ISDN Interconnection
IP-Based External Network Interconnection
Interoperator IP Backbone Network
References

Interconnection Practices in PSTN
Overview
Interconnection Services Access
Interconnection Points
Interconnection Circuits
Interconnection Services
Signaling
Traffic Interconnection Circuits
Interconnection through Circuits Provided by Other Operators
Traffic Registration
Interconnection Planning and Developing
Interconnection Establishment Previous Information
Services and New Services
Security and Protection
Numbering
Technical Characteristics
Interconnection Circuits Transmission Characteristics
Signaling Interfaces between Exchanges
Signaling Network Structure
Synchronization between Networks
Quality of Service (QoS)
Operation, Management, and Maintenance
Capacity Resale
Prices
Transit
PSTN Interconnection: Economic Models
CPNP (Calling Party Network Pays)
BAK (Bill and Keep)
Optimize Interconnection Costs
References
Further Reading

Roaming Practices in Mobile Networks
Overview
Roaming
Types of Roaming
Roaming Agreements
Roaming Data
IMS Roaming
References

Interconnection Practices in GPRS Networks
Interconnection Practices in GPRS Networks
IMS Interconnection
Requirements for Voice Calls
SIP Profile
Advanced Services
References

IP TELEPHONY INTERCONNECTION: REQUIREMENTS AND BUSINESS MODEL

Terminology and Definitions
VoIP Service Providers and Telephony Service Providers
VoIP Service Providers
Traditional Service Providers
VoIP Service Providers a la Internet
Definitions
Address of Record
Address of Contact
Back-to-Back User Agent (B2BUA)
Call
Initiator, Calling Party, Caller
Invitee, Invited User, Called Party, Callee
Registrar
End Point
IP Network Provider and Service Provider
IP Telephony Administrative Domain (ITAD)
Proxy Server (PS)
Location Server (LS)
Interconnection Node (IN)
Signaling Path Border Element (SBE)
Data Path Border Element
IP Telephony Administrative Domain and Autonomous Systems
Frontiers between ITADs and ASs
Adjacent Domains
Balanced/Unbalanced Traffic
Symmetric/Asymmetric Telephony Paths
Interconnection and Peering
Anonymization
Assumptions
References

Business Actors and Relationships
Panorama of Main VoIP Service Providers
Incumbent Operators
"Virtual" VoIP Operators
Proprietary Third-Party VoIP Service Providers
Cooperation Agreements between Different Types of VoIP Service Providers
Business Actors Involved in VoIP Interconnection
Customer
End User
Service Provider
Network Provider
Business Relationships
SLA (Service Level Agreement)
CPA (Connectivity Provisioning Agreement)
NIA (Network Interconnection Agreement)
SIA (Service Interconnection Agreement)
Conclusion
References

IP Telephony Interconnection: Service Requirements
Introduction
Telephony Service Providers: Toward Global IP Telephony Services
No Assumption on the Intraprovide Service Engineering
Support of Various Interconnection Models
IP Version Agnostic
Global Coverage
Support of numbering Schemes Other Than E.164
Discovery of Remote Voip Service Providers and Their Capabilities
Service Interconnection Agreement Flexibility
Interoperability
Exchange of Homogenous IP Telephony Routing Data
Avoid Signaling Loop
Ability to Configure the Call Route Selection Process
Support of Multiple Interprovider Telephony Routes
Optimization of Signaling Paths and Media Paths
Resilience and Availability of the VoIP Service at the Service and Control Layers
Synchronize Service Layer and Control Layer
Ability to Detect IP Network Provider Spirals
Ability to Evaluate the QoS Treatment When Selecting a Given Inter-ITAD Path
Operation and Maintenance (O&M)
Charging and Billing
Interprovider Interconnection Agreements Assurance and Monitoring
Support of Import and Export Policies
Security
Protect against SPAM over Telephony (SPIT)
Support of Privacy and Confidentiality
No Assumption on the Negotiated Media Session
Load
Path-Coupled and Path-Decoupled Models
Planned Maintenance Operations
Customer Requirements
Global Reachability
Transparency of Interdomain Media Sessions
Quality of Service (QoS)
Cost
Reliability and Robustness
Ability to evaluate the QoS provided by the VoIP Service
Service Mobility and Roaming
Confidentiality and Privacy
Anonymization and Customization
Freedom of CODEC Usage
Free to Subscribe to a Service Offering
Service Not Bound to a Specific Interface
Environmental Impact
Support of Emergency Calls
Ability to Support Heterogeneous Calls
SLA Verification
References
Further Readings

Telephony Interconnection: Regulatory Constraints
European Commission Activities
Analysis
Constraints on Service Providers Following the Adoption of the Review Proposals
Current Activities in Europe and the United States
Ofcom
OPTA
BNetzA
AGCOM
ANACOM
RTR
FCC (Federal Communication Commission)
References

IP TELEPHONY INTERCONNECTION: STATE-OF-THE-ART AND INTERCONNECTION MODELS

Related Ongoing Activities
Introduction
Current Number Portability Practices
The Need for Number Portability
Types of Number Portability
Service Provider Number Portability Schemes
All Call Query (ACQ)
Query on Release (QoR) Scheme
Call Dropback Scheme
Onward Routing (OR) Scheme
Comparisons of the Various Schemes
Database Queries and Call Routing
Potential Implications for VoIP
ENUM
Overview and Use Cases
ENUM Deployment Models
Source-Based ENUM Query/Answer Mechanism
ISN
i3 Forum
SIP Profile
Media
Dimensioning
SPEERMINT IETF Working Group
Overview
The SPEERMINT Reference Architecture
Interconnection Relationships
VIPR
Voice Peering Fabric
Cable Operators
PacketCable Overview
PacketCable Architecture
Interconnect Functional Component
ENUM Server Provisioning Protocol (ESPP)
References
Further Readings

VoIP Interconnection Models
Introduction
Interconnection Models
Star Model
Centralized Model
Hybrid Model
Cascaded Model
Analysis of Interconnection Models
Reference
Interconnection Nodes: Usage of Session
Border Controllers
Deployment Context
Technical Features
Topology Hiding
Media Traffic Shaping
Fixing Capability Mismatches
NAT Traversal
Access Control
Protocol Repair
Media Encryption
Focus on Interconnection Segment
Interconnection Scenarios
SBCs at the Border of Each ITAD
Shared Interconnection SBC
Telephony Exchange Point
References

Implementation Models for IP Telephony Interconnection at Large
Introduction
DNS-Based Mode
Flooding Approach
Signaling
Media Layer Interactions
References

IP: TELEPHONY INTERCONNECTION ENGINEERING ISSUES AND SOLUTION SPACE

Service Engineering Issues
Content of Agreements
Content of Service Level Agreements (SLA)
Content of Service Interconnection Agreement (SIA)
Advertisement and Discovery
End-to-End Signaling Path Optimization
End-to-End Media Path Optimization
Dynamic and Flexible Interprovider IP Telephony Routing
IP Network Provider Spiraling
Synchronization between the Service and Network Layer
Interprovider Congestion
Interprovider Load Balancing
Optimize Interconnection Costs
Optimize Interconnection Agreements
Bidirectionality Issue
Legal Intercept Issues
Topology Hiding
Correlating between Signaling and Media Streams
Shaping and Policing
Frozen Interconnection Architecture
Interprovider Monitoring
General Overview
What Is Good Quality?
Probes
Signaling
Interprovider Monitoring Issues
Service Interconnection Assurance and Fulfilment
Security Issues
References

Solution Space
Overview
TRIP (Telephony Routing IP Protocol)
Why a Dynamic Protocol Is Needed
TRIP at a Glance
ITAD Numbers
Transport Considerations
TRIP Messages
TRIP Attributes
Extend TRIP to Advertise Diverse URI Schemes
Needs
Proposal
Advertise AS Path in the Telephony Signaling Protocol
INP Spiral Issues
Prevent INP Spiral
Optimize Inter-ITAD Quality of Service (QoS)
Service Need
Solution Proposal
QoS Route Capability
Modified TRIP Route Attribute
On the Utilization of QoS Information
Illustration Example
Interprovider Multiple Paths
Path Diversity
Enhance TRIP to Support Multiple Paths
Procedure
Example
Avoid Inter-ITAD Congestion Phenomenon
Avoid Congested Links and ITADs
TRIP-Based Procedure to Prevent Congestion

Summary

References

VoIP Interconnection Perspectives

About the Author

Mohamed Boucadair is a Senior IP Architect with France Telecom. He has worked for France Telecom R&D and has been part of the team working on VoIP services. He is now working at the France Telecom corporate division responsible for making recommendations on the evolution of IP/MPLS core networks. He has been involved in IST research projects, working on dynamic provisioning and inter-domain traffic engineering. He has also worked as an R&D engineer in charge of dynamic provisioning, QoS, multicast and intra/inter-domain traffic engineering. He has published many journal articles and written extensively on these subject areas. Mr. Boucadair holds several patents on VoIP, IPv4 service continuity, IPv6, etc. Maria Isabel Borges received a degree in Electronics and Telecommunications engineering from Aveiro University, Portugal, in 1989 and the MSc from the same University in 1998. From October 1989 to September 1990 she accomplished a post-graduation degree at the same University, and was involved in training students at the laboratory of propagation. From October 1990 to February 1991 she worked at TEKA Portuguesa on a Television Receiver Only system. She joined the PT Inovacao, S.A. (PTIN), formerly Centro de Estudos de Telecomunicacoes, in 1991, working on applied research on optical communications, until 1995. Since then, she has been involved in several national and international R&D programs, namely in the area of development and integration of broadband access networks technologies, ATM, IP networking and Services, and VoIP systems. She is involved in training actions and consulting services. She is author or co-author of several publications on the above-mentioned subjects and a reviewer of IEEE Communications Magazine. Pedro Neves received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering from the University of Aveiro, Portugal, in 2003 and 2006 respectively. Since 2007 he has also been pursuing a Ph.D. in Computer Engineering and Telecommunications at the same University. After graduation, he became a research fellow of the Telecommunications Institute, where he worked on European funded projects on broadband wireless access networks. In June 2006 he joined PT Inovacao, working on heterogeneous wireless environments in the context of European and Eurescom funded projects. In 2010 he began his research activities in the area of cloud computing, with emphasis on the relationship of this paradigm with telecom operators. He participated in more than 10 international collaborative projects, is co-author of five international books, and has published more than 30 articles in journals and conference proceedings. Olafur Pall Einarsson received a BSc degree in Electical Engineering from the University of Iceland in Reykjavik in 2005. From there he moved to Copenhagen to continue his education in Telecommunication Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and received an MSc degree in 2007. Following his education he started to work for Icelandic Telecom (Siminn) in R&D where he participated in several national and international research projects. Some of the main areas of specialty are SIM development, mobile security, and integrating a national mobile PKI architecture in Iceland.

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