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A Handbook for Construction Planning and Scheduling


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Table of Contents

Notes on Contributors xiv Foreword xvii Preface xviii Acknowledgements xxi About the Companion Website xxii Section I?Planning and Scheduling within the Construction Context 1 Introduction 1 1 An Introduction to Planning and Scheduling 3 A brief history of planning and scheduling 3 Critical path methods 4 The impact of the PC 5 New systems and new thinking 6 New information and communication technologies 6 Planning 7 Who plans? 8 Planning, programming and scheduling 8 The cost and benefits of planning 10 Types of plans 11 An activity of the mind 11 Planning for construction 12 The planning process in the project cycle 13 PRINCE2 14 CIOB code of practice for project management for construction and development 15 The RIBA plan of work 17 The process protocol map 19 Summary 23 How is the planning process affected by procurement? 24 The context of construction project planning 27 Procurement and the performance of the UK construction industry 28 The Egan report (1998) 29 Partnering 30 Public sector construction procurement: The private finance initiative (PFI) 31 What do construction planners do? 31 Construction planning practice: a summary 33 Key points 34 2 Managing Construction Projects 36 Li Baiyi and Simon Austin Project management body of knowledge (PMBOK) 36 Simultaneous management 41 Lean construction 42 A theory of construction as production by projects 44 Collaborative working 46 Morris? perspective 47 Summary 47 Key points 50 Section II?Planning and Scheduling Techniques and Practices 51 Introduction 51 3 Planning and Scheduling Techniques 53 To-do lists 53 Bar charts 55 Flow diagrams 56 Flow charts 56 Work study 57 Network analysis 59 Activity-on-arrow networks 60 Drawing the network 60 Precedence diagrams 63 Drawing the network-precedence diagrams 63 Linked bar charts 65 Space diagrams 65 Time chainage charts 65 Multiple activity charts 69 Line of balance 71 Line of balance ? resource scheduling 73 ADePT 74 Data flow diagrams 75 A generic model for detailed building design 75 Dependency structure matrix analysis 76 Producing project and departmental schedules 79 4D CAD 79 Key points 80 4 Planning and Scheduling Practices 81 Schedule design and structure 81 Level 1 schedule report 81 Level 2 schedule report 82 Level 3 schedule report 82 Level 4 schedule report 83 Level 5 schedule report 83 What is required on smaller projects? 83 Creating these schedules 84 Work Breakdown Structure 84 Pre-tender planning, pre-contract planning, contract planning 86 Pre-tender planning 86 Pre-contract planning 92 Contract planning 94 Activities: selection, sequencing and duration 96 Activity selection 96 Sequencing 98 Assessing the duration of each activity 99 Links, dependencies and constraints 100 Float and contingency 102 Total float 103 Free float 104 Interfering float 105 Independent float 105 Intermittent float 106 Negative float 107 Terminal float 108 Internal float 108 Contingency 109 Manipulation of float 110 Who owns the float? 111 Monitoring progress and managing the time model 112 Reviewing the assumptions used to produce the schedule 113 Collecting and reviewing production records and progress reports 114 Reviewing the activities currently in progress 114 Updating the schedule 115 Identifying intervening events 117 Assessing progress and forecasting completion 119 Reviewing contingencies and revising the working schedule to effect a recovery 119 Other methods of monitoring progress 119 Milestone monitoring 119 Cash flow monitoring 120 Activity schedules 120 Planned progress monitoring 120 Earned value analysis 121 Resources and cost optimisation 122 Resources 122 Method statements 127 Format of the method statement 127 The tender method statement (for submission to the client) 127 The tender method statement (for internal use) 129 The construction or work method statement 129 The health and safety method statement 129 Planning method statement 130 Site layout plans 132 At the tender stage 132 At the pre-contract stage 134 At the contract stage 134 Site waste management plans 134 Contractors? cash flow 135 Bank borrowings 136 Head office overheads 136 Working capital 136 Uncertainty and risk 139 Risk management 140 How do contractors price risk in bids? 143 Key points 146 Section III?Planning and Scheduling Methods 149 Introduction 149 5 Critical Chain Project Management 151 Background 151 How does CCPM differ from accepted best practice in project management? 152 Establishing the critical chain 152 Monitoring and controlling the critical chain 153 A critical review of CCPM 155 Key points 157 6 Earned Value Analysis 158 Terminology and definitions 158 Cost Performance Index (CPI) 159 Cost variance 159 Earned value analysis (EVA) 159 Earned value management (EVM) 159 Earned value management system (EVMS) 159 Budgeted cost of work scheduled 159 Budget at completion (BAC) 159 Actual cost of work performed (ACWP) 160 Budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP) 160 Earned value (EV) 160 Performance measurement baseline 160 Schedule Performance Index (SPI) 160 Schedule variance (SV) 160 The basis of the EVA 160 Earned value analysis calculations and their interpretation 163 Forecasting 164 An example of EVA calculations 164 Earned value management systems 167 Problems and pitfalls of EVA and how to overcome them 168 Key points 170 7 Last Planner (R) 171 Background 171 The development of Last Planner (R) 172 Principles of the Last Planner System (R) (LPS) 174 Implementing the Last Planner System (R) (LPS) 175 Improving production performance 179 Benefits of the Last Planner (R) System 179 Barriers to the adoption of Last Planner (R) 180 Key points 181 8 ADePT?Planning, Managing and Controlling the Design Process 182 Background 182 A new way of working 183 Defining the scope of the design process 185 Process sequencing 185 Scheduling 185 Controlling the design workflow 186 Practical implementation 186 A facilitated approach to planning 186 Integrating design with procurement and construction 188 Managing constraints and measuring progress 189 Summary 191 Key points 191 9 Building Information Modelling (BIM) 192 What is building information modelling (BIM)? 192 BIM is not new 193 Why now? 194 BIM maturity levels 195 Level 0 195 Level 1 195 Level 2 196 Level 3 196 The development of 4D CAD 197 Virtual construction 200 The requirement collection phase 200 The model building phase 200 The process simulation phase 202 How will BIM change construction planning and scheduling? 202 BIM and the law 203 Key points 203 10 Planning for Sustainability with BREEAM 204 Samuel Ewuosho Background 204 The need for sustainable construction 204 Drivers of sustainable construction 205 Legislative drivers 205 Client (market-led) requirements 206 Professional responsibility 206 Competitors 206 BREEAM 207 BREEAM sections 209 Management 209 Health and wellbeing 209 Energy 209 Transport 210 Water section 210 Materials 211 Waste 211 Land use and ecology 211 Pollution section 211 Innovation 211 Industry response to BREEAM 212 Case study analysis 213 Different projects produce different management situations 213 Individual perceptions of sustainability and BREEAM 214 Key points 215 11 Planning for Waste Management 216 Sarah-Jane Holmes and Mohamed Osmani Background 216 Construction waste causes and origins 217 Materials procurement 217 Design 218 Site operations 218 On-site waste management practices 219 On-site waste management techniques 220 Site Waste Management Plan (SWMP) requirements 221 How the research was undertaken 222 Research results 222 Construction waste origins 222 Waste production and potential waste minimisation across projects? life cycle 223 Discussion 225 Key challenges associated with implementing SWMPs 226 Key points 227 12 Planning for Safety, Health and Environment 228 Alastair Gibb Background 228 SHE management model: An overview 228 Planning 230 Hazard/risk identification and control 231 Risk control measures 231 Developing the SHE plan 239 Programme for occupational health 242 Right info, right people, right time 243 Construction risk assessments 243 Constructability reviews 243 Method statements 244 Job safety analysis (JSA) 244 Environment 245 Emergency preparedness 245 Key points 246 Section iV D elay and Forensic Analysis 247 Introduction 247 13 Delays 249 Delay and disruption: Definitions 249 Delays 250 Categories of delay 251 Types of delay 251 Date 251 Total 252 Extended 252 Additional 254 Progress 254 Sequence 255 Fragnets 256 Prospective versus retrospective delay and other concepts 256 Key points 259 14 Factual Information 260 The As-Planned schedule 260 Correcting the As-Planned schedule 261 Key contract dates 262 Missing logic links 262 Constraints 263 Activity durations 264 Sequence of activities 264 Missing activities 265 Additional activities 265 Scope change 266 Software 266 Bar chart to network 267 As-built/progress records 269 As-built schedule 272 Key points 275 15 Protocols and Methods of Analysis 276 The Society of Construction Law Delay and Disruption Protocol 276 AACEI recommended practice no. 29R-03 ? Forensic schedule analysis 279 Methods of analysis 280 Global claims 286 As-planned versus as-built 289 Impacted as-planned 291 Time impact analysis 300 Collapsed as-built 317 Windows 319 As-Planned versus As-Built 325 Time impact analysis 325 As-Planned versus As- Built #2 Or Time Slice Analysis 326 Key points 327 16 Disruption 328 Definitions and background 328 Methods of analysis 329 Measured mile 329 Leonard/Ibbs curves 332 Indices and statistics 335 Key points 336 17 Other Issues 337 Out-of-Sequence progress 337 Progress override 338 Retained logic 338 Omissions 340 Calendars 341 Weather 345 Concurrent delay 348 Pacing 352 Mitigation 352 Acceleration 354 Employer/contractor/subcontractor schedules 355 Key points 356 Appendices Appendix 1 BIM Case Study: One Island East 358 Appendix 2 The Shepherd Way and Collaborative Planning 362 Appendix 3 Building Information Modelling (BIM) and English Law 367 Stacy Sinclair Glossary 371 References 389 Index 399

About the Author

Andrew Baldwin, BSc(Hons), MSc, PhD, CEng, FICE, Eur Ing,has extensive construction industry and academic experience.Following a career in the civil engineering and constructionindustries that included planning and scheduling for a number ofmajor construction projects, he commenced an academic career atLoughborough University, UK, where he is now Emeritus Professor inConstruction Management. He is also a Distinguished VisitingProfessor at Chongqing University, China, where he is a Co-Directorof the National Centre for International Research of Low-Carbon andGreen Buildings, a position funded under the national OneThousand Experts programme. David Bordoli, BSc, MSc, FCIOB, MAPM, ACIArb, is anextremely experienced planning professional who began his career asa planning engineer with construction contractors then worked as aconsultant, providing contractual advice, preparing time delayclaims, reports for adjudications, arbitrations and litigation, andundertaking expert witness appointments in delay and disruptiondisputes in construction and engineering. He is now a Director ofDriver Trett and has recently spent most of his time working onoverseas projects, particularly in South Africa.

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