Preface POLYESTERS Historical Background Preparative Methods Physical Properties Degradation Mechanisms Beyond Classical Poly(Hydroxycarboxylic Acids) BIOTECHNOLOGICALLY PRODUCED BIODEGRADABLE POLYESTERS Introduction History Polyhydroxyalkanoates - Granules Morphology Biosynthesis and Biodegradability of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) and Other Polyhydroxyalkanoates Extraction and Recovery Physical, Mechanical, and Thermal Properties of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Future Directions POLYANHYDRIDES Introduction Types of Polyanhydride Synthesis Properties In Vitro Degradation and Erosion of Polyanhydrides In Vivo Degradation and Elimination of Polyanhydrides Toxicological Aspects of Polyanhydrides Fabrication of Delivery Systems Production and World Market Biomedical Applications POLY(ORTHO ESTERS) Introduction poe II poe IV Solid Polymers Gel-Like Materials Polymers Based on an Alternate Diketene Acetal Conclusions BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS CMPOSED OF NATURALLY OCCURRING ALPHA-AMINO ACIDS Introduction Amino Acid-Based Biodegradable Polymers AABBPs) Conclusion and Perspectives BIODEGRADABLE POLYURETHANES AND POLY(ESTER AMIDE)S Chemistry and Properties of Biodegradable Polyurethanes Biodegradation Mechanisms of Polyurethanes New Polymerization Trends to Obtain Degradable Polyurethanes Aliphatic Poly(ester amide)s: A Family of Biodegradable Thermoplastics with Interest as New Biomaterials CARBOHYDRATES Introduction Alginate Carrageenan Cellulose and Its Derivatives Microbial Cellulose Chitin and Chitosan Dextran Gellan Guar Gum Hyaluronic Acid (Hyaluronan) Puululan Scleroglucan Xanthan Summary BIODEGRADABLE SHAPE-MEMORY POLYMERS Introduction General Concept of SMPs Classes of Degradable SMPs Applications of Biodegradable SMPs BIODEGRADABLE ELASTIC HYDROGELS FOR TISSUE EXPANDER APPLICATION Introduction Synthesis of Elastic Hydrogels Physical Properties of Elastic Hydrogels Applications of Elastic Hydrogels Elastic Hydrogels for Tissue Expander Applications BIODEGRADABLE DENDRIMERS AND DENDRITIC POLYMERS Introduction Challenges for Designing Biodegradable Dendrimers Design of Self-Immolative Biodegradable Dendrimers Biological Implications of Biodegradable Dendrimers Future Perspectives of Biodegradable Dendrimers Concluding Remarks ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR MONITORING BIODEGRADATION PROCESSES OF ENVIRONMENTALLY DEGRADABLE POLYMERS Introduction Some Background Defining Biodegradability Mechanisms of Polymer Degradation Measuring Biodegradation of Polymers Conclusions MODELING AND SIMULATION OF MICROBIAL DEPOLYMERIZATION PROCESSES OF XENOBIOTIC POLYMERS Introduction Analysis of Exogeneous Depolymerization Materials and Methods Analysis of Endogenous Depolymerization Discussion REGENERATIVE MEDICINE: RECONSTRUCTION OF TRACHEAL AND PHARYNGEAL MUCOSAL DEFECTS IN HEAD AND NECK SURGERY Introduction Regenerative Medicine for the Reconstruction of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract Methods and Novel Therapeutical Options in Head and Neck Surgery Vascularization of Tissue-Engineered Constructs Application of Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine Conclusion BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS AS SCAFFOLDS FOR TISSUE ENGINEERING Introduction Short Overview of Regenerative Biology Minimum Requirements for Tissue Engineering Structure of Scaffolds Biodegradable Polymers for Tissue Engineering Some Examples for Clinical Application of Scaffold Conclusions DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS Introduction The Clinical Need for Drug Delivery Systems Poly(Alpha-Hydroxyl Acids) Polyanhydrides Manufacturing Routes Examples of Biodegradable Polymer Drug Delivery Systems Under Development Concluding Remarks OXO-BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS: PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES Introduction Controlled-Lifetime Plastics The Abiotic Oxidation of Polyolefins Enhanced Oxo-Biodegradation of Polyolefins Processability and Recovery of Oxo-Biodegradable Polyolefins Concluding Remarks
Andreas Lendlein is Director of the Institute of Polymer Research at Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht in Teltow, Germany, and serves on the Board of Directors of the Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Berlin. He is Professor for Materials in Life Sciences at University of Potsdam and Professor in Chemistry at the Freie Universitat Berlin as well as member of the medical faculty of Charite University Medicine Berlin. His research interests in macromolecular chemistry and material science are polymer-based biomaterials with special emphasis given to multifunctional materials, stimuli-sensitive polymers, especially shape-memory polymers, and biomimetic polymers. Furthermore, he explores potential applications of such biomaterials in biofunctional implants, controlled drug delivery systems, and regenerative therapies. He completed his habilitation in Macromolecular Chemistry in 2002 at the RWTH Aachen University, worked as a visiting scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and received his doctoral degree in Materials Science from Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich in 1996. Andreas Lendlein received more than 20 awards for his scientific work, and his achievements as an entrepreneur including the BioFUTURE Award in 1998, the 2000 Hermann-Schnell Award and the World Technology Network Award in the category Health & Medicine in 2005. He has published more than 220 papers in journals and books, and is an inventor of more than 250 published patents and patent applications. Adam Sisson received his PhD in Supramolecular Chemistry in 2005 under the guidance of Professor Anthony Davis at the University of Bristol, UK. Following this, he moved into the group of Professor Stefan Matile at the University of Geneva, Switzerland, to conduct postdoctoral research in self-assembling nanomaterials. In 2007 he embarked upon research into polymeric nanogels as an Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung sponsored research fellow with Professor Rainer Haag at the Free University of Berlin, Germany. Since 2010 he is leading a Junior research group "Cell and Tissue Specific Materials" at the Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht in Teltow, Germany. His research interests focus on studying and manipulating the interactions of synthetic materials with various biological moieties in a range of applications.
In short, the handbook is a very good reference for getting information about different types of biodegradable polymers with important examples, synthetic procedures, and application areas, specifically for medicine and biomedical applications. (Materials Views, 15 July 2014)