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Globalization: The Essentials
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Table of Contents

Preface xii About the Companion Website xiii 1 Globalization 1 Conceptualization, Origins, and History Conceptualizing Globalization 3 From "Solids" to "Liquids" 4 "Flows" 7 "Heavy" and "Light" 8 "Heavy" Structures that Expedite "Flows" 10 "Heavy" Structures as Barriers to "Flows" 12 Subtler Structural Barriers 16 Origins and History of Globalization 17 Hardwired 17 Cycles 18 Phases 18 Events 19 Broader, More Recent Changes 20 Chapter Summary 23 Discussion Questions 24 Further Reading 24 References 25 2 Theorizing Globalization 29 Imperialism 30 Colonialism 32 Development 33 Americanization 35 Anti?Americanism as a Global Process 37 Neoliberalism 38 Neoliberalism: Basic Ideas 41 The Neoliberal State 42 Critiquing Neoliberalism: Karl Polanyi 43 Contemporary Criticisms of Neoliberalism 44 Neo?Marxian Theories 46 Transnational Capitalism 46 Empire 48 Chapter Summary 51 Discussion Questions 53 Further Reading 53 References 54 3 Structuring the Global Economy 58 Before Bretton Woods 59 A Prior Epoch of Globalization 59 Economic Development During and After WW II 60 Bretton Woods and the Bretton Woods System 61 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 63 World Trade Organization (WTO) 64 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 65 World Bank 67 The End of Bretton Woods 69 Changes in, and Critiques of, Bretton Woods?Era Organizations 70 Other Important Economic Organizations 74 The Role of Emerging Economies 75 The Multinational Corporation (MNC) 76 The Myth of Economic Globalization? 79 Chapter Summary 80 Discussion Questions 81 Further Reading 81 References 82 4 Global Economic Flows 85 Trade 86 Trade Surpluses and Deficits 86 Global Trade: Economic Chains and Networks 87 Global Value Chains 88 T?Shirts 88 iPhones 90 Conventional, Hybrid, and Electric Automobiles 91 Increasing Competition for Commodities 92 The Economic Impact of the Flow of Oil 93 Oil Wealth 94 Race to the Bottom and Upgrading 96 Upgrading in the Less Developed World? 96 Outsourcing 98 Financial Globalization 100 The Great Recession 100 Consumption 104 Consumer Objects and Services 106 Consumers 106 Consumption Processes 106 Consumption Sites 107 Global Resistance 107 Chapter Summary 108 Discussion Questions 109 Further Reading 109 References 109 5 Global Political Structures and Processes 113 On Political Flows 114 The Nation?State 115 Threats to the Nation?State 116 Global Flows 116 Universal Human Rights 117 Sustainability and Liquid Sovereignty 118 In Defense of the Nation?State 119 "Imagined Community" 120 Changes in Global Nation?State Relations 122 The European Union and Brexit 122 China 125 United Nations (UN) 126 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 127 United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 127 Global Governance 127 Civil Society 130 International Non?Governmental Organizations (INGOS) 134 Chapter Summary 137 Discussion Questions 138 Further Reading 139 References 139 6 High?Tech Global Flows and Structures 143 Technology, Media, and the Internet Technology, Time-Space Compression, and Distanciation 144 Space?Based Technologies 146 Robots and Economic Production 147 Leapfrogging 148 Mass Media 151 Media Imperialism 152 New Global Media 153 Thinking About the Global Media 154 The Internet and Social Media 156 Online Social Networking 157 Bitcoin and Blockchain 159 The Internet in China 161 The Fight for Global Internet Governance 163 Social Media and Social Movements 164 Chapter Summary 166 Discussion Questions 167 Further Reading 167 References 168 7 Global Culture and Cultural Flows 171 Cultural Differentialism 173 Civilizations 173 Cultural Hybridization 177 Muslim Girl Scouts 179 Appadurai's "Landscapes" 180 Cultural Convergence 182 Cultural Imperialism 182 Deterritorialization 184 World Culture 184 McDonaldization 186 McDonaldization, Expansionism, and Globalization 188 Beyond Fast Food 189 The Globalization of Nothing 191 Cricket: Local, Glocal, or Grobal? 192 Chapter Summary 193 Discussion Questions 194 Further Reading 194 References 195 8 Global Flows of Migrants 198 Migrants 199 Migration 200 Flows of Migrants to and from the United States 203 Undocumented Mexican Migrants to the United States 203 Increased Law Enforcement 205 Flows of Migrants into and within Europe 208 Brexit and British-EU Migration 208 Undocumented Migration Across the Mediterranean into Europe 209 Flows of Migrants in Asia 211 The Case Against the Backlash to Undocumented, or"Illegal," Immigration 213 Remittances 215 Diaspora 218 Chapter Summary 220 Discussion Questions 221 Further Reading 221 References 222 9 Global Environmental Flows 225 Modernization and Environmental Flows 227 Differences Among Nation?States 229 Global Climate Change 230 Rising Sea Levels 231 Loss of Biodiversity 232 Threats to Food Security 233 Global Warming and Health 233 Other Environmental Problems 234 Destruction of Natural Habitats 235 Decline of Fish 235 Decline in Fresh Water 236 The Paradox of Bottled Water 237 Toxic Chemicals 238 Population Growth 238 Global Responses 239 Sustainable Development 239 Multilateral Agreements 241 Carbon Tax 242 Cap?and?Trade 243 Carbon Neutrality 243 Alternative Fuels and Power Sources 244 A Technological Fix? 245 Economic Issues 245 Opposing Environmentalism 246 Collapse 246 Chapter Summary 247 Discussion Questions 249 Further Reading 249 References 250 10 Negative Global Flows and Processes 253 Dangerous Imports, Diseases, Terrorism, War Dangerous Imports 255 Borderless Diseases 256 HIV/AIDS 256 Ebola Virus 257 Tropical Diseases in Europe 258 Terrorism 258 War 265 Global Military Structures 268 Drones and Other Technology 269 Information War, Trolls, and Fakes News 270 Cyber?War 272 The Impact of Negative Global Flows on Individuals 273 Chapter Summary 274 Discussion Questions 275 Further Reading 276 References 276 11 Economic Power and Inequality 280 Class Inequality and Global Cities Class Inequality 281 Inequality in the World System 282 Trends in Economic Inequality 283 "The Bottom Billion" 286 Conflict Trap 286 Natural Resources Trap 287 Trap of Being Landlocked with Bad Neighbors 288 Bad Governance Trap 288 Summary 289 Growing Global Inequality in Health and Healthcare 290 Global Digital Divide 291 Global Cities 292 Global Cities in the World Economy 292 Changes in the Network of World Cities 294 Global Slums and Gentrification 295 Chapter Summary 299 Discussion Questions 300 Further Reading 300 References 301 12 Global Inequalities II 303 Inequalities of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality Defining Majority-Minority Relations 304 Majority-Minority Relations in a Global Context 304 The Social Construction of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality 307 Intersectionality 309 Race and Ethnicity 310 Ethnic Conflict and Genocide 313 The Latin Americanization of Race and the Value of Whiteness 314 Gender 316 Gender and the Economy 317 Global Care Chains 321 Responding to and Resisting Global Minority Status: The Case of Women 322 Sexuality 323 Chapter Summary 325 Discussion Questions 326 Further Reading 327 References 327 13 Dealing with, Resisting, and the Future of Globalization 331 Dealing with Globalization 332 Dealing with the Global Economy 332 Protectionism 332 Fair Trade 335 Helping the "Bottom Billion" 337 Dealing with Political Globalization 338 Accountability 339 Transparency 339 Resisting Globalization 340 Local Resistance 342 The Global Rise of Populism 343 Social Movements 345 The Movement for Global Justice and Democratization 346 Social Movements and the Global Boomerang 348 World Social Forum 349 Is the Resistance to Globalization Significant? 350 The Futures of Globalization 350 A "Mad Max" Scenario 352 Chapter Summary 353 Discussion Questions 354 Further Reading 355 References 355 Index 359

About the Author

GEORGE RITZER is Distinguished University Professor at the University of Maryland, USA. He is author of numerous books including The McDonaldization of Society (9th ed., 2019) and editor of The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology (2007) and The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Globalization (2012). PAUL DEAN is Associate Professor of Sociology and Social Justice at Ohio Wesleyan University, USA. He is an award-winning teacher and researcher in areas including globalization, social inequality, economic sociology, social movements, race and ethnicity, and the scholarship of teaching and learning. He is co-author with George Ritzer of Globalization: A Basic Text (2nd ed. 2015).

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