The History and Geography of Human Genes


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PREFACE TO THE PAPERBACK EDITION PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS CHAPTER 1. Introduction to Concepts, Data, and Methods 1.1. Introduction 1.2. Genetic definitions 1.3. Techniques for detection of polymorphic markers 1.4. The evolution of gene frequencies 1.5. Classical attempts to distinguish human "races" 1.6. Scientific failure of the concept of human races 1.7. Identifying population units 1.8. Linguistic classification 1.9. Nature and sources of the data 1.10. Methods of analysis 1.11. Genetic distances 1.12. Phylogenetic tree analysis 1.13. Analysis of principal components (PCs) and derived methods 1.14. Geographic maps of gene frequencies 1.15. Synthetic maps 1.16. Isolation by distance 1.17. Admixtures, their estimation, and their effect on tree structure CHAPTER 2. Genetic History of World Populations 2.1. Paleoanthropological background 2.2. Early quantitative phylogenetic studies 2.3. Analysis of classical markers in forty-two selected populations 2.4. Analysis of DNA data 2.5. Comparison with archaeological data 2.6. Comparison with linguistic classifications 2.7. Importance of expansions in human evolution 2.8. Extent of genetic variation by FST analysis 2.9. Genetic variation and geographic distance 2.10. Maps of single genes 2.11. Synthetic maps of the world 2.12. Homozygosity 2.13. Correlations with climate 2.14. Area and time of origin of major mutants, with special attention to hemoglobins 2.15. A brief summary of human evolution CHAPTER 3. Africa 3.1. Geography and environment 3.2. Prehistory and history 3.3. Linguistics 3.4. Physical anthropology of modern Africans 3.5. Genetic analysis of the continent 3.6. Ethiopians, some of their neighbors, and North Africans 3.7. Khoisanids 3.8. Pygmies 3.9. Black sub-Saharan Africans 3.10. Studies of single genes 3.11. Synthetic maps of Africa 3.12. Summary of the genetic history of Africa CHAPTER 4. Asia 4.1. General introduction, geography, and environment 4.2. Prehistory and history in North Asia 4.3. Prehistory and history in Middle and Central Asia 4.4. Prehistory and history in East Asia 4.5. Prehistory and history in Southeast Asia 4.6. Prehistory and history in South Asia 4.7. Prehistory and history in West Asia 4.8. Linguistics 4.9. Physical anthropology 4.10. General genetic picture of Asia 4.11. Genetics of the Arctic 4.12. Genetics of East and Central Asia 4.13. Genetics of Southeast Asia 4.14. Genetics of South Asia (the Indian subcontinent) 4.15. Genetics of West Asia 4.16. Geographic maps of single genes 4.17. Synthetic maps of Asia 4.18. Summary of the genetic history of Asia CHAPTER 5. Europe 5.1. Geography and ecology 5.2. Prehistory and history 5.3. Linguistics 5.4. Physical anthropology 5.5. The genetic picture 5.6. Major outliers: Lapps, Sardinians, Basques, and Icelanders 5.7. Italy 5.8. France 5.9. Iberian peninsula 5.10. Single-gene maps 5.11. Synthetic maps of Europe 5.12. Interactions of genetic, archaeological, and linguistic information 5.13. Summary of the genetic history of Europe CHAPTER 6. America 6.1. eography and environment 6.2. Prehistory: occupation of America 6.3. Beginnings of agriculture 6.4. Development in North America 6.5. Development in Central America 6.6. Development in South America 6.7. Physical anthropology 6.8. Linguistics 6.9. Phylogenetic analysis of America 6.10. Phylogenetic analysis of individual tribes 6.11. Comparison of genetics with linguistics and geography 6.12. Geographic maps of single genes 6.13. Synthetic maps of America 6.14. Summary of the genetic history of America CHAPTER 7. Australia, New Guinea, and the Pacific Islands 7.1. Geography and environment 7.2. Prehistory and history 7.3. Physical anthropology 7.4. Linguistics 7.5. Genetic population structure in Oceania 7.6. Population genetics and synthetic maps of Australia 7.7. Population genetics and synthetic maps of New Guinea 7.8. Population genetics of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia 7.9. Single-gene maps of Australia and New Guinea 7.10. Single-gene maps of the Pacific Islands 7.11. Summary of the genetic history of the Pacific CHAPTER 8. Epilogue 8.1. The multidisciplinary approach 8.2. The uses of genetics in human evolutionary history 8.3. Comparison of different methods of genetic analysis 8.4. The future of this research 8.5. Genetic and linguistic evolution LITERATURE CITED INDEX

About the Author

L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza is Professor of Genetics at Stanford University, Paolo Menozzi is Professor of Ecology at the University of Parma, andAlberto Piazza is Professor of Human Genetics at the Medical School of Turin University.


"This is the most comprehensive treatment of human genetic variations available... It will likely play an important role in future research in anthropological genetics... An impressive display of synthesis and analysis."--Science "This is the most comprehensive treatment of human genetic variations available... An impressive display of synthesis and analysis."--Science "This long-awaited magnum opus is a major contribution to our knowledge of human genetic variation and its distribution on a global scale."--American Scientist "A landmark in biology. There is nothing of its kind... It represents an essential historical source for all human biologists, guaranteeing its importance in evolutionary biology."--American Journal of Human Genetics "A magisterial survey of what is known about the distribution of human genes... This book is a milestone in the pursuit of human evolutionary history."--New Scientist "A landmark in the study of human evolution."--Trends in Genetics "A crowning achievement, a compendium of a career's work, and a sourcebook for years to come... a landmark publication, a standard by which work in this field must be judged in the future."--American Journal of Human Biology

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