Comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and authoritative, Fundamentals of Clinical Supervision continues to be the most widely used and respected supervision text in the field. Recognizing the overlap of the mental health disciplines and of supervision modalities, the authors have integrated psychology, counseling, marriage and family therapy, and social work to fully cover the central themes that dominate the study and practice of clinical supervision. With a focus on developing the supervision relationship, the text contains all content areas required for certification as an Approved Clinical Supervisor, offering a complete review (and informed appraisals) of all leading models, interventions, and research. A valuable resource for practitioners and students alike, the revised fourth edition of Fundamentals of Clinical Supervision includes a new emphasis on global contributions to the field and diversity as well as new material on technological advances, spirituality, impaired supervisees and boundary violations.
ixCHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO CLINICALSUPERVISION 1Foundational Premises 2Supervision's Centrality to the Professions 2State Regulatory Boards 3Professional Credentialing Groups 3Accrediting Bodies 3Clinical Supervision in the Preparation of MentalHealth Professionals 4Science-Practice Integration 4Supervised Practice: Key to the Developmentof Competence 4Necessary Preparation to Supervise 5Defining Supervision 7Supervision Is a Distinct Intervention 8Member of Same Profession 10Supervision Is Evaluative andHierarchical 11Supervision Extends over Time 12Purposes of Supervision 12Person-Specific Understandings of Supervision 14Family Metaphors 16A Conceptual Model of Supervision 17Parameters of Supervision 17Supervisee Developmental Level 18Supervisor Tasks 18Using the Model 18CHAPTER 2 EVALUATION 20Criteria for Evaluation 22Favorable Conditions for Evaluation 25The Process of Evaluation 27The Supervision-Evaluation Contract 28Choosing Supervision Methods forEvaluation 28Choosing Evaluation Instruments 29ContentsCommunicating Formative Feedback 31Encouraging Self-Assessment 34Communicating Summative Evaluations 37Problematic Students, Impairment, andIncompetence 40Definitions 40Incidence 41Additional Evaluation Issues 44The Subjective Element 44Consequences of Evaluation 48CHAPTER 3 ETHICAL AND LEGALCONSIDERATIONS 50Major Ethical Issues for Clinical Supervisors 51Due Process 51Informed Consent 53Multiple Relationships 57Competence 65Confidentiality 67Marketplace Issues 69The Supervisee's Perspective 69Legal Ramifications for Clinical Supervisors 70Malpractice 70Direct Liability and Vicarious Liability 72Preventing Claims of Malpractice 74Ethical Decision Making 74CHAPTER 4 SUPERVISION MODELS 77Attributes of Theories or Models 77Theory in Clinical Supervision 79Psychotherapy-Based Models of Supervision 81Psychodynamic Supervision 81Person-Centered Supervision 83Cognitive-Behavioral Supervision 84Systemic Supervision 85Constructivist Approaches 86Developmental Approaches to Supervision 89Stage Developmental Models: The IntegratedDevelopmental Model (IDM) 89Process Developmental Models 92Life-Span Developmental Models: The Ronnestadand Skovholt Model 97Conclusions about DevelopmentalModels 100Social Role Models 101The Discrimination Model 101x CONTENTSThe Hawkins and Shohet Model 105Holloway's Systems Approach to Supervision(SAS) Model 106CHAPTER 5 THE SUPERVISORY RELATIONSHIP:THE INFLUENCE OF INDIVIDUAL,CULTURAL,AND DEVELOPMENTALDIFFERENCES 109The Uniqueness of Each Relationship 109Cognitive Style, Cognitive Complexity, TheoreticalOrientation, Cognitive Development, and Levelof Experience of the Supervisee 110Cognitive or Learning Styles 110Theoretical Orientation and CognitiveStyle 116Cognitive Complexity, Cognitive Development,and Level of Experience 117Supervision Environment 122Developmental Constructs: Pulling It AllTogether 124Cultural Differences 126Political Nature of the HelpingProfessions 127Culture Treated Holistically 128Racial and Ethnic Issues Within MulticulturalSupervision 129Gender Issues Within MulticulturalSupervision 138Sexual Minority Issues Within MulticulturalSupervision 144Spirituality Issues Within MulticulturalSupervision 146Multicultural Constructs: Pulling It AllTogether 147CHAPTER 6 THE SUPERVISORY RELATIONSHIP:PROCESSES AND ISSUES OF THESUPERVISORY TRIAD AND DYAD 149Supervision as a Three-Person System 149Parallel Processes and Isomorphism 150Interpersonal Triangles 155Supervision as a Two-Person System 156The Working Alliance as a Means to Frame theSupervisory Relationship 157Antecedents and Consequences of EffectiveSupervisory Alliances 159CONTENTS xiThe Dynamic Nature of the SupervisoryAlliance 167CHAPTER 7 THE SUPERVISORY RELATIONSHIP:SUPERVISEE AND SUPERVISORCONTRIBUTING FACTORS 171Supervisee Factors 171Supervisee Resistance 171Supervisee Attachment 175Supervisee Shame 176Supervisee Anxiety 177Supervisees' Need to Feel and AppearCompetent 182Supervisee Transference 183Supervisor Factors 184Supervisor Attachment 185Interpersonal Power 185Supervisor Countertransference 189CHAPTER 8 ORGANIZING THE SUPERVISIONEXPERIENCE 193The Importance of Competence in OrganizingSupervision 194The Role of Institutional Culture 197Selectivity 197Temporal Sensitivity 197Accountability 197Measurement and Management 198Inquisitiveness 198Negotiation 198Agency 198The Essential Ingredient: A Supervision Plan 199Contexts for Supervision: Two DifferentWorlds 200The Graduate Program as Context forSupervision 200The Field Site as Context for Supervision 201Foundational Tasks for OrganizingSupervision 203Advising Supervisees for ClinicalInstruction 203Selecting Sites 203Initial Communication between GraduateProgram and Site 204The Interview 205xii CONTENTSOrientation 205The Supervision Contract 205Supervisee Bill of Rights 207Professional Disclosure Statements 207Ongoing Organizational Tasks 208Communication, Communication,Communication 208Managing Time 210Record Keeping 212Planning for the Exceptions 215Evaluation and Debriefing 216Some Final Thoughts 216Get Support 216Know Yourself 216Gather Data 217Get Feedback 217Be Intentional 217CHAPTER 9 SUPERVISION INTERVENTIONS:INDIVIDUAL SUPERVISION 218Initial Criteria for Choosing SupervisionInterventions 218Structured Versus Unstructured Interventions 219Methods, Forms, and Techniques ofSupervision 220Self-Report 220Process Notes and Case Notes 222Audiotape 222Videotape 226The Reflective Process 231Live Observation 235Technology and Supervision 236Timing of Supervision 238Beyond Methods 240Putting It All Together 241CHAPTER 10 SUPERVISION INTERVENTIONS:GROUP SUPERVISION 244Group Supervision in Broad Strokes: Definition,Advantages, Limitations 244Benefits and Limitations of GroupSupervision 245A Conceptual Model for Group Supervisors:Supervisee Developmental Level, Supervisor Style,and Group Stage 247CONTENTS xiiiSupervisor Style 248Stages of Group Supervision 251Final Observations about the PerformingStage 257Peer Supervision Groups 260The Process of Peer Supervision Groups 261Advantages and Disadvantages of PeerSupervision Groups 261CHAPTER 11 SUPERVISION INTERVENTIONS: LIVESUPERVISION 263Methods of Live Supervision 264Bug-in-the-Ear 264Monitoring 264In Vivo 265The Walk-In 265Phone-Ins and Consultation Breaks 265Using Computers and Interactive Televisionfor Live Supervision 265The Live Supervision Intervention 266Bug-in-the-Ear Interventions 267Telephone Interventions 267Consultation Break Interventions 268Dimensions of Live SupervisionInterventions 269Presession Planning and PostsessionDebriefing 269Implementing Live Supervision 270Advantages and Disadvantages 272Advantages 272Disadvantages 273Team Supervision 274The Reflecting Team 275Team Dynamics 277Advantages and Disadvantages of TeamSupervision 278Research Results and Questions 280CHAPTER 12 TEACHING AND RESEARCHINGSUPERVISION 284Preparing and Supervising Supervisors 284Training Supervisors 284Supervising Supervisors 288Research on Supervision TrainingOutcomes 292xiv CONTENTSSupervisor Development 292Alonso's Model 293Hess's Model 294Rodenhauser's Model 294Stoltenberg et al.'s Integrated DevelopmentalModel (IDM) 294Watkins's Model 295Conclusions Regarding Supervisory DevelopmentModels 296Supervision Process and Outcome Research 297Trends 298Issues on Which to Focus in FutureResearch 301THE SUPERVISOR'S TOOLBOX 303Documents for Use in SupervisionSample Counseling SupervisionContract 305Example of a Professional DisclosureStatement 308Supervisee's Bill of Rights 311Supervision Agreement 314Descriptive Criteria for Professional PerformanceReview Policy Standards 317The Practicum Competencies Outline 322Measures for Supervision Research and PracticeSupervisory Satisfaction Questionnaire 326Group Supervision Scale 327Supervisee Levels Questionnaire-Revised 328Anticipatory Supervisee Anxiety Scale(ASAS) 331Role Conflict and Role AmbiguityInventory 333Evaluation Process Within SupervisionInventory 335Supervisory Working Alliance (SWA)-SupervisorForm 337Supervisory Working Alliance (SWA)-SuperviseeForm 339Supervisory Styles Inventory 341The Feminist Supervision Scale (FSS) 343Counselor Supervisor Self-Efficacy Scale 346Multicultural Supervision CompetenciesQuestionnaire 349CONTENTS xv
Janine M. Bernard was educated at Purdue University and is currently a professor in the counseling and human services department at Syracuse University. She is the author of numerous books and articles focused on clinical supervision, lifespan human development, multicultural issues, and professional credentialing. Rodney K. Goodyear earned his doctorate in counseling psychology from Illinois University. An expert in his field for over thirty years, Goodyear currently teaches at the University of Southern California.