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Hazards Analysis
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Table of Contents

Introduction to Hazards Analysis; John C. Pine Objectives Key Terms Issue Introduction Terminology of Hazards Views of Extreme Natural Events as Primary Causes of Disasters A Changing Hazards Paradigm Hazards Analysis Hazard Identification Vulnerability Analysis Risk Analysis Linking Hazards Analysis to Risk and Comprehensive Emergency Management Communicating Risk from a Hazards Analysis Community Involvement Values in Community Engagement Conclusions Discussion Questions Applications Websites References Hazards Identification; John C. Pine Objectives Key Terms Issue Introduction Hazards Identification Process Organizing a Hazards Identification Team Creating a Community Profile Community Assets Environmental or Natural Assets and Risks Sources of Hazards Data Social Assets Economic and Constructed Assets Infrastructure Critical Facilities Economic Activities Mapping Community Assets and Hazards Interdependence of Communities Identifying Community Problems Problem-Solving Process Problem Solving in a Nonstructured Environment Decision Traps Perception of Risks by Citizens Conclusions Discussion Questions Applications Websites Population Data Health Data Environmental Data Transportation Energy Business Statistics Mapping Resources References Modeling Natural- and Human-Caused Hazards; John C. Pine Objectives Key Terms Issue Role of Hazard Modeling in Hazards Analysis An Example of a Hazard Model Nature and Types of Models Dynamic Models Deterministic Probabilistic Models Used in Hazards Analysis HAZUS-MH Model Evacuation Transportation Modeling Modeling Community Resilience Communicating Risks from Models Assessing Hazard Models Validity Quality Availability of Model Documentation Data Accuracy, Resolution, and Availability Coupling Models with GIS Static versus Adaptable Outputs Uses of Model Outputs Timeliness Completeness Advantages and Disadvantages of Hazard Models Model Limitations Hazard Profiles Sources of Hazard Information for the Hazard Profile Description of Hazard Magnitude Frequency of Occurrence Seasonal Pattern Duration Speed of Onset Availability of Warnings Location and Spatial Extent Conclusions Discussion Questions Applications National Flood Insurance Program Hazard Profile Sample for a Tornado Websites Avalanches Dam Safety Drought Earthquakes Flooding Landslides Snow Tornadoes Tsunamis Wildfires References Spatial Analysis; John C. Pine Objectives Key Terms Issue Introduction Definition of Spatial Analysis Geospatial Data Set Spatial Data Quality Types of Spatial Analysis Queries Using Spatial Analysis to Answer Questions Transformations Buffering Descriptive Summaries Optimization Techniques Hypothesis Testing Spatial Data Visualization Choropleth Maps Conclusions Discussion Questions Applications Websites References Risk Analysis: Assessing the Risks of Hazards; Kevin L. Shirley and John C. Pine Objectives Key Terms Introduction Process of Risk Analysis What Is Risk? Quantitative Analysis of Risk Quantitative Analysis of Likelihood Quantitative Analysis of Consequence Qualitative Analysis of Risk Qualitative Analysis of Likelihood Qualitative Analysis of Consequence Views of Risk Using Historical Data in Determining Risk Need for Complete Accurate Data for Decision Making Using Technical Data in Decision Making Indicators of Direct and Indirect Losses Issues in Risk Analysis Changes in Disaster Frequency Availability of Essential Data Depth of Analysis Ranking of Risks Quantitative Data Likelihood-Consequence Matrix Risk Strategies Mandatory Risk Level Extremely Low Likelihood of Risk Accept the Risk Determining Risk Acceptability Personal Political/Social Economic Hazard Models Uncertainty Logic Tree Monte Carlo Method or Simulation Uncertainty Expressed in Interval Estimates Summary Discussion Questions Applications Websites References Social, Economic, and Ecological Vulnerability; John C. Pine Objectives Key Terms Introduction Approaches to Vulnerability Dimensions of Vulnerability Social and Human Vulnerability Economic Vulnerability Environmental Vulnerability Measuring Vulnerability Indicators of Social Conditions Indicators of Economic Conditions Indicators of Environmental Conditions Methodological Issues Scale of Analysis Weighting, Data Availability, and Accuracy Type and Scope of Measures Interdependence of Social, Economic, and Ecological Capital Discussion Questions Applications Websites References Risk Communication; John C. Pine and Stephen L. Guillot, Jr. Objectives Key Terms Issue Introduction Risk Communication Risk Communication Process Barriers in Risk Communication Risk Communication Tools Communicating Risks with Maps Use of Figures Social Media Targeting Specific Audiences Risk Communication Myths Managing Risks Decision Making Community Engagement Stakeholders Involvement Ethics and Decision Making Legal Issues in Decision Making Indemnification Acknowledging Risk as a Part of Risk Communication Learning as a Part of Risk Communication Discussion Questions Applications Websites References Hazards Risk Management Process; Greg Shaw Objectives Key Terms Issue Introduction Terminology Risk Management Hazards Risk Management Framing Questions Framework for Hazards Risk Management Components of the Hazards Risk Management Process Communicate and Consult Monitor and Review Step 1: Establish the context Step 2: Identify the hazards Step 3: Assess the hazard risk Step 4: Sort the hazards by risk magnitude Step 5: Analyze the risks from each hazard Step 6: Group and prioritize the hazard risks and consider risk management interventions Application of the Hazards Risk Management Process Overview Step 1: Establish the context Step 2: Identify the hazards Step 3: Assess the hazards risk Step 4: Sort the hazards by risk magnitude Step 5: Analyze the risks from each hazard Step 6: Group and prioritize the hazard risks and consider risk management interventions Hazards Risk Management and Comprehensive Emergency Management Discussion Questions Applications Websites References Planning for Sustainable and Disaster-Resilient Communities; Gavin Smith Objectives Key Terms Introduction Sustainability, Disaster Resilience Climate Change Adaptation, and Hazard Mitigation Planning Hazard Mitigation Planning Policy Framework Hazard Mitigation Plan Power of Plan Making: Tools and Process Planning Process: Building Stakeholder Capacity to Confront Hazards Discussion Questions Applications You Be the Planner Websites References Creating Disaster-Resilient Communities: A New Natural Hazards Risk Management Framework; Gavin Smith Objectives Key Terms Introduction Hazard Mitigation Policies Emergent National Climate Change Adaptation Policy New Natural Hazards Risk Management Policy Framework Expand Natural Hazards Analysis to Include Sustainable Development and Disaster-Resilient Themes Use Risk Assessment Findings to Guide Land Use and Scenario-Based Planning That Assesses Current and Future Vulnerability Assess Hazard Risk Management Policies, Programs, Plans, and Projects as Part of a Larger Effort to Build Local Capacity and Self-Reliance through a Risk Governance Strategy Balance Incentives and Penalties Affecting Human Settlement Pattern Adjustments: A Critical Look at Existing Hazard Mitigation Programs Assess Losses Avoided and Build Disaster-Resilient Communities in the Age of Climate Change Recommendations for Action Draw Lessons from a National Assessment of Local Hazard Mitigation Plans Place a Greater Emphasis on Land-Use Decisions and Human Settlement Patterns Establish a Robust Training and Capacity-Building Approach Enact Sanctions for Low-Performing States and Communities that Underperform and Provide Benefits to Communities and States that Develop Enhanced Hazard Mitigation Plans Engage Professional Land-Use Planners in the Implementation of the Proposed Natural Hazards Management Framework Facilitate the Use of Planners as Agents of Social Change and Policy Learning Include Hazards Analysis in Planning for Climate Change Summary and Conclusions Discussion Questions Applications You Be the Policy Analyst You Be the Planner References Index

About the Author

John C. Pine serves as the director of the Research Institute for Environment, Energy & Economics (RIEEE), and professor in the department of Geography and Planning, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina. He joined the Appalachian faculty in 2009 after serving thirty years at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge where he directed the graduate and undergraduate Disaster Science and Management Program. At Louisiana State University, he was a professor in the Department of Geography and Anthropology and the department of Environmental Sciences. His research on disasters and emergency management centers on emergency planning, risk assessment, and disaster recovery. He has worked for many years with public agencies at the federal, state, and local levels as well as non-profit and private entities to identify strategies to enhance preparedness and community sustainability. His publications focus on hazards and disasters including Technology and Emergency Management from John Wiley (2007) and Tort Liability Today from the Public Risk Management Association (2005). He is currently on the board of directors of the National Committee for the New River, the Learning Lodge at Grandfather Mountain, and an advisory board for the American Meteorological Society. His publications have been included in The Journal of Disaster Studies, Policy and Management, Disasters, Journal of Race and Society, International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, Oceanography, Journal of Emergency Management, Natural Disaster Review, Journal of Environmental Health, and the Journal of Hazardous Materials. He received his doctorate in higher education administration and public administration from the University of Georgia, Athens, in 1979.

Reviews

"Professionals who work in disaster planning and emergency management will find the second edition of Hazards Analysis: Reducing the Impact of Disasters to be a valuable resource." -John M. White, CPP, President and CEO of Protection Management, LLC, in Security Management

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