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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 The Science Of Genetics.

The Personal Genome.

An Invitation.

Three Great Milestones In Genetics.

DNA As The Genetic Material.

Genetics And Evolution.

Levels Of Genetic Analysis.

Genetics In The World: Applications Of Genetics To Human Endeavors.

Chapter 2. Cellular Reproduction.

Cells And Chromosomes.



Life Cycles Of Some Model Genetic Organisms.

Chapter 3 Mendelism: The Basic Principles Of Inheritance.

Mendel's Study Of Heredity.

Applications Of Mendel's Principles.

Testing Genetic Hypotheses.

Mendelian Principles In Human Genetics.

Chapter 4 Extensions Of Mendelism.

Allelic Variation And Gene Function.

Gene Action: From Genotype To Phenotype.

Inbreeding: Another Look At Pedigrees.

Chapter 5 The Chromosomal Basis Of Mendelism.


The Chromosome Theory Of Heredity.

Sex-Linked Genes In Humans.

Sex Chromosomes And Sex Determination.

Dosage Compensation Of X-Linked Genes.

Chapter 6 Variation In Chromosome Number And Structure.

Cytological Techniques.



Rearrangements Of Chromosome Structure.

Chapter 7 Linkage, Crossing Over, And Chromosome Mapping In Eukaryotes.

Chromosome Mapping.

Cytogenetic Mapping.

Linkage Analysis In Humans.

Recombination And Evolution.

Chapter 8 The Genetics Of Bacteria And Their Viruses.

Multi-Drug-Resistant Bacteria: A Ticking Timebomb?

Viruses And Bacteria In Genetics.

The Genetics Of Viruses.

The Genetics Of Bacteria.

Mechanisms Of Genetic Exchange In Bacteria.

The Evolutionary Significance Of Genetic Exchange In Bacteria.

Chapter 9 DNA And The Molecular Structure Of Chromosomes.

Functions Of The Genetic Material.

Proof That Genetic Information Is Stored In DNA.

Proof That RNA Stores The Genetic Information In Some Viruses.

Chromosome Structure In Prokaryotes And Viruses.

Chromosome Structure In Eukaryotes.

Chapter 10 Replication Of DNA And Chromosomes.

Basic Features Of DNA Replication In Vivo.

DNA Replication In Prokaryotes.

Unique Aspects Of Eukaryotic Chromosome Replication.

Chapter 11 Transcription And RNA Processing.

Transfer Of Genetic Information: The Central Dogma.

The Process Of Gene Expression.

Transcription In Prokaryotes.

Transcription And RNA Processing In Eukaryotes.

Interrupted Genes In Eukaryotes: Exons And Introns.

Removal Of Intron Sequences By RNA Splicing.

Chapter 12 Translation and the Genetic Code

Protein Structure

One Gene One Colinear Polypeptide

Protein Synthesis: Translation

The Genetic Code

Codon-tRNA Interactions

Chapter 13 Mutation, DNA Repair, and Recombination

Mutation: Source of the Genetic Variability Required for Evolution

The Molecular Basis of Mutation

Mutation: Basic Features of the Process

Mutation: Phenotypic Effects

Assigning Mutations to Genes by the Complementation Test

Screening Chemicals for Mutagenicity: The Ames Test

DNA Repair Mechanisms

Inherited Human Diseases with Defects in DNA Repair

DNA Recombination Mechanisms

Chapter 14 The Techniques of Molecular Genetics

Basic Techniques Used to Identify, Amplify, and Clone Genes

Construction and Screening of DNA Libraries

The Molecular Analysis of DNA, RNA, and Protein

The Molecular Analysis of Genes and Chromosomes

Chapter 15 Genomics

Genomics: An Overview

Correlated Genetic, Cytological, and Physical Maps of Chromosomes

Map Position-Based Cloning of Genes

The Human Genome Project

RNA and Protein Assays of Genome Function

Comparative Genomics

Chapter 16 Applications of Molecular Genetics

Use of Recombinant DNA Technology to Identify Human Genes and Diagnose Human Diseases

Molecular Diagnosis of Human Diseases

Human Gene Therapy

DNA Profiling

Production of Eukaryotic Proteins in Bacteria

Transgenic Plants and Animals

Reverse Genetics: Dissecting Biological Processes by Inhibiting Gene Expression

Chapter 17 Transposable Genetic Elements

Transposable Elements: An Overview

Transposable Elements in Bacteria

Cut-and-Paste Transposons in Eukaryotes

Retroviruses and Retrotransposons

Transposable Elements in Humans

The Genetic and Evolutionary Significance of Transposable Elements

Chapter 18 Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes

Constitutive, Inducible, and Repressible Gene Expression

Positive and Negative Control of Gene Expression

Operons: Coordinately Regulated Units of Gene Expression

The Lactose Operon in E. coli: Induction and Catabolite Repression

The Tryptophan Operon in E. coli: Repression and Attenuation

Translational Control of Gene Expression

Posttranslational Regulatory Mechanisms

Chapter 19 Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes

Ways of Regulating Eukaryotic Gene Expression: An Overview

Induction of Transcriptional Activity by Environmental and Biological Factors

Molecular Control of Transcription in Eukaryotes

Posttranscriptional Regulation of Gene Expression by RNA Interference

Gene Expression and Chromatin Organization

Activation and Inactivation of Whole Chromosomes

Chapter 20 The Genetic Control of Animal Development

A Genetic Perspective on Development

Maternal Gene Activity in Development

Genetic Analysis of Development in Vertebrates

Chapter 21 The Genetic Basis of Cancer

Cancer: A Genetic Disease


Tumor Suppressor Genes

Genetic Pathways to Cancer

Chapter 22 Inheritance of Complex Traits

Complex Traits

Statistics of Quantitative Genetics

Analysis of Quantitative Traits

Correlations Between Relatives

Quantitative Genetics of Human Behavioral Traits

Chapter 23 Population Genetics

The Theory of Allele Frequencies

Natural Selection

Random Genetic Drift

Populations in Genetic Equilibrium

Chapter 24 Evolutionary Genetics

The Emergence of Evolutionary Theory

Genetic Variation in Natural Populations

Molecular Evolution


Human Evolution


Appendix A: The Rules of Probability

Appendix B: Binomial Probabilities

Appendix C: In Situ Hybridization

Appendix D: Evidence for an Unstable Messenger RNA

Appendix E: Evolutionary Rates

Answers to Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems


Photo Credits

Illustration Credits


About the Author

D. Peter Snustad is a Professor Emeritus at the Universityof Minnesota, Twin Cities. He received his B.S. degree from theUniversity of Minnesota and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from theUniversity of California, Davis. He began his faculty career in theDepartment of Agronomy and Plant Genetics at Minnesota in 1965,became a charter member of the new Department of Genetics in 1966,and moved to the Department of Plant Biology in 2000. During his 43years at Minnesota, he taught courses ranging from general biologyto biochemical genetics. His initial research focused on theinteractions between bacteriophage T4 and its host, E. coli.In the 1980s, his research switched to the cytoskeleton of Arabidopsis and the glutamine synthetase genes of corn. Hishonors include the Morse-Amoco and Dagley Memorial teaching awardsand election to Fellow of the American Association for theAdvancement of Science. A lifelong love of the Canadian wildernesshas kept him in nearby Minnesota. Michael J. Simmons is a Professor in the Department ofGenetics, Cell Biology and Development at the University ofMinnesota, Twin Cities. He received his B.A. degree in biology fromSt. Vincent College in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, and his M.S. andPh.D. degrees in genetics from the University of Wisconsin,Madison. Dr. Simmons has taught a variety of courses, includinggenetics and population genetics. He has also mentored manystudents on research projects in his laboratory. Early in hiscareer he received the Morse-Amoco teaching award from theUniversity of Minnesota in recognition of his contributions toundergraduate education. Dr. Simmons s research focuses onthe genetic significance of transposable elements in the genome ofDrosophila melanogaster. He has served on advisorycommittees at the National Institutes of Health and was a member ofthe Editorial Board of the journal Genetics for 21 years.One of his favorite activities, figure skating, is especiallycompatible with the Minnesota climate.

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