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Hazards Analysis
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Table of Contents

Introduction to Hazards Analysis; John C. Pine
Objectives
Key Terms
Issue
Introduction
Terminology of Hazards
Views of Extreme Natural Events as Primary Causes of Disasters
A Changing Hazards Paradigm
Hazards Analysis
Hazard Identification
Vulnerability Analysis
Risk Analysis
Linking Hazards Analysis to Risk and Comprehensive Emergency Management
Communicating Risk from a Hazards Analysis
Community Involvement
Values in Community Engagement
Conclusions
Discussion Questions
Applications
Websites
References

Hazards Identification; John C. Pine
Objectives
Key Terms
Issue
Introduction
Hazards Identification Process
Organizing a Hazards Identification Team
Creating a Community Profile
Community Assets
Environmental or Natural Assets and Risks
Sources of Hazards Data
Social Assets
Economic and Constructed Assets
Infrastructure
Critical Facilities
Economic Activities
Mapping Community Assets and Hazards
Interdependence of Communities
Identifying Community Problems
Problem-Solving Process
Problem Solving in a Nonstructured Environment
Decision Traps
Perception of Risks by Citizens
Conclusions
Discussion Questions
Applications
Websites
Population Data
Health Data
Environmental Data
Transportation
Energy
Business Statistics
Mapping Resources
References

Modeling Natural- and Human-Caused Hazards; John C. Pine
Objectives
Key Terms
Issue
Role of Hazard Modeling in Hazards Analysis
An Example of a Hazard Model
Nature and Types of Models
Dynamic Models
Deterministic
Probabilistic
Models Used in Hazards Analysis
HAZUS-MH Model
Evacuation Transportation Modeling
Modeling Community Resilience
Communicating Risks from Models
Assessing Hazard Models
Validity
Quality
Availability of Model Documentation
Data Accuracy, Resolution, and Availability
Coupling Models with GIS
Static versus Adaptable Outputs
Uses of Model Outputs
Timeliness
Completeness
Advantages and Disadvantages of Hazard Models
Model Limitations
Hazard Profiles
Sources of Hazard Information for the Hazard Profile
Description of Hazard
Magnitude
Frequency of Occurrence
Seasonal Pattern
Duration
Speed of Onset
Availability of Warnings
Location and Spatial Extent
Conclusions
Discussion Questions
Applications
National Flood Insurance Program
Hazard Profile Sample for a Tornado
Websites
Avalanches
Dam Safety
Drought
Earthquakes
Flooding
Landslides
Snow
Tornadoes
Tsunamis
Wildfires
References

Spatial Analysis
; John C. Pine
Objectives
Key Terms
Issue
Introduction
Definition of Spatial Analysis
Geospatial Data Set
Spatial Data Quality
Types of Spatial Analysis
Queries
Using Spatial Analysis to Answer Questions
Transformations
Buffering
Descriptive Summaries
Optimization Techniques
Hypothesis Testing
Spatial Data Visualization
Choropleth Maps
Conclusions
Discussion Questions
Applications
Websites
References

Risk Analysis: Assessing the Risks of Hazards
; Kevin L. Shirley and John C. Pine
Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Process of Risk Analysis
What Is Risk?
Quantitative Analysis of Risk
Quantitative Analysis of Likelihood
Quantitative Analysis of Consequence
Qualitative Analysis of Risk
Qualitative Analysis of Likelihood
Qualitative Analysis of Consequence
Views of Risk
Using Historical Data in Determining Risk
Need for Complete Accurate Data for Decision Making
Using Technical Data in Decision Making
Indicators of Direct and Indirect Losses
Issues in Risk Analysis
Changes in Disaster Frequency
Availability of Essential Data
Depth of Analysis
Ranking of Risks
Quantitative Data
Likelihood-Consequence Matrix
Risk Strategies
Mandatory Risk Level
Extremely Low Likelihood of Risk
Accept the Risk
Determining Risk Acceptability
Personal
Political/Social
Economic
Hazard Models
Uncertainty
Logic Tree
Monte Carlo Method or Simulation
Uncertainty Expressed in Interval Estimates
Summary
Discussion Questions
Applications
Websites
References

Social, Economic, and Ecological Vulnerability
; John C. Pine
Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Approaches to Vulnerability
Dimensions of Vulnerability
Social and Human Vulnerability
Economic Vulnerability
Environmental Vulnerability
Measuring Vulnerability
Indicators of Social Conditions
Indicators of Economic Conditions
Indicators of Environmental Conditions
Methodological Issues
Scale of Analysis
Weighting, Data Availability, and Accuracy
Type and Scope of Measures
Interdependence of Social, Economic, and Ecological Capital
Discussion Questions
Applications
Websites
References

Risk Communication
; John C. Pine and Stephen L. Guillot, Jr.
Objectives
Key Terms
Issue
Introduction
Risk Communication
Risk Communication Process
Barriers in Risk Communication
Risk Communication Tools
Communicating Risks with Maps
Use of Figures
Social Media
Targeting Specific Audiences
Risk Communication Myths
Managing Risks
Decision Making
Community Engagement
Stakeholders Involvement
Ethics and Decision Making
Legal Issues in Decision Making
Indemnification
Acknowledging Risk as a Part of Risk Communication
Learning as a Part of Risk Communication
Discussion Questions
Applications
Websites
References

Hazards Risk Management Process
; Greg Shaw
Objectives
Key Terms
Issue
Introduction
Terminology
Risk Management
Hazards Risk Management Framing Questions
Framework for Hazards Risk Management
Components of the Hazards Risk Management Process
Communicate and Consult
Monitor and Review
Step 1: Establish the context
Step 2: Identify the hazards
Step 3: Assess the hazard risk
Step 4: Sort the hazards by risk magnitude
Step 5: Analyze the risks from each hazard
Step 6: Group and prioritize the hazard risks and consider risk management interventions
Application of the Hazards Risk Management Process
Overview
Step 1: Establish the context
Step 2: Identify the hazards
Step 3: Assess the hazards risk
Step 4: Sort the hazards by risk magnitude
Step 5: Analyze the risks from each hazard
Step 6: Group and prioritize the hazard risks and consider risk management interventions
Hazards Risk Management and Comprehensive Emergency Management
Discussion Questions
Applications
Websites
References

Planning for Sustainable and Disaster-Resilient Communities;
Gavin Smith
Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Sustainability, Disaster Resilience Climate Change Adaptation, and Hazard Mitigation Planning
Hazard Mitigation Planning Policy Framework
Hazard Mitigation Plan
Power of Plan Making: Tools and Process
Planning Process: Building Stakeholder Capacity to Confront Hazards
Discussion Questions
Applications
You Be the Planner
Websites
References

Creating Disaster-Resilient Communities: A New Natural Hazards Risk Management Framework;
Gavin Smith
Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Hazard Mitigation Policies
Emergent National Climate Change Adaptation Policy
New Natural Hazards Risk Management Policy Framework
Expand Natural Hazards Analysis to Include Sustainable Development and Disaster-Resilient Themes
Use Risk Assessment Findings to Guide Land Use and Scenario-Based Planning That Assesses Current and Future Vulnerability
Assess Hazard Risk Management Policies, Programs, Plans, and Projects as Part of a Larger Effort to Build Local Capacity and Self-Reliance through a Risk Governance Strategy
Balance Incentives and Penalties Affecting Human Settlement
Pattern Adjustments: A Critical Look at Existing Hazard Mitigation Programs
Assess Losses Avoided and Build Disaster-Resilient Communities in the Age of Climate Change
Recommendations for Action
Draw Lessons from a National Assessment of Local Hazard Mitigation Plans
Place a Greater Emphasis on Land-Use Decisions and Human Settlement Patterns
Establish a Robust Training and Capacity-Building Approach
Enact Sanctions for Low-Performing States and Communities that Underperform and Provide Benefits to Communities and States that Develop Enhanced Hazard Mitigation Plans
Engage Professional Land-Use Planners in the Implementation of the Proposed Natural Hazards Management Framework
Facilitate the Use of Planners as Agents of Social Change and Policy Learning
Include Hazards Analysis in Planning for Climate Change
Summary and Conclusions
Discussion Questions
Applications
You Be the Policy Analyst
You Be the Planner
References

Index

About the Author

John C. Pine serves as the director of the Research Institute for Environment, Energy & Economics (RIEEE), and professor in the department of Geography and Planning, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina. He joined the Appalachian faculty in 2009 after serving thirty years at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge where he directed the graduate and undergraduate Disaster Science and Management Program. At Louisiana State University, he was a professor in the Department of Geography and Anthropology and the department of Environmental Sciences. His research on disasters and emergency management centers on emergency planning, risk assessment, and disaster recovery. He has worked for many years with public agencies at the federal, state, and local levels as well as non-profit and private entities to identify strategies to enhance preparedness and community sustainability. His publications focus on hazards and disasters including Technology and Emergency Management from John Wiley (2007) and Tort Liability Today from the Public Risk Management Association (2005). He is currently on the board of directors of the National Committee for the New River, the Learning Lodge at Grandfather Mountain, and an advisory board for the American Meteorological Society. His publications have been included in The Journal of Disaster Studies, Policy and Management, Disasters, Journal of Race and Society, International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, Oceanography, Journal of Emergency Management, Natural Disaster Review, Journal of Environmental Health, and the Journal of Hazardous Materials. He received his doctorate in higher education administration and public administration from the University of Georgia, Athens, in 1979.

Reviews

"Professionals who work in disaster planning and emergency management will find the second edition of Hazards Analysis: Reducing the Impact of Disasters to be a valuable resource."
-John M. White, CPP, President and CEO of Protection Management, LLC, in Security Management

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