Processing Principles Introduction Units and Conversions Basic Chemistry Concepts Specification Test Methods Thermodynamics Pumps Introduction Pump Fundamentals Centrifugal Pumps Reciprocating Pumps Rotary Pumps Pump Comparisons Heat Transfer Introduction Modes of Heat Transfer Cooling and Heating Sources Heat Exchanger Types Reboilers Separation Processes Introduction Distillation Absorption Column Internals Adsorption Membranes Phase Separation Equipment Gas-Liquid Separators Filter Separators and Coalescing Filters Cyclone Separators Liquid-Liquid Separators Residence Time for Various Separator Applications Filters Overview of the Natural Gas Industry Introduction Sources of Natural Gas Composition of Natural Gas Classification Principal Products and Markets Product Specifications Combustion Characteristics Overview of Gas Plant Processing Roles of Gas Plants Plant Processes Important Support Components Contractual Agreements and Economics Operational Measures Field Operations and Inlet Receiving Introduction Field Operations Gas Hydrates Inlet Receiving Safety and Environmental Considerations Compression Introduction Fundamentals Drivers Compressor Types Capacity and Power Calculations Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors Safety and Environmental Considerations Gas Treating Introduction Solvent Absorption Processes Physical Absorption Adsorption Cryogenic Fractionation Membranes Nonregenerable Hydrogen Sulfide Scavengers Biological Processes Safety and Environmental Considerations Gas Dehydration Introduction Water Content of Hydrocarbons Gas Dehydration Processes Safety and Environmental Considerations Hydrocarbon Recovery Introduction Process Components Liquids Removal Processes Safety and Environmental Considerations Nitrogen Rejection Introduction Nitrogen Rejection for Gas Upgrading Nitrogen Rejection for Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Cryogenic Distillation Safety and Environmental Considerations Trace Component Recovery or Removal Introduction Helium Mercury Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes Liquids Processing Introduction Condensate Processing NGL Processing Safety and Environmental Considerations Acid Gas Processing and Disposal Introduction Properties of Sulfur Sulfur Recovery Processes Sulfur Storage Acid Gas Disposal Safety and Environmental Considerations Transportation and Storage Introduction Gas Liquids Liquefied Natural Gas Introduction Gas Treating before Liquefaction Liquefaction Cycles Storage of LNG Transportation Regasification and Cold Utilization of LNG Economics Safety and Environmental Considerations Capital Costs of Gas Processing Facilities Introduction Basic Premises for All Plant Component Cost Data Amine Treating Glycol Dehydration NGL Recovery with Straight Refrigeration (Low Ethane Recovery) NGL Recovery with Cryogenic Processing (High Ethane Recovery) and Nitrogen Rejection Sulfur Recovery and Tail Gas Cleanup NGL Extraction Plant Costs for Larger Facilities Corrections to Cost Data Natural Gas Processing Plants Introduction Plant with Sweet Gas Feed and 98% Ethane Recovery Plant with Sour Gas Feed, NGL, and Sulfur Recovery Plant with Sour Gas Feed, NGL Recovery, and Nitrogen Rejection Appendix A: Glossary of Gas Process Terminology Appendix B: Physical Constants and Physical Properties Author Index Subject Index Discussion Questions, Exercises, References, and Web Sites appear at the end of most chapters.
Arthur J. Kidnay, PhD, PE, is a professor emeritus in the chemical engineering department at the Colorado School of Mines. He has taught and conducted extensive research in the fields of vapor--liquid equilibria, physical adsorption, and heat transfer. A fellow of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Dr. Kidnay has served on the Colorado Board of Registration for Professional Engineers, has been a NATO senior science fellow at Oxford University, and has been a recipient of the Russell B. Scott Memorial Award at the Cryogenic Engineering Conference. William R. Parrish, PhD, PE, is a retired senior research associate with ConocoPhillips, where he obtained physical properties data needed for new processes and for resolving operation problems. He provided company-wide technical expertise on matters involving physical properties and gas hydrates and participated on six gas plant optimization teams. A fellow of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Dr. Parrish remains actively involved in the development of examinations for professional engineers. Daniel G. McCartney, PE, provides technical expertise for gas processing, LNG, and sulfur projects at a global engineering, construction, and consulting company. Previously, he worked for over 25 years at Warren Petroleum and Chevron. Mr. McCartney is chair of the Technical Data Development subgroup in the Gas Processors Association and a senior advisory board member for the Laurance Reid Gas Conditioning Conference.