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Handbook for Blast Resistant Design of Buildings
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Table of Contents

Preface xv Contributors xix I Design Considerations 1 1 General Considerations for Blast-Resistant Design 3 Donald O. Dusenberry 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Design Approaches 4 1.3 The Blast Environment 5 1.4 Structure As an Influence on Blast Loads 6 1.5 Structural Response 8 1.6 Nonstructural Elements 9 1.7 Effect of Mass 10 1.8 Systems Approach 12 1.9 Information Sensitivity 13 1.10 Summary 14 References 15 2 Design Considerations 17 Robert Ducibella and James Cunningham 2.1 Introduction 17 2.2 A New Paradigm for Designing Blast-Resistant Buildings, Venues, and Sites 18 2.3 A Brief History of Recent Terrorist Attacks 21 2.3.1 Terrorists' Use of Explosives 21 2.3.2 Vehicle-Borne Improvised Explosive Devices 22 2.3.3 Person-Borne Improvised Explosive Devices 24 2.3.4 Locally Available Explosives 25 2.3.5 Some Counterterrorism Considerations 27 2.4 Collaborating to Analyze Risk 28 2.4.1 Step 1-Threat Identification and Rating 28 2.4.2 Step 2-The Asset Value Assessment 31 2.4.3 Step 3-The Vulnerability Assessment 34 2.4.4 Step 4-The Risk Assessment 38 2.4.5 Step 5-Considering Mitigation Options 39 2.4.6 The Continuing Role of Risk Management 40 2.5 Consequence Management 42 2.5.1 Consequence Evaluation 44 2.5.2 Function Redundancy 48 2.5.3 Building Location 51 2.5.4 Building Dispersal/Distribution of Functional Programs 54 2.5.5 Disaster Recovery and Contingency Planning 56 2.6 Threat Reduction 57 2.6.1 Accidental Explosions 59 2.6.2 Intentional Explosions 60 2.7 Vulnerability Reduction 63 2.7.1 Standoff Distance 64 2.7.2 Physical Security 65 2.7.3 Operational Security 65 2.7.4 Structural Design 65 2.8 Risk Acceptance 70 2.8.1 Design to Threat 71 2.8.2 Design to Budget 73 2.9 Some Recent Examples of Security Design "Best Practices" 75 2.10 Related Phenomena 76 2.10.1 Progressive Collapse 77 2.10.2 Disruption of Evacuation, Rescue, and Recovery Systems 79 2.10.3 Attendant Fires 81 2.11 Security Design Consideration Guidelines 83 2.12 Conclusion 84 References 85 3 Performance Criteria for Blast-Resistant Structural Components 87 Charles J. Oswald 3.1 Introduction 87 3.2 Building and Component Performance Criteria 88 3.3 Response Parameters 91 3.4 Empirical Correlations between Response Parameters and Component Damage 95 3.5 Response Criteria Development 99 3.5.1 Explosive Safety Criteria 99 3.5.2 Response Criteria for Antiterrorism 102 3.5.3 Response Criteria for Blast-Resistant Design of Petrochemical Facilities 105 3.5.4 Blast Resistant Doors 107 3.5.5 Blast-Resistant Windows 109 3.5.6 Response Criteria for Equivalent Static Loads 112 3.5.7 Comparisons of Published Response Criteria 113 3.6 Response Criteria Limitations 114 References 116 4 Materials Performance 119 Andrew Whittaker and John Abruzzo 4.1 Introduction 119 4.2 Structural Steel 119 4.2.1 Stress-Strain Relationships 119 4.2.2 Constitutive Models for Structural Steel 120 4.2.3 Component Level Strain Rate and Temperature Effects 123 4.2.4 Mechanical Properties for Design 125 4.2.5 Failure Modes of Structural Components 127 4.3 Reinforced Concrete 129 4.3.1 Stress-Strain Relationships for Concrete 129 4.3.2 Stress-Strain Relationships for Reinforcement 132 4.3.3 Constitutive Modeling of Concrete and Rebar 132 4.3.4 Component Level Strain-Rate Effects 136 4.3.5 Mechanical Properties for Design 138 4.3.6 Component-Level Failure Modes 141 4.4 Strength-Reduction Factors for Steel and Reinforced Concrete 144 References 145 5 Performance Verification 149 Curt Betts 5.1 Introduction 149 5.2 Performance Verification 149 5.3 Testing 150 5.3.1 Vehicle Barrier Testing 150 5.3.2 Building Components 151 5.4 Analysis 156 5.5 Peer Review 157 References 157 II Blast Phenomena and Loadings 159 6 Blast Phenomena 161 Paul F. Mlakar and Darrell Barker 6.1 Introduction 161 6.2 Sources of Blasts 162 6.3 Characteristics of Blast Waves 170 6.3.1 Key Parameters 170 6.3.2 Scaling 171 6.4 Prediction of Blast Parameters 172 6.4.1 High Explosives 172 6.4.2 Bursting Pressure Vessels 177 6.4.3 Vapor Cloud Explosions 178 6.5 Summary 181 References 181 7 Blast Loading 183 Paul F. Mlakar and William Bounds 7.1 Introduction 183 7.2 Empirical Method 183 7.2.1 Empirical Method-Basic Blast Wave Example 186 7.3 Front Wall Loads 186 7.3.1 Empirical Method-Front Wall Loading Example 188 7.3.2 Empirical Method-Oblique Angle Example 192 7.4 Side Wall and Roof Loads 192 7.4.1 Empirical Method-Side Wall Loading Example 194 7.4.2 Empirical Method-Roof Loading Example 196 7.5 Rear Wall Loads 197 7.5.1 Empirical Method-Rear Wall Loading Example 197 7.6 Confined Explosions 198 7.7 Leakage 206 7.8 Ray-Tracing Procedures 208 7.9 Summary 212 References 212 8 Fragmentation 215 Kim King 8.1 Introduction 215 8.2 Debris 215 8.3 Loadings 215 8.3.1 Primary Fragmentation 216 8.3.2 Secondary Fragmentation 218 8.4 Design Fragment Parameters 226 8.4.1 Fragment Final Velocity 226 8.4.2 Fragment Trajectory 227 8.5 Fragment Impact Damage 228 8.5.1 Fragment Penetration into Miscellaneous Materials (THOR Equation) 229 8.5.2 Steel 231 8.5.3 Fragment Penetration into Concrete Targets 233 8.5.4 Fragment Perforation of Concrete Targets 235 8.5.5 Fragment Spalling of Concrete Targets 236 8.5.6 Roofing Materials 236 8.5.7 Other Materials 237 References 237 III System Analysis and Design 239 9 Structural Systems Design 241 Robert Smilowitz and Darren Tennant 9.1 General Discussion 241 9.1.1 Seismic versus Blast 241 9.1.2 Analytical Methods 243 9.2 Modeling 244 9.2.1 Systems 245 9.2.2 Materials 246 9.2.3 Members 248 9.2.4 Connections 251 9.3 Analytical Approaches 252 9.3.1 P-I Diagrams 252 9.3.2 Single-Element Analyses 253 9.3.3 Structural Systems Response 255 9.3.4 Explicit Dynamic Finite Element Analyses 255 9.4 Progressive Collapse 256 9.4.1 European Guidance 258 9.4.2 U.S. Guidance 258 References 261 10 Building Envelope and Glazing 263 Eve Hinman and Christopher Arnold 10.1 Design Intent 263 10.1.1 Life Safety 263 10.1.2 Emergency Egress and Facilitating Search and Rescue 264 10.1.3 Critical Functions (Protecting Equipment and Business Processes) 264 10.2 Design Approach 265 10.2.1 Response Criteria 269 10.2.2 Static versus Dynamic 270 10.2.3 Balanced Design 270 10.2.4 Load Path 270 10.3 Fenestration 272 10.3.1 Glass 273 10.3.2 Mullions/Transoms 278 10.3.3 Frame and Anchorage 279 10.3.4 Supporting Structure 280 10.3.5 Other Penetrations 280 10.4 Exterior Walls 281 10.4.1 Concrete Walls 282 10.4.2 Masonry 285 10.4.3 Steel 285 10.4.4 Other 286 10.5 Roof Systems 289 10.5.1 Concrete 289 10.5.2 Steel 289 10.5.3 Composite 290 10.5.4 Penthouses/Gardens 290 10.6 Below Grade 290 10.7 Reduction of Blast Pressures 292 References 294 11 Protection of Spaces 297 MeeLing Moy and Andrew Hart 11.1 Areas Isolating Interior Threats 297 11.2 Stairwell Enclosures 298 11.3 Hardened Plenums 298 11.4 Safe Havens 299 11.4.1 FEMA Documents 299 11.4.2 Multi-Hazard Threats 300 11.4.3 Design Requirements for Protective Shelters 301 References 305 12 Defended Perimeter 307 Joseph L. Smith and Charles C. Ellison 12.1 Goals 307 12.2 Standoff 307 12.2.1 Balancing Hardening with Standoff 309 12.2.2 Balancing Costs 311 12.2.3 Site Planning 313 12.3 Vehicle Control Barriers 316 12.3.1 Crash Testing 316 12.3.2 Crash Modeling 317 12.3.3 Walls 319 12.3.4 Bollards 319 12.3.5 Active Wedge 320 12.3.6 Beam Barriers 320 12.3.7 Cable-Based Systems 323 12.3.8 Planter and Surface Barriers 324 12.3.9 Berms, Ditches, and Other Landscaping Features 324 12.4 Pedestrian Control Barriers 325 12.5 Blast Walls and Berms 327 References 329 13 Blast-Resistant Design of Building Systems 331 Scott Campbell and James Ruggieri 13.1 Background 331 13.2 Introduction 332 13.3 Design Considerations 333 13.3.1 Level of Protection 334 13.3.2 Blast Pressures 334 13.3.3 Shock Induced by the Structure 335 13.3.4 Equipment/System Anchorage 337 13.3.5 Placement of Critical Systems Equipment and Control Stations 340 13.3.6 Staffing and Building Operations 340 13.3.7 Construction of Hardened Spaces 341 13.3.8 HVAC and Plumbing Systems 341 13.3.9 Electrical Systems 344 13.3.10 Lighting Systems 346 13.3.11 Other Systems/Considerations 346 13.4 Loading Calculation 348 13.4.1 Blast Pressure 349 13.4.2 In-Structure Shock 352 13.5 Summary 362 References 363 IV Blast-Resistant Detailing 365 14 Blast-Resistant Design Concepts and Member Detailing 367 Steven Smith and W. Gene Corley 14.1 General 367 14.1.1 Scope 367 14.2 Failure Modes 368 14.2.1 Flexural 368 14.2.2 Diagonal Tension 369 14.2.3 Direct Shear 369 14.2.4 Membrane 369 14.2.5 Stability 370 14.3 Detailing 370 14.3.1 General 370 14.3.2 Splices 371 14.3.3 Columns 372 14.3.4 Beams 375 14.3.5 Beam-Column Joints 377 14.3.6 Slabs 378 14.3.7 Walls 380 References 380 15 Blast-Resistant Design Concepts and Member Detailing: Steel 383 Charles Carter 15.1 General 383 15.1.1 Typical Building Designs 383 15.1.2 Prescriptive Building Designs 384 15.1.3 Performance-Based Building Designs 385 15.2 Blast Effects on Structural Steel and Composite Structures 386 15.2.1 Member Ductility 386 15.2.2 Connection Ductility 386 15.2.3 Overstrength 386 15.2.4 Beneficial Strain-Rate Effects 386 15.2.5 Beneficial Effects of Composite Construction 387 15.2.6 Perimeter Column Design 387 15.2.7 Perimeter Girder Design 387 15.2.8 Slab Design 388 15.3 Analysis and Design of Structural Members 388 15.4 Steel Material Properties for Blast Design 388 15.4.1 Strength Increase Factor (SIF) 389 15.4.2 Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF) 389 15.4.3 Dynamic Design Stress 390 15.5 Design Criteria for Blast Design 390 15.5.1 General 390 15.5.2 Load Combinations 391 15.5.3 Resistance Factor and Factor of Safety 391 15.5.4 Local Buckling 391 15.5.5 Lateral-Torsional Buckling 391 15.5.6 Deformation Criteria 391 15.5.7 Detailing for Specific Failure Modes: 393 15.6 Examples 397 15.6.1 Example 1-Determining Capacities 397 15.6.2 Example 2-Design and Analysis for Blast Loads on Members 402 15.7 Design of Connections 418 References 419 16 Blast-Resistant Design Concepts and Member Detailing: Masonry 421 Shalva Marjanishvili 16.1 General Considerations 423 16.1.1 Masonry 424 16.1.2 Reinforcement 424 16.1.3 Mortar 425 16.1.4 Grout 425 16.1.5 Construction Methods 425 16.2 Failure Modes 426 16.2.1 Flexure 428 16.2.2 Diagonal Tension Shear 431 16.2.3 Direct Shear 432 16.2.4 Breach and Spall Phenomena 432 16.3 Reinforced Masonry Detailing 434 16.3.1 General 435 16.3.2 Longitudinal Reinforcement 435 16.3.3 Horizontal Reinforcement 435 16.3.4 Walls 438 16.3.5 Support Connections 438 16.4 Unreinforced Masonry 439 16.4.1 Performance Evaluation 439 16.4.2 Retrofit Recommendations 440 References 442 17 Retrofit of Structural Components and Systems 445 John E. Crawford and L. Javier Malvar 17.1 Introduction 445 17.2 Retrofit of Columns 446 17.2.1 Reinforced Concrete Columns 446 17.2.2 Steel Columns 454 17.3 Retrofit of Walls 458 17.3.1 Masonry Walls 458 17.3.2 Stud Walls 466 17.4 Floors 466 17.5 Beams/Girders/Connections 468 17.6 Structural System 469 17.7 References 469 17.7.1 Inexact Science 469 17.7.2 Complexities 470 References 470 Index 477

About the Author

DONALD O. DUSENBERRY, PE , is Senior Principal of Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Inc., where he has worked since 1975. He is also the Committee Chair of the ASCE/SEI Blast Protection of Buildings Standard Committee and the ASCE/SEI Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures Standard Committee, and he serves on the Board of Governors of the ASCE Structural Engineering Institute. Serving as the principal investigator, Mr. Dusenberry studied the sinking of the Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge near Seattle, the collapse of L'Ambiance Plaza in Bridgeport, and the 9/11 attack on New York City's World Trade Center.

Reviews

'...features contributions from some of the most knowledgeable and experienced consultants and researchers in blast resistant design .' (Structural Engineer, May 2011).

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