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Geosynthetic Clay Liners for Waste Containment Facilities
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Table of Contents

1. Background and overview of geosynthetic clay liners

  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Bentonite
  • Geotextiles
  • Geomembranes
  • Other associated materials
  • GCL manufacturing
  • Current GCL products
  • Nonreinforced GCLs
  • Reinforced GCLs
  • Test methods and properties
  • Physical properties
  • Hydraulic properties
  • Mechanical properties
  • Endurance properties
  • Generic specification for GCLs
  • Equivalency issues
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

2. Durability and lifetime of the geotextile fibers of geosynthetic clay liners

  • Introduction and background
  • Structure and degradation of polymer fibers
  • Polymers used for GCL fiber reinforcement
  • Fiber configuration of GCL reinforcement
  • Oxidative effects on polymer structure
  • Tertiary carbon atoms
  • Crystallinity
  • Orientation
  • Antioxidants depletion mechanisms
  • Chemical reactions
  • Physical loss
  • Specific surface area
  • External environmental effects on oxidation
  • Energy level
  • Oxygen concentration
  • Liquid chemistry
  • Applied fiber stresses
  • Annealing
  • Durability evaluation and specification
  • Performance testing
  • Incubation methods for subsequent index testing
  • Index test methods and procedures
  • Geomembranes and geofilm
  • Summary and conclusions
  • Polymer structure, degradation and stabilization
  • Laboratory performance incubation and testing
  • Index testing with a suggested specification
  • Conclusion and recommendation
  • Acknowledgement
  • References

3. Mineralogy and engineering properties of Bentonite

  • Introduction
  • Mineralogy of smectite
  • Crystalline structure
  • Morphology and fabric
  • Layer charge
  • Exchangeable cations
  • Sodium activation of bentonites
  • Adsorption and swelling behavior
  • Short-range hydration mechanisms
  • Crystalline and osmotic swelling regimes
  • Crystalline swelling
  • Osmotic swelling
  • Engineering properties and their measurement
  • Mineralogical analysis
  • Cation exchange capacity
  • Surface area
  • Particle and granule size distribution
  • Water content
  • Swell index
  • pH, electrical conductivity and carbonate content
  • Fluid loss
  • Closing remarks
  • References

4. Hydraulic conductivity of geosynthetic clay liners

  • Geosynthetic clay liners in bottom liners and top covers
  • Definitions
  • Hydraulic conductivity
  • Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity
  • Permittivity
  • Intrinsic permeability
  • Hydraulic conductivity testing
  • Types of permeameters
  • Critical issues
  • Intact GCLs
  • Why do GCLs provide extremely low levels of hydraulic conductivity?
  • Hydraulic conductivity of different types of GCLs
  • Testing conditions
  • Overlapping GCLs and other special situations
  • Overlapping GCLs
  • Durability against environmental effects
  • Chemical compatibility
  • Clay-chemical and bentonite-chemical interactions
  • Consideration of the testing conditions
  • Effects of inorganic chemicals - concentration and valence of cations
  • Effects of waste leachates
  • Effect of the sequence of permeants
  • Modified bentonites
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

5. Contaminant transport through GCL-based liner systems

  • Introduction
  • Modeling contaminant transport through GCLs
  • Advection
  • Diffusion
  • Sorption
  • Establishing diffusion and sorption parameters for GCLs
  • Experimental procedures and data interpretation
  • Specified volume diffusion (SVD) test: Inorganic contaminants
  • Constant stress diffusion (CSD) apparatus: Inorganic contaminants
  • Volatile organic compound (VOC) diffusion testing
  • Factors influencing diffusion and sorption coefficients
  • Effect of eB on diffusion coefficient: Inorganic contaminants
  • Effect of type of GCL manufacture on inorganic diffusion coefficients
  • Different types of dissolved contaminants in contact with the GCL
  • Inorganic contaminants
  • Organic contaminants
  • Effect of temperature on volatile organic compound diffusion and
  • sorption coefficients
  • Constant stress vs specified volume diffusion testing
  • Summary of diffusion and sorption coefficients to use for preliminary designs
  • Contaminant migration assessments of GCL liner systems
  • Equivalency of GCL and CCL liner systems
  • Assessing GCL/CCL equivalency for municipal solid waste landfills: Example
  • Conclusions
  • References

6. Chemico-osmosis and solute transport through Geosynthetic clay liners

  • Introduction
  • Thermodynamics of irreversible processes
  • Experimental data
  • Physical interpretation of transport parameters
  • Role played by osmotic phenomena in contaminant transport through GCLs
  • Conclusions
  • References

7. Gas permeability of geosynthetic clay liners

  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Gas transport due to advection
  • Gas permeameter
  • Gas permeability
  • Effect of moisture content
  • Effect of hydration and desiccation
  • Effect of wet-dry cycles and ion exchange
  • Conclusions

8. Internal and interface shear strength of geosynthetic clay liners

  • Introduction
  • Materials
  • GCL reinforcement types
  • Geomembrane texturing types
  • GCL Shear strength testing equipment
  • Shear strength testing alternatives
  • Specimen size for the direct shear device
  • GCL specimen confinement for the direct shear device
  • Normal and shear load application for the direct shear device
  • Testing procedures
  • Moisture conditioning
  • Shearing procedures
  • GCL Internal shear strength
  • Shear stress-displacement behavior
  • Preliminary shear strength overview
  • Variables affecting GCL internal shear strength
  • Effect of normal stress
  • GCL Reinforcement
  • Moisture conditioning
  • Shear displacement rate
  • GCL internal shear strength variability
  • GCL-GM Interface shear strength
  • Shear stress-displacement behavior
  • Preliminary GCL-GM interface shear strength overview
  • Variables affecting GCL internal shear strength
  • Normal stress effects
  • Effects of GCL reinforcement type and GM polymer
  • Effect of GM texturing
  • Moisture conditioning
  • Shear displacement rate
  • GCL internal shear strength variability
  • Laboratory and field shear strength comparisons
  • Conclusions
  • References

9. Slope stability with geosynthetic clay liners

  • Introduction
  • Methods of analysis
  • Simplified wedge procedures
  • Possible failure surfaces
  • Representative cross-sections and three-dimensional geometries
  • Effective normal stresses
  • Displacement and strain compatibility
  • Seismic loads
  • Design criteria
  • Design shear strength for GCLs
  • Unconsolidated versus consolidated bentonite
  • Undrained versus drained shear
  • Peak versus residual shear strength
  • Internal versus interface shear strength
  • Summary of design shear strength
  • Approaches to mitigate stability problems
  • Flattening slope
  • Buttressing slope
  • Reinforcing slope
  • Reducing fluid pressures
  • Replacing weak shear surfaces
  • Reducing consequences of failure
  • Design examples
  • Example cover slope
  • Design check for base case
  • Design check for conservative and extreme cases
  • Example base liner slope
  • Design check for final closure geometry
  • Design check for interim waste filling geometry
  • Example liner construction
  • Conclusions
  • References

10. Hydrologic performance of final covers containing

  • Introduction
  • Covers relying solely on a GCL
  • Georgswerder study in Germany
  • Esch-Belval study in Luxembourg
  • Aurach study in Germany
  • Wisconsin study in USA
  • Covers with a GCL-composite barrier
  • Wisconsin study in USA
  • California study in USA
  • Oregon study in USA
  • Practical implications
  • Cation exchange and hydraulic conductivity
  • Promoting hydration and preventing dehydration
  • Conditions precluding cation exchange and increases in hydraulic conductivity
  • Recommended usage of GCLs in final covers
  • Acknowledgement
  • References

11. Oxygen diffusion through geosynthetic clay liners

  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Oxygen diffusion measurement
  • Oxygen diffusion coefficient
  • Concluding remarks
  • References

12. Field observations of GCL behaviour

  • Introduction
  • GCL performance in composite liner systems
  • Case histories of field performance
  • Physical integrity
  • Containment capability
  • Conclusions
  • References

About the Author

Abdelmalek Bouazza, John J. Bowders Jr.

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