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Handbook of Medicinal Plants

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Table of Contents

About the Editors Contributors Preface PART I. INTRODUCTION Chapter 1. Trends and Challenges in Phytomedicine: Research in the New Millennium (Hildebert Wagner) Introduction Quality Assurance of Medicinal Drugs and Phytopreparations Search for New Bioactive Compounds and Chemical Modifications of Leading Compounds Molecular-Biological Screening: Overall Pharmacological Profiles and Synergistic Effects Clinical Trials, Pharmacokinetic Studies, and Bioavailability Studies Scope and Aim of Phytomedicine in the Near Future Conclusion PART II. THE USE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS THROUGHOUT HISTORY CHINESE MEDICINAL PLANTS Chapter 2. History of Application of Medicinal Plants in China (Chang-Xiao Liu) Introduction Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs Brief History of Application of Medicinal Plants Medicinal Plants in China in the Past Century Development of Resources Chapter 3. Ethnopharmacology of Traditional Chinese Drugs from Medicinal Plants (Chang-Xiao Liu) Introduction Diaphoretics Antitussive Expectorants and Antiasthmatics Drugs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness Purgative Drugs Drugs Expelling Wind and Dampness Aromatic Drugs Transforming Dampness Drugs Benefiting Urination and Draining Dampness Drugs Warming the Interior Drugs Regulating Qi Drugs Relieving Food Stagnation Drugs Expelling Parasites Drugs Stopping Bleeding Drugs Regulating Blood Conditions Drugs Tranquilizing the Mind Drugs Pacifying the Liver and Subduing Endogenous Wind Drugs That Open Orifices Tonics Astringent Drugs Chapter 4. Research and Development of New Drugs Originating from Chinese Medicinal Plants (Chang-Xiao Liu and Zohara Yaniv) Introduction Pathway of Research and Development from Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs The Treatment Principles of Chinese Traditional Medicine Valuable Clinical Results of the Application of National Minority Drugs Active Compounds Isolated from Chinese Medicinal Plants Types of Pharmacological Activities The Challenges of Modern Research and the Development of Medicinal Plants Conclusion MEDICINAL PLANTS IN NATIVE CULTURES Chapter 5. African Medicinal Plants (Ruth Kutalek and Armin Prinz) Introduction Strophantus spp., Apocynaceae Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, Apocynaceae Rauwolfia vomitoria Azfel (Apocynaceae) Physostigma venenosum Balf. (Fabaceae) Future Prospects Chapter 6. Dilemmas and Solutions: Native American Plant Knowledge (Daniel E. Moerman) A Mother's Dilemma A Plant's Dilemma Two Dilemmas Yield a Solution Case Example: Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Final Words Chapter 7. Ethnobotany and Ethnomedicine of the Amazonian Indians (Sir Ghillean T. Prance) Introduction The Yanomami Arrow Poisons Narcotics and Stimulants Fish Poisons Conclusion Chapter 8. Healers and Physicians in Ancient and Medieval Mediterranean Cultures (Alain Touwaide) Traditional Historiography Two Main Works The Range of Materia Medica Transformations of Texts over Time Plant Representations Conclusion Chapter 9. Remedies from the Bush: Traditional Medicine Among the Australian Aborigines (Emanuela Appetiti) Introduction The Dreamtime Plants and People Treatment of Common Ailments Women's Medicine Two Remarkable Plants Other Uses of Medicinal Plants Nonplant Materia Medica Conclusion PART III. TECHNOLOGIES IN MEDICINAL PLANT RESEARCH Chapter 10. Production and Breeding of Medicinal Plants (Eva Nemeth) Short History of Medicinal Plant Production The Present Situation and Characteristics of Medicinal Plant Cultivation in Europe The Role and Significance of Harvesting from Wild Habitats Characteristics of Breeding Medicinal Plants Chapter 11. Biological Screening of Medicinal Plants (Ming-Wei Wang) Introduction Drug Discovery in Ancient Times Random Drug Screening Using Animal Models High-Throughput Screening Technologies Future Prospects Chapter 12. Biotechnology in Medicinal Crop Improvement (Efraim Lewinsohn and Ya'akov Tadmor) Introduction Utilization of DNA Markers in Medicinal Plants Construction of Genetic Maps Utilizing DNA Markers Utilization of Genetic Engineering in Medicinal Plants Conclusion Chapter 13. In Vitro Cultivation of Medicinal Plants (Christoph Wawrosch) Introduction Plant Tissue Culture Techniques In Vitro Plant Propagation In Vitro Production of Secondary Metabolites Conclusion PART IV. LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN MEDICINAL APPLICATIONS Chapter 14. Medicinal Plants in the Prevention and Therapy of Cancer (David Mantle and Richard M. Wilkins) Introduction Mistletoe Ginseng Garlic Chapter 15. Phytochemicals and Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease (D. Francesco Visioli, Simona Grande, and Claudio Galli) Introduction Plant-Derived Phenols Soy Cocoa Tea Wine Olive Oil Conclusion Chapter 16. A Modern Look at Folkloric Use of Anti-Infective Agents (Lester A. Mitscher) Introduction Berberine Sanguinarine Quinine Emetine Individual Antimicrobial Medicinal Plants of Lesser Prominence Conclusion Chapter 17. Use of Medicinal Plants in CNS Disorders (Peter John Houghton) Introduction Disorders of the CNS Plants and Derived Compounds Used to Treat Neurodegenerative Diseases Plants and Derived Compounds Used As Anxiolytics, Tranquilizers, and Sedatives Plants and Derived Compounds with Narcotic Effects Plants and Derived Compounds Used As CNS Stimulants Plants and Derived Compounds Used in Depression Plants Used for Conditions That Display Excessive Aspects of Normal Function Adaptogens Conclusion Chapter 18. Herbal Medicine in Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease (Graham Pinn) Introduction Gout Diabetes Mellitus Obesity Hyperlipidemia Thyroid Disorder Menopause Toxicity Conclusion Chapter 19. Bioactive Saponins from Plants: Recent Developments (Marie-Aleth Lacaille-Dubois) Introduction Anti-Inflammatory Activity Hepatoprotective Activity Cardiovascular Activity Activity on the Central Nervous System Hypoglycemic Activity Antifungal Activity Antiviral Activities Anticancer and Immune System Related Activity Conclusion Chapter 20. Natural Products and Herbal Medicines in the Gastrointestinal Tract (Zohar Kerem) Introduction Antimicrobial Activities of Herbal Products GI Immunoregulation Chemical Considerations in the GI Tract Herbal-Induced Drug Interactions in the GI Tract Antioxidant and Reducing Activities of Herbal Products Conclusion PART V. HOPES AND DANGERS Chapter 21. Challenges and Threats to Interdisciplinary Medicinal Plant Research (Michael Heinrich) Introduction: Patients' Dilemmas in 2005 Medicinal Plants and Their Modern and Historical Uses New Methodological Developments Medical Applications: Pharmacology and Clinical Use Future Needs: Phytotherapy and the Concept of Ethnopharmacy Conclusion Index Reference Notes Included

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