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Hitler, Mussolini, and the Vatican


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EMMA FATTORINI is Professor of Modern History at the University ofRome La Sapienza'.


"Simply put, this is the most thorough and best documented studyyet to appear on Pius XI." America Magazine "This excellent new book unearths and magisterially exposes newevidence - a key document for those interested in Europe'sturbulent pre-war history." Hugh O'Shaughnessy , Review 31 "A first-rate study." American Historical Review "Now the most comprehensive work on the Vatican srelations with states and national churches in western and centralEurope in the 1930s." European History Quarterly "Insightful, provocative and original. Fattorini's examination ofPius XI's evolving attitudes toward totalitarian states is complexand convincing." The Journal of Modern History "A revealing insight into European politics in the 1930s, and thefirst scholarly attempt to look at the Church's relationship withFascism and the Nazis during that period." Birmingham Jewish Recorder "A crucial new perspective on the relationship between theVatican, Mussolini's Fascism, and National Socialism. The tendencyto focus exclusively on Eugenio Pacelli, the future wartime popePius XII, has obscured the troubled papacy of Pius X1 between 1922and 1939. Professor Fattorini's narrative, in the light of therecent release of Vatican documents of the period, is sure tobreathe new life into this controversial era of Church-staterelations on the brink of world war." John Cornwell, University of Cambridge "Emma Fattorini's remarkable work extends our understanding ofhow the leadership of the Catholic Church grappled with fascism andNazism. She does so by drawing on riveting documentation recentlyreleased from the Vatican Secret Archive and by focusing on therelatively overlooked pontificate of Pius XI. " Michael R. Marrus, University of Toronto "Fattorini's objective and scholarly volume helps to demolishthe long-prevailing belief that Pius XI and his secretary of stateEugenio Pacelli - later his successor as Pius XII - concurred inthe policy to pursue towards fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Shedemonstrates, on the basis of solid documentation, that, while PiusXI increasingly perceived the need for confrontation with theseregimes after 1936, Pacelli preferred conciliation and impartiality- policies he pursued during World War II and the Holocaust." Frank Coppa, St John's University "Emma Fattorini has produced an important work on theactivities of the Vatican in the years leading up to World War II.She portrays a pope whose spirituality, rather than politicalviews, led him increasingly to speak out against Nazism. Her bookadds to a slowly increasing body of literature which illustratesthat, while the Vatican may have been slow in speaking out aboutthe persecution of the Jews, no one in the secretariat of stateharbored any sympathy for Hitler." Gerald Fogarty, University of Virginia

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