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Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings
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Preface xvii List of Abbreviations xix 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Why Lubricate Rolling Bearings? 1 1.2 History of Grease Lubrication 2 1.3 Grease Versus Oil Lubrication 3 2 Lubrication Mechanisms 5 2.1 Introduction 5 2.2 Definition of Grease 6 2.3 Operating Conditions 6 2.4 The Phases in Grease Lubrication 7 2.5 Film Thickness During the Bleeding Phase 8 2.6 Feed and Loss Mechanisms During the Bleeding Phase 10 2.7 Film Thickness and Starvation (Side Flow) 11 2.8 Track Replenishment 12 2.9 Grease Flow 13 2.10 Wall-Slip 15 2.11 Oxidation 16 2.12 EP Additives 16 2.13 Dynamic Behaviour 17 2.14 Grease Life 17 3 Grease Composition and Properties 23 3.1 Base Oil 24 3.2 Base Oil Viscosity and Density 41 3.3 Thickener 49 3.4 Additives 61 3.5 Solid Fillers/Dry Lubricants 66 3.6 Compatibility 67 3.7 Polymer Grease 67 4 Grease Life in Rolling Bearings 71 4.1 Introduction 71 4.2 Relubrication Intervals and Grease Life 71 4.3 The Traffic Light Concept 72 4.4 Grease Life as a Function of Temperature in the Green Zone 75 4.5 SKF Relubrication and Grease Life 76 4.6 Comparison Grease Life/Relubrication Models 78 4.7 Very Low and High Speeds 82 4.8 Large Rolling Bearings 85 4.9 Effect of Load 86 4.10 Effect of Outer-Ring Rotation 90 4.11 Cage Material 90 4.12 Bearing Type 91 4.13 Temperature and Bearing Material 92 4.14 Grease Fill 94 4.15 Vertical Shaft 95 4.16 Vibrations and Shock Loads 96 4.17 Grease Shelf Life/Storage Life 97 5 Lubricating Grease Rheology 99 5.1 Visco-Elastic Behaviour 99 5.2 Viscometers 102 5.3 Oscillatory Shear 108 5.4 Shear Thinning and Yield 112 5.5 Yield Stress 118 5.6 Wall-Slip Effects 122 5.7 Translation Between Oscillatory Shear and Linear Shear Measurements 125 5.8 Normal stresses 126 5.9 Time Dependent Viscosity and Thixotropy 128 5.10 Tackiness 133 6 Grease and Base Oil Flow 137 6.1 Grease Flow in Pipes 137 6.2 Grease Flow in Rolling Bearings 149 7 Grease Bleeding 157 7.1 Introduction 157 7.2 Ball Versus Roller Bearings 158 7.3 Grease Bleeding Measurement Techniques 158 7.4 Bleeding from the Covers and Under the Cage 159 7.5 A Grease Bleeding Model for Pressurized Grease by Centrifugal Forces 161 8 Grease Aging 171 8.1 Mechanical Aging 172 8.2 Grease Oxidation 179 8.3 The Chemistry of Base Oil Film Oxidation 181 8.4 Oxidation of the Thickener 183 8.5 A Simple Model for Base Oil Degradation 184 8.6 Polymerization 186 8.7 Evaporation 186 8.8 Simple Models for the Life of Base Oil 186 9 Film Thickness Theory for Single Contacts 191 9.1 Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication 192 9.2 Contact Geometry and Deformation 198 9.3 EHL Film Thickness, Oil 202 9.4 EHD Film Thickness, Grease 205 9.5 Starvation 212 9.6 Spin 225 10 Film Thickness in Grease Lubricated Rolling Bearings 227 10.1 Thin Layer Flow on Bearing Surfaces 228 10.2 Starved EHL for Rolling Bearings 234 10.3 Cage Clearance and Film Thickness 239 10.4 Full Bearing Film Thickness 241 11 Grease dynamics 245 11.1 Introduction 245 11.2 Grease Reservoir Formation 245 11.3 Temperature Behaviour 246 11.4 Temperature and Film Breakdown 249 11.5 Chaotic Behaviour 249 11.6 Quantitative Analysis of Grease Tests 253 11.7 Discussion 254 12 Reliability 257 12.1 Failure Distribution 258 12.2 Mean Life and Time Between Failures 261 12.3 Percentile Life 264 12.4 Point and Interval Estimates 265 12.5 Sudden Death Testing 275 12.6 System Life Prediction 281 13 Grease Lubrication and Bearing Life 283 13.1 Bearing Failure Modes 283 13.2 Rated Fatigue Life of Grease Lubricated Rolling Bearings 285 13.3 Background of the Fatigue Life Ratings of Grease Lubricated Bearings 289 13.4 Lubricant Chemistry and Bearing Life 296 13.5 Water in Grease 304 13.6 Surface Finish Aspects Related to Grease Lubrication 306 14 Grease Lubrication Mechanisms in Bearing Seals 309 14.1 Introduction 309 14.2 Lubrication Mechanisms for Radial Lip Seals 309 14.3 Sealing Action of Grease 312 14.4 Softening and Leakage 319 14.5 Compatibility 320 14.6 A Film Thickness Model for Bearing Seals 320 14.7 Importance of Sealing Grease Inside the Bearing 324 15 Condition Monitoring and Maintenance 327 15.1 Condition Monitoring 327 15.2 Acoustic Emission 328 15.3 Lubcheck 330 15.4 Consistency Measurement 331 15.5 Oil Bleeding Properties 332 15.6 Oil Content 332 15.7 Particle Contamination 332 15.8 Spectroscopy 333 15.9 Linear Voltammetry 334 15.10 Total Acid Number 335 15.11 DCS ? Differential Scanning Calorimetry 335 15.12 Oxidation Bomb 336 15.13 Water 336 16 Grease Qualification Testing 339 16.1 Introduction 339 16.2 Standard Test Methods 339 16.3 Some Qualification Criteria for Grease Selection 374 16.4 Pumpability 375 17 Lubrication Systems 377 17.1 Single Point Lubrication Methods 379 17.2 Centralized Grease Lubrication Systems 380 17.3 Pumps 382 17.4 Valves 384 17.5 Distributors 386 17.6 Single-Line Centralized Lubrication Systems 386 17.7 Dual-Line Lubrication Systems 393 17.8 Progressive Lubrication Systems 394 17.9 Multi-Line Lubrication System 397 17.10 Cyclic Grease Flow 397 17.11 Requirements of the Grease 398 17.12 Grease Pumpability Tests 402 A Characteristics of Paraffinic Hydrocarbons 413 References 415 Index

About the Author

Piet M. Lugt SKF, The Netherlands

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