Part I. Nature and Structure of Democratic (Multiparty) States: 1. Constitutions (written and unwritten); 2. Electoral systems, proportional representation, coalition governments; 3. Role of political parties: role of an opposition; 4. Rose of pressure (interest/lobby) groups; Part II. Economic and Social Policies: 5. Employment; 6. Gender; 7. Health and education; 8. Social welfare; Part III. Political, Social and Economic Challenges: 9. Political extremism; 10. Ethnicity, religion and gender; 11. Movements for the attainments of civil rights; 12. Inequitable distribution of wealth/resources; Part IV. For Detailed Study: 13. Africa: South Africa 1991-2000 Mandela, Nigeria; 14. Americas: Argentina 1983-95, Alfonsin and Menem, Canada 1968-84, Trudeau, United States 1953-73, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon; 15. Asia and Oceania: India 1947-64, Nehru, Japan 1945-52, post-war reconstruction, Australia 1965-75; 16. Europe and Middle East: France 1958-69, de Gaulle, Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1967-90, Weimar Germany 1919-33.