PART I. An Introduction: Basic Issues and Processes. Chapter 1. An Overview of Psychology and Health. What Is Health? An Illness/Wellness Continuum. Illness Today and in the Past. Viewpoints from History: Physiology, Disease Processes, and the Mind. Early Cultures. Ancient Greece and Rome. The Middle Ages. The Renaissance and After. Seeing a Need: Psychology's Role in Health. Problems in the Health Care System. "The Person" in Health and Illness. Assess Yourself: What's Your Lifestyle Like? How the Role of Psychology Emerged. Clinical Methods and Issues: Behaviorism's Legacy: Progress in Health Psychology's Goals. Health Psychology: The Profession. Current Perspectives on Health and Illness. The Biopsychosocial Perspective. Life-Span and Gender Perspectives. Relating Health Psychology to Other Science Fields. Related Fields. Health and Psychology across Cultures. Highlight: Related Nonpsychology Careers. Research Methods. Experiments. Correlational Studies. Quasi-Experimental Studies. Genetics Research. Chapter 2. The Body's Physical Systems. Module 1: The Nervous System. How the Nervous System Works. The Central Nervous System. The Peripheral Nervous System. Clinical Methods and Issues: Biofeedback Treatment for Paralysis. Module 2: The Endocrine System. The Endocrine and Nervous Systems Working Together. Adrenal Glands. Other Glands. Module 3: The Digestive System. Food's Journey Through Digestive Organs. Highlight: Our Physiological Individuality. Using Nutrients in Metabolism. Assess Yourself: How Many Calories Do You BurnWhile Resting? Module 4: The Respiratory System. The Respiratory Tract. Respiratory Function and Disorders. Module 5: The Cardiovascular System. The Heart and Blood Vessels. Blood Pressure. Blood Composition. Cardiovascular Disorders. Module 6: The Immune System. Antigens. The Organs of the Immune System. Highlight: When Immune Functions Are Absent. Soldiers of the Immune System. Defending the Body with an Immune Response. Less-Than-Optimal Defenses. PART II. Stress, Illness, and Coping. Chapter 3. Stress-Its Meaning, Impact, and Sources. Experiencing Stress in Our Lives. What Is Stress? Appraising Events as Stressful. Clinical Methods and Issues Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Dimensions of Stress. Biopsychosocial Aspects of Stress. Biological Aspects of Stress. Psychosocial Aspects of Stress. Sources of Stress Throughout Life. Sources Within the Person. Sources in the Family. Highlight: Gender Differences in Caregiving? Sources in the Community and Society. Measuring Stress. Physiological Arousal. Life Events. Daily Hassles. Assess Yourself: Hassles in Your Life. Can Stress Be Good for You? Chapter 4. Stress, Biopsychosocial Factors, and Illness. Psychosocial Modifiers of Stress. Social Support. Assess Yourself: How Much Emotional Support Do You Get? A Sense of Personal Control. Clinical Methods and Issues: Social Support, Therapy, and Cognitive Processes. A Hardy Personality. Type A and Type B Behavior Patterns. How Stress Affects Health. Stress, Behavior, and Illness. Stress, Physiology, and Illness. Highlight: Sudden "Voodoo" Death. Psychoneuroimmunology. Psychophysiological Disorders. Digestive System Diseases. Asthma. Recurrent Headache. Other Disorders. Stress and Cardiovascular Disorders. Hypertension. Coronary Heart Disease. Stress and Cancer. Chapter 5. Coping with and Reducing Stress. Coping with Stress. What Is Coping? Functions and Methods of Coping. Assess Yourself: Your Focuses in Coping. Reducing the Potential for Stress. Enhancing Social Support. Improving One's Personal Control. Organizing One's World Better. Highlight: The Amish Way of Social Support in Bereavement. Exercising: Links to Stress and Health. Preparing for Stressful Events. Reducing Stress Reactions: Stress Management. Medication. Behavioral and Cognitive Methods. Clinical Methods and Issues: The Case of "Bear". Massage, Meditation, and Hypnosis. Using Stress Management to Reduce Coronary Risk. Modifying Type A Behavior. Treating Hypertension. PART III. Lifestyles to Enhance Health and Prevent Illness. Chapter 6. Health-Related Behavior and Health Promotion. Health and Behavior. Lifestyles, Risk Factors, and Health. Highlight: Two Health Behaviors: Breast and Testicular Examinations. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Preventing Illness. Problems in Promoting Wellness. What Determines People's Health-Related Behavior. General Factors in Health-Related Behavior. The Role of Beliefs and Intentions. The Role of Less Rational Processes. Developmental, Gender, and Sociocultural Factors in Health. Development and Health. Gender and Health. Sociocultural Factors and Health. Programs for Health Promotion. Methods for Promoting Health. Clinical Methods and Issues: Dialogues to Help People Stop Smoking. Promoting Health in the Schools. Worksite Wellness Programs. Community-Based Wellness Programs. Assess Yourself: Your Knowledge about AIDS. Prevention with Specific Targets: Focusing on AIDS. Chapter 7. Substance Use and Abuse. Substance Abuse. Addiction and Dependence. Processes Leading to Dependence. Smoking Tobacco. Who Smokes, and How Much? Why People Smoke. Smoking and Health. Highlight: Does Someone Else's Smoking Affect Your Health? Alcohol Use and Abuse. Who Drinks, and How Much? Assess Yourself: What's True About Drinking? Why People Use and Abuse Alcohol. Assess Yourself: Do You Abuse Alcohol? Drinking and Health. Drug Use and Abuse. Highlight: Types and Effects of Drugs. Who Uses Drugs, and Why? Drug Use and Health. Reducing Substance Use and Abuse. Preventing Substance Use. Quitting a Substance without Therapy. Treatment Methods to Stop Substance Use and Abuse. Highlight: Where Should Alcohol and Drug Abuse Treatment Occur, and What Should Be the Goals and Criteria for Success? Clinical Methods and Issues: Behavioral Methods for Treating Substance Abuse. Dealing with the Relapse Problem. Chapter 8. Nutrition, Weight Control and Diet, Exercise, and Safety. Nutrition. Components of Food. What People Eat. Nutrition and Health. Weight Control and Diet. Desirable and Undesirable Weights. Becoming Overly Fat. Dieting and Treatments to Lose Weight. Highlight: Which "Carbs" to Avoid. Clinical Methods and Issues: Problem-Solving Training to Control Weight. Anorexia and Bulimia. Assess Yourself: Your Weight Control Patterns. Exercise. Highlight: Types and Amounts of Healthful Exercise. The Health Effects of Exercise. Who Gets Enough Exercise, Who Does Not-and Why? Promoting Exercise Behavior. Safety. Accidents. Environmental Hazards. PART IV. Becoming Ill and Getting Medical Treatment. Chapter 9. Using Health Services. Types of Health Services. Specialized Functions of Practitioners. Office-Based and Inpatient Treatment. The American Health Care System. Health Care Systems in Other Countries. Perceiving and Interpreting Symptoms. Perceiving Symptoms. Interpreting and Responding to Symptoms. Using and Misusing Health Services. Who Uses Health Services? Why People Use, Don't Use, and Delay Using Health Services. Using Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Misusing Health Services. The Patient-Practitioner Relationship. Patient Preferences for Participation in Medical Care. Highlight: Fighting for Your Life. The Practitioner's Behavior and Style. The Patient's Behavior and Style. Assess Yourself: Do You Know Medical Terms' Meanings? Compliance: Adhering to Medical Advice. Extent of the Nonadherence Problem. Why Patients Do and Do Not Adhere to Medical Advice. Patient-Practitioner Interactions. Increasing Patient Adherence. Clinical Methods and Issues: How to Present Medical Information. Focusing on Prevention. Chapter 10. In the Hospital: The Setting, Procedures, and Effects on Patients. The Hospital-Its History, Setting, and Procedures. How the Hospital Evolved. The Organization and Functioning of Hospitals. Roles, Goals, and Communication. Assess Yourself: Who's Who in Physician Care. The Impact of the "Bottom line". Being Hospitalized. Relations with the Hospital Staff. Sick-Role Behavior in the Hospital. Emotional Adjustment in the Hospital. Coping Processes in Hospital Patients. Preparing Patients for Stressful Medical Procedures. Highlight: Lamaze Training as a Method of Psychological Preparation for a Medical Procedure. When the Hospitalized Patient Is a Child. Clinical Methods and Issues: Preparing Children for Impending Hospitalization. How Health Psychologists Assist Hospitalized Patients. Initial Steps in Helping. Tests for Psychological Assessment of Medical Patients. Promoting Patients' Health and Adjustment. PART V. Physical Symptoms: Pain and Discomfort. Chapter 11. The Nature and Symptoms of Pain. What Is Pain? The Qualities and Dimensions of Pain. Perceiving Pain. Highlight: Acute Pain in Burn Patients. Theories of Pain. Early Theories of Pain. Highlight: Inducing Pain in Laboratory Research. The Gate-Control Theory of Pain. Biopsychosocial Aspects of Pain. Neurochemical Transmission and Inhibition of Pain. Personal and Social Experiences and Pain. Highlight: Placebos and Pain. Emotions, Coping Processes, and Pain. Clinical Methods and Issues: Assessing Difficulty Coping with Pain. Assessing People's Pain. Self-Report Methods. Pain Questionaires. Assess Yourself: Describing Your Pain. Behavioral Assessment Approaches. Psychophysiological Measures. Pain in Children. Pain and Children's Sensory and Cognitive Development. Assessing Pain in Children. Chapter 12. Managing and Controlling Clinical Pain. Clinical Pain. Acute Clinical Pain. Chronic Clinical pain. Medical Treatments for Pain. Surgical Methods for Treating Pain. Chemical Methods for Treating Pain. Highlight: Types of Pain-Relieving Chemicals. Behavioral and Cognitive Methods for Treating Pain. The Operant Approach. Relaxation and Biofeedback. Cognitive Methods. Clinical Methods and Issues: Guiding a Client to Pain Redefinition. Hypnosis and Interpersonal Therapy. Assess Yourself: Would Behavioral or Cognitive Methods Help Your Pain? Hypnosis as a Treatment for Pain. Interpersonal Therapy for Pain. Physical and Stimulation Therapies for Pain. Stimulation Therapies. Physical Therapy. Highlight: Physical Activity and Back Pain. Pain Clinics. Multidisciplinary Programs. Evaluating the Success of Pain Clinics. PART VI. Chronic and Life-Threatening Health Problems. Chapter 13. Serious and Disabling Chronic Illnesses:.Causes, Management, and Coping. Adjusting to a Chronic Illness. Initial Reactions to Having a Chronic Condition. Influences on Coping with a Health Crisis. The Coping Process. Impacts of Different Chronic Conditions. Asthma. Epilepsy. Highlight: What to Do for a Seizure. Nervous System Injuries. Diabetes. Assess Yourself: Do You Have Diabetes? Highlight: Self-Managing Diabetes. Arthritis. Alzheimer's Disease. Psychosocial Interventions for People with Chronic Conditions. Educational, Social Support, and Behavioral Methods. Relaxation and Biofeedback. Cognitive Methods. Clinical Methods and Issues: Treating Asthma with Biofeedback and Relaxation. Interpersonal and Family Therapy. Chapter 14. Heart Disease, Stroke, Cancer, and AIDS: Causes, Management, and Coping. Coping with and Adapting to High-Mortality Illness. Adapting While the Prospects Seem Good. Adapting in a Recurrence or Relapse. Heart Disease. Who Is at Risk of Heart Disease, and Why? Medical Treatment and Rehabilitation of Cardiac Patients. The Psychosocial Impact of Heart Disease. Psychosocial Interventions for Heart Disease. Stroke. Causes, Effects, and Rehabilitation of Stroke. Psychosocial Aspects of Stroke. Clinical Methods and Issues: Stroke Rehabilitation for Visual Neglect. Cancer. The Prevalence and Types of Cancer. The Sites, Effects, and Causes of Cancer. Diagnosing and Treating Cancer. The Psychosocial Impact of Cancer. Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer. Childhood Cancer. Highlight: Can Psychosocial Interventions Improve Cancer Survival?. AIDS. Risk Factors, Effects, and Treatment of AIDS. From HIV Infection to AIDS. The Psychosocial Impact of AIDS. Psychosocial Interventions for AIDS. Adapting to a Terminal Illness. The Patient's Age. Psychosocial Adjustments to Terminal Illness. The Quality of Life in Death. Medical and Psychological Care of Dying Patients. Assess Yourself: Your Living Will Choices. A Place to Die-Hospital, Home, or Hospice?. The Survivors: And Life Goes On. PART VII. Looking to the Future. Chapter 15. What's Ahead for Health Psychology? Goals for Health Psychology. Enhancing Illness Prevention and Treatment. Improving Efforts for Helping Patients Cope. Documenting the Efficacy and Cost-Benefit Ratio of Care. Enhancing Psychologists' Acceptance in Medical Settings. Clinical Methods and Issues: Psychologists in the Primary Care Team. Careers and Training in Health Psychology. Career Opportunities. Training Programs. Issues and Controversies for the Future. Environment, Health, and Psychology. Quality of Life. Ethical Decisions in Medical Care. Future Focuses in Health Psychology. Assess Yourself: Some Ethical Dilemmas: What Do You Think? Life-Span Health and Illness. Sociocultural Factors in Health. Gender Differences and Women's Health Issues. Factors Affecting Health Psychology's Future. Glossary. References. Credits . Subject Index. Author Index.