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Hydrometeorology
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Table of Contents

Series Foreword xiv Preface xv Acknowledgements xvii About the Companion Website xviii 1 The Hydrological Cycle 1 1.1 Overview 1 1.2 Processes comprising the hydrological cycle 3 1.3 Global influences on the hydrological cycle 4 1.4 Water balance 6 1.5 Impact of aerosols on the hydrological cycle 6 1.6 Coupled models for the hydrological cycle 7 1.7 Global Energy and Water Cycle Exchanges Project (GEWEX) 8 1.8 Flooding 8 Summary of key points in this chapter 9 Problems 10 References 10 2 Precipitation 11 2.1 Introduction 11 2.2 Equation of state for a perfect gas 11 2.3 Hydrostatic pressure law 12 2.4 First law of thermodynamics 12 2.5 Atmospheric processes: dry adiabatic lapse rate 13 2.6 Water vapour in the atmosphere 15 2.7 Atmospheric processes: saturated adiabatic lapse rate 16 2.8 Stability and convection in the atmosphere 16 2.9 The growth of precipitation particles 18 2.10 Precipitation systems 21 2.10.1 Localized convection 22 2.10.2 Mesoscale precipitation systems 23 2.10.3 Mid -latitude depressions 26 2.10.4 Tropical storms 30 2.10.5 Orographic effects on precipitation distribution 31 2.10.6 Topographical effects on precipitation distribution 33 2.11 Global atmospheric circulation 33 Appendix 2.1 Growth of a raindrop 33 Summary of key points in this chapter 35 Problems 36 References 37 3 Evaporation and Transpiration 41 3.1 Introduction 41 3.2 Modelling potential evaporation based upon observations 41 3.3 Aerodynamic approach 42 3.4 Energy balance 44 3.5 The Penman equation 44 3.6 Sensible and water vapour fluxes 45 3.7 Evaporation of water from wet vegetation surfaces: the interception process 47 3.8 Measuring evaporation and transpiration 47 3.9 Water circulation in the soil plant atmosphere continuum 48 3.10 Water circulation and transpiration 50 3.11 Water flux in plants 50 3.12 Modelling land surface temperatures and fluxes 51 3.13 Soil vegetation atmosphere transfer schemes 54 3.14 Estimation of large scale evapotranspiration and total water storage in a river basin 56 Appendix 3.1 Combination of aerodynamic and energy balance methods of computing lake evaporation 57 Appendix 3.2 Modelling soil moisture wetness 57 Summary of key points in this chapter 58 Problems 59 References 60 4 Snow and Ice 63 4.1 Introduction 63 4.2 Basic processes 63 4.2.1 Formation of snow 63 4.2.2 Formation of snow cover and its effects on the atmosphere 65 4.2.3 Formation of ice 67 4.3 Characteristics of snow cover 68 4.4 Glaciers 70 4.5 Sea ice 71 4.6 Permafrost 71 4.7 The physics of melting and water movement through snow 71 4.8 Water equivalent of snow 74 4.9 Modelling snowmelt and stream flow 76 4.10 Snow avalanches 80 4.11 Worldwide distribution and extremes of snow cover 81 Appendix 4.1 Estimates of catchment snowmelt inflow rates 83 Summary of key points in this chapter 84 Problems 86 References 87 5 Measurements and Instrumentation 90 5.1 Measurement, resolution, precision and accuracy 90 5.2 Point measurements of precipitation 90 5.2.1 Raingauge types 90 5.2.2 Measuring snow and hail 92 5.2.3 Errors in measurement 94 5.3 Areal measurements of precipitation using raingauge networks 96 5.4 Radar measurements of rainfall 96 5.4.1 Basics 96 5.4.2 Errors in radar measurements 97 5.4.3 Adjustment using raingauges 101 5.4.4 Summary of problem areas associated with radar measurements of precipitation 102 5.4.5 The use of multi ]parameter radar 103 5.4.6 Drop size distributions 104 5.4.7 Rainfall estimation using parametric variables 104 5.4.8 Measurement of snow 106 5.4.9 Measurement of hail 107 5.4.10 Precipitation type 108 5.5 Soil moisture 109 5.5.1 Approaches 109 5.5.2 Gravimetric method 109 5.5.3 Electrical resistance method 110 5.5.4 Neutron method 110 5.5.5 Gamma ray attenuation method 110 5.5.6 COSMOS-UK 111 5.5.7 Dielectric methods 111 5.5.8 Tensiometric method 113 5.5.9 Satellite remote sensing 113 5.6 Evaporation and evapotranspiration 113 5.7 Flow measurement: basic hydrometry 113 5.8 Measuring stream discharge 115 5.8.1 The stage-discharge curve 115 5.8.2 Automated moving boat methods 117 5.9 Brief overview of modern telemetry 117 5.9.1 Ground -based telemetry links 117 5.9.2 VHF and UHF radio links 117 5.9.3 Satellite links 118 Appendix 5.1 Combining dissimilar estimates by the method of least squares 118 Summary of key points in this chapter 119 Problems 121 References 121 6 Satellite-Based Remote Sensing 125 6.1 Overview of satellite remote sensing 125 6.2 Surface scattering of electromagnetic radiation 129 6.3 Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the atmosphere 131 6.4 Visible and infrared data 132 6.4.1 Precipitation 134 6.4.2 Snow depth 135 6.4.3 Soil moisture and evapotranspiration 136 6.5 Multispectral data 137 6.5.1 Precipitation 137 6.5.2 Cloud recognition 137 6.5.3 Snow 138 6.6 Passive microwave techniques 138 6.6.1 Precipitation 141 6.6.2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) 143 6.6.3 Global Precipitation Measurement mission (GPM) 143 6.6.4 Snow depth 143 6.6.5 Sea ice and sea surface temperature 145 6.6.6 Soil moisture and evapotranspiration 145 6.7 Active (radar) microwave techniques 147 6.7.1 Synthetic aperture radar 147 6.7.2 Radar systems 149 6.7.3 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 150 6.8 The surface energy balance system (SEBS) 150 6.9 Summary of satellite measurement issues 151 Appendix 6.1 Radiation balance 154 Summary of key points in this chapter 155 Problems 157 References 157 7 Analysis of Precipitation Fields and Flood Frequency 163 7.1 Introduction 163 7.2 Areal mean precipitation 163 7.3 Spatial and temporal storm analysis 165 7.3.1 Spatial statistical analyses 165 7.3.2 Temporal analyses 167 7.3.3 Oscillations in precipitation 168 7.3.4 Conditional probabilities 169 7.3.5 Kriging 169 7.3.6 Accuracy of the precipitation products 171 7.4 Model storms for design 172 7.5 Approaches to estimating flood frequency 173 7.6 Probable maximum precipitation (PMP) 175 7.7 Probable maximum flood (PMF) 177 7.8 Flood Studies Report (FSR) 177 7.9 Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH) 180 Appendix 7.1 Three-dimensional description of a rainfall surface 182 Appendix 7.2 Gumbel distribution 183 Summary of key points in this chapter 183 Problems 185 References 185 8 Precipitation Forecasting 188 8.1 Introduction 188 8.2 Nowcasting 188 8.2.1 Definition 188 8.2.2 Impact of errors in precipitation measurements 189 8.2.3 Extrapolation of radar data 189 8.3 Probabilistic radar nowcasting 192 8.4 Numerical models: structure, data requirements, data assimilation 194 8.4.1 Probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasting 194 8.4.2 Mesoscale models 197 8.4.3 Data assimilation 197 8.4.4 Performance of high resolution mesoscale model-based nowcasting systems 198 8.5 Medium range forecasting 198 8.6 Seasonal forecasting 201 Appendix 8.1 Brier skill score 203 Summary of key points in this chapter 203 Problems 205 References 205 9 Flow Forecasting 209 9.1 Basic flood forecasting techniques 209 9.2 Model calibration and equifinality 210 9.3 Flood forecasting model development 210 9.4 Conversion of detailed hydrodynamic models to simplified models suitable for real ]time flood forecasting 213 9.5 Probabilistic flood forecasting and decision support methods 215 9.6 Derivation of station rating (stage ]discharge) curves 216 9.7 Performance testing of forecasting models and updating procedures 216 9.8 Configuration of models on to national and international forecasting platforms 218 9.9 Flood warnings and levels of service 222 9.9.1 United Kingdom 222 9.9.2 United States and Canada 222 9.10 Case studies worldwide: river and urban 224 Appendix 9.1 St Venant equations 224 Appendix 9.2 Flow in unsaturated and saturated zones 226 Summary of key points in this chapter 227 Problems 228 References 229 10 Coastal Flood Forecasting 233 10.1 Types of coastal flooding 233 10.2 Models used to predict storm surge flooding 233 10.2.1 Empirical models 234 10.2.2 First-generation models 235 10.2.3 Second-generation models 235 10.2.4 Third -generation models 235 10.2.5 Wave, tide and surge models 235 10.3 Probabilistic surge forecasting 238 10.4 Tsunamis 239 10.5 Examples of coastal flooding in the United Kingdom 241 10.5.1 The surge of 1953 241 10.5.2 Wirral floods 2013 241 10.5.3 Surges along the east coast of England, December 2013 241 10.5.4 Aberystwyth floods January 2014 242 10.6 Some examples of coastal flooding worldwide 243 Appendix 10.1 Wave overtopping at the coast 244 Summary of key points in this chapter 245 Problems 247 References 247 11 Drought 249 11.1 Definitions 249 11.2 Drought indices 250 11.3 The physics of drought 253 11.4 Frequency analysis: predictability 254 11.5 Modelling the occurrence of drought 256 11.6 Major drought worldwide 258 11.7 Examples of the consequences of drought 258 11.8 Strategies for drought protection, mitigation or relief 260 Appendix 11.1 Defining aridity 261 Summary of key points in this chapter 261 Problems 263 References 263 12 Wind and the Global Circulation 266 12.1 Equations of motion 266 12.2 Atmospheric Ekman layer 268 12.3 Fronts 269 12.4 Jet streams 270 12.5 Hurricanes 271 12.6 Lee waves 272 12.7 Land and sea breezes 272 12.8 The wind structure of the atmospheric circulation 273 12.9 Hadley cell 273 12.10 Polar cell 274 12.11 Ferrel cell 275 12.12 Walker circulation 275 12.13 El Nino/Southern Oscillation 276 12.14 Monsoons 276 Appendix 12.1 Large scale air motion 278 Appendix 12.2 Ageostrophic motion 278 Summary of key points in this chapter 279 Problems 281 References 282 13 Climatic Variations and the Hydrological Cycle 284 13.1 An introduction to climate 284 13.2 Evidence of climate change 286 13.2.1 Climatology of the last ice age 292 13.2.2 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 295 13.3 Causes of climatic change 297 13.3.1 The natural energy system 298 13.3.2 The hydrological cycle 299 13.3.3 The carbon cycle 301 13.3.4 Other biochemical cycles 301 13.4 Modelling climatic change 303 13.5 Possible effects of climate change upon the hydrological cycle and water resources 307 Appendix 13.1 Estimating return times for events in a long term climate record 310 Summary of key points in this chapter 310 Problems 313 References 314 14 Hydrometeorology in the Urban Environment 318 14.1 Introduction 318 14.2 Urban boundary layer and the water cycle 318 14.3 Urban development and rainfall 320 14.4 Sewer flooding 322 14.5 Surface runoff from urban areas 324 14.6 Floodplain development 326 14.7 Acid rain 327 14.7.1 Basics 327 14.7.2 Modelling wet deposition 328 14.8 Urban air and water pollution 329 Appendix 14.1 Number of runoff events from an urban drainage system 330 Summary of key points in this chapter 331 Problems 332 References 333 Glossary 336 Index 347

About the Author

Christopher G. Collier received a BSc in Physics and ARCS in Science at Imperial College, London in 1968. Subsequently he received a PhD (1999) and a DSc (2008) from the University of Salford. He joined the Meteorological Office in 1968, and later chaired the European Union International Weather Radar Networking project, and served on numerous World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), BNSC, EUMETSAT, ESA and NERC committees. He is a Chartered Meteorologist of the Royal Meteorological Society, and was President of that Society 2004-2006 being elected an Honorary Fellow in 2012, and served on the committees of the British Hydrological Society. He is a member of the American Meteorological Society. He left the Met Office in 1995 becoming a Professor of Environmental Remote Sensing at the University of Salford, and joined the National Centre for Atmospheric Science based at the University of Leeds becoming Professor of Atmospheric Science and Head of Strategic Partnerships in 2009. He was awarded the First Vaisala Prize for radar measurements of precipitation in 1986.

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