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Gosling, E
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Table of Contents

Preface viii Acknowledgements x 1 Phylogeny and evolution of bivalve molluscs 1 Phylogeny of the Mollusca 1 Phylogeny and evolution of Bivalvia 3 Evolution and adaptive radiation in Bivalvia 7 Notes 10 References 10 2 Morphology of bivalves 12 Introduction 12 Shell 12 Mantle 21 Gills 24 The foot 27 Labial palps and alimentary canal 31 Gonads 34 Heart and haemolymph vessels 34 Excretory organs 35 Nerves and sensory receptors 36 References 38 3 Ecology of bivalves 44 Introduction 44 Global and local distribution patterns 44 Factors affecting geographic distribution 52 Factors affecting local distribution 55 Climate change 78 Note 84 References 84 4 How bivalves feed 99 Introduction 99 Filtration rate 100 Particle processing on the gills, labial palps and in the stomach 110 The alimentary canal and digestive process 128 Absorption efficiency 139 Effects of bivalve suspension ]feeders on the ecosystem 141 Notes 144 References 144 5 Reproduction, settlement and recruitment 157 Introduction 157 Sexuality 157 Gametogenesis 159 Reproductive cycles 159 Factors controlling reproduction 165 Annual storage cycle 170 Reproductive effort and fecundity 171 Deleterious effects on the reproductive cycle 175 Fertilization 175 Larval development 177 Factors affecting larval growth 178 Larval dispersal and population connectivity 181 Larval identification and abundance estimation 184 Settlement, metamorphosis and post ]larval dispersal 185 References 189 6 Growth 203 Introduction 203 Methods of measuring absolute growth 203 Allometric growth 213 Scope for growth and dynamic energy budget models 216 Factors affecting growth 219 Note 232 References 232 7 Circulation, respiration, excretion and osmoregulation 243 Circulation 243 Respiration 246 Excretion and osmoregulation 260 Note 264 References 264 8 Fisheries and management of natural populations 270 Introduction 270 Population dynamics 271 Total mortality (Z) 279 Natural mortality (M) 280 Fishing mortality (F) 281 Fisheries assessment and management 282 Scallop fisheries 287 Oyster fisheries 301 Mussel fisheries 309 Clam fisheries 314 References 319 9 Bivalve culture 325 Introduction 325 Fundamentals of bivalve culture 326 Mussel culture 340 Oyster culture 348 Scallop culture 355 Clam culture 362 Bivalve culture and the environment 369 Ecosystem approach to bivalve culture 371 Note 374 References 375 10 Genetics in aquaculture 383 Introduction 383 Quantitative genetics and selective breeding 384 Selective breeding 386 Protein and DNA markers 394 Bivalve genomics 403 Chromosomal genetics and ploidy manipulation 408 Transgenics 417 Notes 419 References 419 11 Diseases and parasites 429 Introduction 429 Viruses 429 Bacteria 431 Fungi 434 Protistans 434 Porifera 447 Helminths 448 Annelids 451 Crustaceans 452 Neoplasia 454 Defence mechanisms 455 Perspectives 463 References 464 12 Public health 478 Introduction 478 Bacterial infections 478 Viral infections 480 Biotoxins 481 Industrial pollutants 488 Controls on the production and processing of bivalves 490 Elimination of pathogens and other hazards 495 Monitoring and quality control 499 HAACP system 502 Notes 508 References 508 Subject index 000 Species index 000

About the Author

Elizabeth Gosling PhD, DSc, based at the Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, Ireland, is an author of international repute with a huge wealth of research, teaching and hands-on experience of working with bivalves.

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