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Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing
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1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF MANUFACTURING 1 1.1 What Is Manufacturing? 2 1.2 Materials in Manufacturing 9 1.3 Manufacturing Processes 11 1.4 Production Systems 18 1.5 Manufacturing Economics 22 1.6 Recent Developments in Manufacturing 27 Part I Material Properties and Product Attributes 36 2 THE NATURE OF MATERIALS 36 2.1 Atomic Structure and the Elements 37 2.2 Bonding between Atoms and Molecules 39 2.3 Crystalline Structures 41 2.4 Noncrystalline (Amorphous) Structures 47 2.5 Engineering Materials 49 3 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 52 3.1 Stress?Strain Relationships 52 3.2 Hardness 67 3.3 Effect of Temperature on Properties 71 3.4 Fluid Properties 73 3.5 Viscoelastic Behavior of Polymers 76 4 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 83 4.1 Volumetric and Melting Properties 83 4.2 Thermal Properties 86 4.3 Mass Diffusion 88 4.4 Electrical Properties 90 4.5 Electrochemical Processes 92 5 DIMENSIONS, SURFACES, AND THEIR MEASUREMENT 95 5.1 Dimensions, Tolerances, and Related Attributes 96 5.2 Measuring Instruments and Gages 97 5.3 Surfaces 106 5.4 Measurement of Surfaces 112 5.5 Effect of Manufacturing Processes 114 Part II Engineering Materials 118 6 METALS 118 6.1 Alloys and Phase Diagrams 119 6.2 Ferrous Metals 124 6.3 Nonferrous Metals 142 6.4 Superalloys 155 7 CERAMICS 159 7.1 Structure and Properties of Ceramics 160 7.2 Traditional Ceramics 163 7.3 New Ceramics 165 7.4 Glass 168 7.5 Some Important Elements Related to Ceramics 172 8 POLYMERS 176 8.1 Fundamentals of Polymer Science and Technology 178 8.2 Thermoplastic Polymers 189 8.3 Thermosetting Polymers 196 8.4 Elastomers 200 8.5 Polymer Recycling and Biodegradability 208 9 COMPOSITE MATERIALS 212 9.1 Technology and Classification of Composite Materials 213 9.2 Metal Matrix Composites 222 9.3 Ceramic Matrix Composites 224 9.4 Polymer Matrix Composites 225 Part III Solidifi cation Processes 230 10 FUNDAMENTALS OF METAL CASTING 230 10.1 Overview of Casting Technology 233 10.2 Heating and Pouring 235 10.3 Solidifi cation and Cooling 239 11 METAL CASTING PROCESSES 251 11.1 Sand Casting 251 11.2 Other Expendable-Mold Casting Processes 257 11.3 Permanent-Mold Casting Processes 263 11.4 Foundry Practice 273 11.5 Casting Quality 277 11.6 Metals for Casting 279 11.7 Product Design Considerations 281 12 GLASSWORKING 287 12.1 Raw Materials Preparation and Melting 287 12.2 Shaping Processes in Glassworking 288 12.3 Heat Treatment and Finishing 294 12.4 Product Design Considerations 295 13 SHAPING PROCESSES FOR PLASTICS 297 13.1 Properties of Polymer Melts 299 13.2 Extrusion 301 13.3 Production of Sheet and Film 311 13.4 Fiber and Filament Production (Spinning) 314 13.5 Coating Processes 315 13.6 Injection Molding 316 13.7 Compression and Transfer Molding 327 13.8 Blow Molding and Rotational Molding 328 13.9 Thermoforming 334 13.10 Casting 338 13.11 Polymer Foam Processing and Forming 339 13.12 Product Design Considerations 341 14 PROCESSING OF POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES AND RUBBER 348 14.1 Overview of PMC Processing 349 14.2 Open Mold Processes 352 14.3 Closed Mold Processes 356 14.4 Other PMC Shaping Processes 359 14.5 Rubber Processing and Shaping 364 14.6 Manufacture of Tires and Other Rubber Products 369 Part IV Particulate Processing of Metals and Ceramics 375 15 POWDER METALLURGY 375 15.1 Characterization of Engineering Powders 377 15.2 Production of Metallic Powders 381 15.3 Conventional Pressing and Sintering 383 15.4 Alternative Pressing and Sintering Techniques 390 15.5 Materials and Products for Powder Metallurgy 393 15.6 Design Considerations in Powder Metallurgy 394 16 PROCESSING OF CERAMICS AND CERMETS 400 16.1 Processing of Traditional Ceramics 401 16.2 Processing of New Ceramics 408 16.3 Processing of Cermets 411 16.4 Product Design Considerations 413 Part V Metal Forming and Sheet Metalworking 416 17 FUNDAMENTALS OF METAL FORMING 416 17.1 Overview of Metal Forming 416 17.2 Material Behavior in Metal Forming 419 17.3 Temperature in Metal Forming 421 17.4 Strain Rate Sensitivity 423 17.5 Friction and Lubrication in Metal Forming 425 18 BULK DEFORMATION PROCESSES IN METAL WORKING 429 18.1 Rolling 430 18.2 Other Deformation Processes Related to Rolling 438 18.3 Forging 440 18.4 Other Deformation Processes Related to Forging 452 18.5 Extrusion 457 18.6 Wire and Bar Drawing 468 19 SHEET METALWORKING 481 19.1 Cutting Operations 482 19.2 Bending Operations 488 19.3 Drawing 493 19.4 Other Sheet-Metal-Forming Operations 500 19.5 Dies and Presses for Sheet-Metal Processes 503 19.6 Sheet-Metal Operations Not Performed on Presses 510 19.7 Bending of Tube Stock 516 Part VI Material Removal Processes 522 20 THEORY OF METAL MACHINING 522 20.1 Overview of Machining Technology 524 20.2 Theory of Chip Formation in Metal Machining 528 20.3 Force Relationships and the Merchant Equation 532 20.4 Power and Energy Relationships in Machining 538 20.5 Cutting Temperature 540 21 MACHINING OPERATIONS AND MACHINE TOOLS 548 21.1 Machining and Part Geometry 548 21.2 Turning and Related Operations 552 21.3 Drilling and Related Operations 561 21.4 Milling 566 21.5 Machining Centers and Turning Centers 574 21.6 Other Machining Operations 576 21.7 Machining Operations for Special Geometries 581 21.8 High-Speed Machining 589 22 CUTTING-TOOL TECHNOLOGY 596 22.1 Tool Life 596 22.2 Tool Materials 603 22.3 Tool Geometry 613 22.4 Cutting Fluids 623 23 ECONOMIC AND PRODUCT DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS IN MACHINING 632 23.1 Machinability 632 23.2 Tolerances and Surface Finish 635 23.3 Selection of Cutting Conditions 639 23.4 Product Design Considerations in Machining 646 24 GRINDING AND OTHER ABRASIVE PROCESSES 653 24.1 Grinding 653 24.2 Related Abrasive Processes 671 25 NONTRADITIONAL MACHINING AND THERMAL CUTTING PROCESSES 678 25.1 Mechanical Energy Processes 679 25.2 Electrochemical Machining Processes 683 25.3 Thermal Energy Processes 687 25.4 Chemical Machining 696 25.5 Application Considerations 702 Part VII Property Enhancing and Surface Processing Operations 709 26 HEAT TREATMENT OF METALS 709 26.1 Annealing 710 26.2 Martensite Formation in Steel 710 26.3 Precipitation Hardening 714 26.4 Surface Hardening 716 26.5 Heat Treatment Methods and Facilities 717 27 SURFACE PROCESSING OPERATIONS 721 27.1 Industrial Cleaning Processes 722 27.2 Diffusion and Ion Implantation 726 27.3 Plating and Related Processes 728 27.4 Conversion Coating 732 27.5 Vapor Deposition Processes 734 27.6 Organic Coatings 740 27.7 Porcelain Enameling and Other Ceramic Coatings 743 27.8 Thermal and Mechanical Coating Processes 744 Part VIII Joining and Assembly Processes 748 28 FUNDAMENTALS OF WELDING 748 28.1 Overview of Welding Technology 750 28.2 The Weld Joint 753 28.3 Physics of Welding 755 28.4 Features of a Fusion-Welded Joint 760 29 WELDING PROCESSES 765 29.1 Arc Welding 765 29.2 Resistance Welding 776 29.3 Oxyfuel Gas Welding 783 29.4 Other Fusion-Welding Processes 787 29.5 Solid-State Welding 790 29.6 Weld Quality 796 29.7 Weldability 800 29.8 Design Considerations in Welding 801 30 BRAZING, SOLDERING, AND ADHESIVE BONDING 807 30.1 Brazing 807 30.2 Soldering 814 30.3 Adhesive Bonding 818 31 MECHANICAL ASSEMBLY 825 31.1 Threaded Fasteners 826 31.2 Rivets and Eyelets 833 31.3 Assembly Methods Based on Interference Fits 834 31.4 Other Mechanical Fastening Methods 838 31.5 Molding Inserts and Integral Fasteners 839 31.6 Design for Assembly 841 Part IX Special Processing and Assembly Technologies 847 32 RAPID PROTOTYPING AND ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING 847 32.1 Fundamentals of Rapid Prototyping and Additive Manufacturing 849 32.2 Additive Manufacturing Processes 852 32.3 Cycle Time and Cost Analysis 860 32.4 Additive Manufacturing Applications 864 33 PROCESSING OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 869 33.1 Overview of IC Processing 871 33.2 Silicon Processing 874 33.3 Lithography 879 33.4 Layer Processes Used in IC Fabrication 883 33.5 Integrating the Fabrication Steps 890 33.6 IC Packaging 892 33.7 Yields in IC Processing 898 34 ELECTRONICS ASSEMBLY AND PACKAGING 904 34.1 Electronics Packaging 904 34.2 Printed Circuit Boards 906 34.3 Printed Circuit Board Assembly 915 34.4 Electrical Connector Technology 923 35 MICROFABRICATION TECHNOLOGIES 928 35.1 Microsystem Products 928 35.2 Microfabrication Processes 935 36 NANOFABRICATION TECHNOLOGIES 945 36.1 Nanotechnology Products and Applications 946 36.2 Introduction to Nanoscience 951 36.3 Nanofabrication Processes 955 Part X Manufacturing Systems 964 37 AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS 964 37.1 Automation Fundamentals 965 37.2 Hardware for Automation 968 37.3 Computer Numerical Control 973 37.4 Industrial Robotics 986 38 INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS 997 38.1 Material Handling 997 38.2 Fundamentals of Production Lines 1000 38.3 Manual Assembly Lines 1002 38.4 Automated Production Lines 1006 38.5 Cellular Manufacturing 1011 38.6 Flexible Manufacturing Systems and Cells 1016 38.7 Computer Integrated Manufacturing 1022 Part XI Manufacturing Support Systems 1028 39 PROCESS PLANNING AND PRODUCTION CONTROL 1028 39.1 Process Planning 1030 39.2 Other Manufacturing Engineering Functions 1038 39.3 Production Planning and Control 1042 39.4 Just-In-Time Delivery Systems 1049 39.5 Lean Production 1052 40 QUALITY CONTROL AND INSPECTION 1058 40.1 Product Quality 1058 40.2 Process Capability and Tolerances 1059 40.3 Statistical Process Control 1061 40.4 Quality Programs in Manufacturing 1066 40.5 Inspection Principles 1072 40.6 Modern Inspection Technologies 1075

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