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The Heritage of World Civilizations, Volume 1


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Documents Maps Preface Part I: Human Origins and Early Civilizations to 500 B.C.E. Chapter 1: The Birth of a Civilization Early Humans and Their Culture GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Civilizations Early Civilizations in the Middle East to About 1000 B.C.E. A CLOSER LOOK Babylonian World Map Ancient Near Eastern Empires Early Indian Civilization Early Chinese Civilization The Rise of Civilization in the Americas SUMMARY KEY TERMS REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 2: Four Great Revolutions in Thought and Religion Comparing the Four Great Revolutions Philosophy in China GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Philosophy and Religion Religion in India A CLOSER LOOK Statue of Siddhartha Gotama asFasting Ascetic (2nd Century C.E.)The Religion of the Israelites Greek Philosophy SUMMARY KEY TERMS REVIEW QUESTIONS RELIGIONS OF THE WORLD Judaism Part II: Empires and Cultures of the Ancient World, 1000 B.C.E. to 500 C.E. Chapter 3: Greek and Hellenistic Civilization The Bronze Age on Crete and on the Mainland to ca. 1150 B.C.E. GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE The Achievement of Greek and Hellenistic Civilization Greek "Middle Age" to ca. 750 B.C.E. The Polis Expansion of the Greek World Life in Archaic Greece Major City-States The Persian Wars A CLOSER LOOK The Trireme Classical Greece Emergence of the Hellenistic World Hellenistic Culture SUMMARY KEY TERMS REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 4: West Asia, Inner Asia, and South Asia to 1000 C.E. GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Indo-Iranian Roles in the Eurasian World before Islam West and Inner Asia The Ancient Background The First Persian Empire in the Iranian Plateau (550-330 B.C.E.) The Seleucid Successors to Alexander in the East (ca. 312-63 B.C.E.) The Parthian Arsacid Empire (ca. 247 B.C.E.-223 C.E.) The Sasanid Empire (224-651 C.E.) South Asia to 1000 C.E. The First Indian Empire: The Mauryas (321-185 B.C.E.) The Consolidation of Indian Civilization (ca. 200 B.C.E.-300 C.E.) A CLOSER LOOK Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath The Golden Age of the Guptas (ca. 320-550 C.E.) The Development of "Classical" Indian Civilization (ca. 300-1000 C.E.) SUMMARY KEY TERMS REVIEW QUESTIONS RELIGIONS OF THE WORLD Hinduism Chapter 5: Africa: Early History to 1000 C.E. Issues of Interpretation, Sources, and Disciplines Physical Description of the Continent GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE "Traditional" Peoples and Nontraditional Histories African Peoples The Sahara and the Sudan to the Beginning of the Common Era Nilotic Africa and the Ethiopian Highlands The Western and Central Sudan Central, Southern, and East Africa A CLOSER LOOK Four Rock Art Paintings from Tassili n-Ajjer (4000-2000 B.C.E.) SUMMARY KEY TERMS REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 6: Republican and Imperial Rome Prehistoric Italy The Etruscans Royal Rome GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Republican and Imperial Rome The Republic A CLOSER LOOK Lictors Civilization in the Early Roman Republic:Greek Influence Roman Imperialism The Fall of the Republic The Augustan Principate Civilization of the Ciceronian and Augustan Ages Peace and Prosperity: Imperial Rome (14-180 C.E.) The Rise of Christianity The Crisis of the Third Century The Late Empire Arts and Letters in the Late Empire The Problem of the Decline and Fall of the Empire in the West SUMMARY KEY TERMS REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 7: China's First Empire, 221 B.C.E.-589 C.E. Qin Unification of China GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE China's First Empire Former Han Dynasty (206 B.C.E.-8 C.E.) A CLOSER LOOK The Terra-Cotta Army of the First Qin Emperor Later Han (25-220 C.E.) and Its Aftermath Han Thought and Religion SUMMARY KEY TERMS REVIEW QUESTIONS Part III: Consolidation and Interaction of World Civilizations, 500 C.E. to 1500 C.E. Chapter 8: Imperial China, 589-1368 Reestablishment of Empire: Sui (589-618) and Tang (618-907) Dynasties GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Imperial China A CLOSER LOOK A Tang Painting of the Goddess of Mercy Transition to Late Imperial China: The Song Dynasty (960-1279) China in the Mongol World Empire: The Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) SUMMARY KEY TERMS REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 9: Early Japanese History Japanese Origins GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE East Asia Nara and Heian Japan Japan's Early Feudal Age A CLOSER LOOK The East Meets the East SUMMARY KEY TERMS REVIEW QUESTIONS RELIGIONS OF THE World Buddhism Chapter 10: The Formation of Islamic Civilization, 622-100 Origins and Early Development GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE The Early Islamic Worlds of Arab and Persian Cultures Women in Early Islamic Society Early Islamic Conquests The New Islamic World Order A CLOSER LOOK The Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem (Interior) The High Caliphate Islamic Culture in the Classical Era SUMMARY KEY TERMS REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 11: The Byzantine Empire and Western Europe to 1000 The End of the Western Roman Empire GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE The Early Middle Ages The Impact of Islam on East and West The Developing Roman Church The Kingdom of the Franks A CLOSER LOOK A Multicultural Book Cover Feudal Society SUMMARY KEY TERMS REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 12: The Islamic World,1000-1500 the islamic heartlands Religion and Society GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE The Expansion of Islamic Civilization, 1000-1500 Regional Developments A CLOSER LOOK Al-Hariri, Assemblies (Maqamat) The Spread of Islam beyond the Heartlands Islamic India and Southeast Asia The Spread of Islam to South Asia Muslim-Hindu Encounter Islamic States and Dynasties Religious and Cultural Accommodation Hindu and Other Indian Traditions SUMMARY KEY TERMS REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 13: Ancient Civilizations of the Americas GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Ancient Civilizations of the Americas Problems in Reconstructing the History of Native American Civilization Mesoamerica The Formative Period and the Emergence of Mesoamerican Civilization The Classic Period in Mesoamerica A CLOSER LOOK The Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacan The Post-Classic Period Andean South America The Preceramic and the Initial Periods Chavin de Huantar and the Early Horizon The Early Intermediate Period The Middle Horizon through the LateIntermediate Period The Inca Empire SUMMARY KEY TERMS REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 14: Africa CA. 1000-1700 North Africa and Egypt The Spread of Islam South of the Sahara GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Africa, 1000-1700 Sahelian Empires of the Western and Central Sudan The Eastern Sudan The Forestlands-Coastal West andCentral Africa A CLOSER LOOK Benin Bronze Plaque with Chief and Two Attendants East Africa Southern Africa SUMMARY KEY TERMS REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 15: Europe to the Early 1500s: Revival, Decline, and Renaissance Revival of Empire, Church, and Towns GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE The High Middle Ages in Western Europe A CLOSER LOOK European Embrace of a Black Saint Society Growth of National Monarchies Political and Social Breakdown Ecclesiastical Breakdown and Revival:The Late Medieval Church The Renaissance in Italy (1375-1527) Revival of Monarchy: Nation Building in the Fifteenth Century SUMMARY KEY TERMS REVIEW QUESTIONS Part IV: The World in Transition, 1500 to 1850 Chapter 16: Europe, 1500-1650: Expansion, Reformation, and Religious Wars The Discovery of a New World GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE European Expansion The Reformation The Reformation's Achievements A CLOSER LOOK A Contemporary Commentary on the Sexes The Wars of Religion Superstition and Enlightenment: The Battle Within SUMMARY KEY TERMS REVIEW QUESTIONS RELIGIONS OF THE WORLD Christianity Chapter 17: Conquest and Exploitation: The Development of the Transatlantic EconomyPeriods of European Overseas Expansion Mercantilist Theory of Economic Exploitation GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE The Atlantic World Establishment of the Spanish Empire in America Economies of Exploitation in the Spanish Empire Colonial Brazil French and British Colonies in North America The Columbian Exchange: Disease, Animals, and Agriculture Slavery in the Americas Africa and the Transatlantic Slave Trade A CLOSER LOOK The Slave Ship Brookes SUMMARY KEY TERMS REVIEW QUESTIONS Suggested Readings Credits Index

About the Author

Albert M. Craig is the Harvard-Yenching research professor of history emeritus at Harvard University, where he has taught since 1959. A graduate of Northwestern University, he received his Ph.D. at Harvard University. He has studied at Strasbourg University and at Kyoto, Keio and Tokyo universities in Japan. He is the author of Choshu in the Meiji Restoration (1961), The Heritage of Japanese Civilization (2011) and, with others, East Asia, Tradition and Transformation (1989). He is the editor of Japan, A Comparative View (1973) and co-editor of Personality in Japanese History (1970) and Civilization and Enlightnment: the Early Thought of Fukuzawa Yukichi (2009). He was the director of the Harvard-Yenching Institute. He has also been a visiting professor at Kyoto and Tokyo universities. He has received Guggenheim, Fulbright and Japan Foundation Fellowships. In 1988 he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun by the Japanese government. William A. Graham is the Albertson professor of Middle Eastern studies in the faculty of arts and sciences and the O'Brian professor of divinity and dean in the faculty of divinity at Harvard University, where he has taught for 34 years. He has directed the Center for Middle Eastern Studies and chaired the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, the Committee on the Study of Religion and the Core Curriculum Committee on Foreign Cultures. He received his B.A. in comparative literature from University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and an A.M. and Ph.D. in history of religion from Harvard. He also studied in Goettingen, Tubingen, Lebanon and London. He is the former chair of the Council on Graduate Studies in Religion (U.S. and Canada). In 2000 he received the quinquennial Award for Excellence in Research in Islamic History and Culture from the Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA) of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference. He has held John Simon Guggenheim and Alexander von Humboldt research fellowships and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Among his publications are Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion (1987); Divine Word and Prophetic Word in Early Islam (1977-ACLS History of Religions Prize, 1978) and Three Faiths, One God (co-authored, 2003). Donald Kagan is the Sterling professor of history and classics at Yale University, where he has taught since 1969. He received an A.B. degree in history from Brooklyn College, an M.A. in classics from Brown University and a Ph.D. in history from Ohio State University. Between 1958 and 1959 he studied at the American School of Classical Studies as a Fulbright scholar. He has received three awards for undergraduate teaching at Cornell and Yale. He is the author of a history of Greek political thought, The Great Dialogue (1965); a four-volume history of the Peloponnesian war, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War (1969); The Archidamian War (1974); The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (1981); The Fall of the Athenian Empire (1987); a biography of Pericles, Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy (1991); On the Origins of War (1995) and The Peloponnesian War (2003). He is co-author, with Frederick W. Kagan, of While America Sleeps (2000). With Brian Tierney and L. Pearce Williams, he is the editor of Great Issues in Western Civilization, a collection of readings. He was awarded the National Humanities Medal for 2002 and was chosen by the National Endowment for the Humanities to deliver the Jefferson Lecture in 2004. Steven Ozment is the McLean professor of ancient and modern history at Harvard University. He has taught western civilization at Yale, Stanford and Harvard. He is the author of 11 books. The Age of Reform, 1250-1550 (1980) won the Schaff Prize and was nominated for the 1981 National Book Award. Five of his books have been selections of the History Book Club: Magdalena and Balthasar: An Intimate Portrait of Life in Sixteenth Century Europe (1986), Three Behaim Boys: Growing Up in Early Modern Germany (1990), Protestants: The Birth of A Revolution (1992), The Burgermeister's Daughter: Scandal in a Sixteenth Century German Town (1996) and Flesh and Spirit: Private Life in Early Modern Germany (1999). His most recent publications are Ancestors: The Loving Family of Old Europe (2001), A Mighty Fortress: A New History of the German People (2004) and "Why We Study Western Civ," The Public Interest 158 (2005). Frank M. Turner was the John Hay Whitney professor of history at Yale University and director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University, where he served as university provost from 1988 to 1992. He received his B.A. degree at the College of William and Mary and his Ph.D. from Yale. He received the Yale College Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching. He directed a national endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute. His scholarly research received the support of fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Guggenheim Foundation and the Woodrow Wilson Center. He is the author of Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England (1974), The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain (1981), which received the British Council Prize of the Conference on British Studies and the Yale Press Governors Award, Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life (1993) and John Henry Newman: The Challenge to Evangelical Religion (2002). He has also contributed numerous articles to journals and has served on the editorial advisory boards of The Journal of Modern History, Isis and Victorian Studies. He edited The Idea of a University by John Henry Newman (1996), Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke (2003) and Apologia Pro Vita Sua and Six Sermons by John Henry Newman (2008). Between l996 and 2006 he served as a trustee of Connecticut College and between 2004 and 2008 as a member of the Connecticut Humanities Council.


"...well-written, civilizations-focused text that is accessible to students without talking down to them." -Wayne Ackerson, SalisburyUniversity "The "Global Perspective" feature is superb. It is an excellent way to put themes into a global context, which brings significance to the topics of study." -Heather Barry, St. Joseph's College "...a very good balance between topical, thematic, and chronological approaches. All three are necessary for students to derive the maximum value from the text." -Dr. Anthony R. Santoro, ChristopherNewport University "The greatest challenge my students usually face is how to deal with thematic and more complex ideas on a wide geographic & chronological range. This book helps that." -Kristen Post Walton, SalisburyUniversity

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