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Functional Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals
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Table of Contents

Contributors xi Preface xiii Acknowledgments xv About the Companion Website xvii 1 Basics of Structure and Function 1 The Cell, Its Structure and Functions 1 Energy Production 4 Functions of DNA and RNA 5 Embryology 8 Tissues 11 Directional Terms and Planes 17 Body Cavities 19 2 Body Water: Properties and Functions 25 Physicochemical Properties of Solutions 25 Distribution of Body Water 33 Water Balance 35 Dehydration, Thirst, and Water Intake 37 Adaptation to Water Lack 38 3 Blood and Its Functions 42 General Characteristics 42 Leukocytes 44 Erythrocytes 51 Fate of Erythrocytes 55 Iron Metabolism 57 Anemia and Polycythemia 59 Hemostasis: Prevention of Blood Loss 59 Prevention of Blood Coagulation 67 Tests for Blood Coagulation 68 Plasma and Its Composition 69 4 Nervous System 78 Structure of the Nervous System 78 Organization of the Nervous System 82 The Nerve Impulse and Its Transmission 98 Reflexes 104 The Meninges and Cerebrospinal Fluid 106 Central Nervous System Metabolism 111 5 The Sensory Organs 117 Classification of Sensory Receptors 117 Sensory Receptor Responses 118 Pain 119 Taste 121 Smell 123 Hearing and Equilibrium 125 Vision 134 6 Endocrine System 152 Hormones 152 Pituitary Gland 154 Thyroid Gland 157 Parathyroid Glands 160 Adrenal Glands 162 Pancreatic Gland 166 Prostaglandins and Their Functions 167 7 Bones, Joints, and Synovial Fluid 171 General Features of the Skeleton 171 Bone Structure 179 Bone Formation 184 Bone Repair 188 Joints and Synovial Fluid 189 8 Muscle 198 Classification 198 Arrangement 200 Skeletal-Muscle Harnessing 201 Microstructure of Skeletal Muscle 202 Skeletal-Muscle Contraction 206 Comparison of Contraction among Muscle Types 214 Changes in Muscle Size 216 9 The Cardiovascular System 220 Heart and Pericardium 220 Blood Vessels 225 Lymphatic System 231 Spleen 235 Cardiac Contractility 237 Electrocardiogram 240 Heart Sounds 242 Heart Rate and Its Control 243 Blood Pressure 245 Blood Flow 247 Capillary Dynamics 250 10 The Respiratory System 258 Respiratory Apparatus 258 Factors Associated with Breathing 266 Respiratory Pressures 269 Pulmonary Ventilation 271 Diffusion of Respiratory Gases 273 Oxygen Transport 275 Carbon Dioxide Transport 278 Regulation of Ventilation 280 Respiratory Clearance 285 Nonrespiratory Functions of the Respiratory System 286 Pathophysiology Terminology 287 Avian Respiration 289 11 The Urinary System 298 Gross Anatomy of the Kidneys and Urinary Bladder 299 The Nephron 302 Formation of Urine 307 Glomerular Filtration 309 Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion 312 Countercurrent Mechanism 314 Concentration of Urine 317 Extracellular Fluid Volume Regulation 321 Aldosterone 321 Other Hormones with Kidney Association 322 Micturition 324 Characteristics of Mammalian Urine 325 Renal Clearance 326 Maintenance of Acid-Base Balance 327 Avian Urinary System 331 12 Digestion and Absorption 341 Introductory Considerations 342 The Oral Cavity and Pharynx 343 The Simple Stomach 348 Intestines 350 Accessory Organs 358 Composition of Foodstuffs 362 Pregastric Mechanical Functions 365 Gastrointestinal Motility 368 Mechanical Functions of the Stomach and Small Intestine 370 Mechanical Functions of the Large Intestine 372 Digestive Secretions 373 Digestion and Absorption 379 The Ruminant Stomach 381 Characteristics of Ruminant Digestion 385 Chemistry and Microbiology of the Rumen 388 Ruminant Metabolism 390 Avian Digestion 393 13 Body Heat and Temperature Regulation 402 Body Temperature 402 Physiologic Responses to Heat 403 Physiologic Responses to Cold 407 Hibernation 408 Hypothermia and Hyperthermia 409 14 Male Reproduction 412 Testes and Associated Structures 412 Descent of the Testes 417 Accessory Sex Glands and Semen 419 Penis and Prepuce 420 Muscles of Male Genitalia 423 Blood and Nerve Supply 424 Spermatogenesis 425 Erection 430 Mounting and Intromission 431 Emission and Ejaculation 431 Factors Affecting Testicular Function 432 Reproduction in the Avian Male 432 15 Female Reproduction 438 Functional Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System 438 Hormones of Female Reproduction 448 Ovarian Follicle Activity 452 Sexual Receptivity 456 Estrous Cycle and Related Factors 457 Pregnancy 462 Parturition 468 Involution of the Uterus 472 Reproduction in the Avian Female 473 16 Lactation 481 Functional Anatomy of Female Mammary Glands 481 Mammogenesis 487 Lactogenesis and Lactation 488 Composition of Milk 490 Milk Removal and Other Considerations 493 Appendix A Normal Blood Values 497 Appendix B Answers to Self Evaluation 501 Index 507

About the Author

The authors William O. Reece, DVM, PhD is University Professor Emeritus in the Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, at Iowa State University of Science and Technology in Ames, Iowa, USA. Eric W. Rowe, DVM, PhD, is Associate Professor in the Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, at Iowa State University of Science and Technology in Ames, Iowa, USA.

Reviews

`The book has a number of features that help in the delivery and retention of the information. The chapter overviews at the beginning of the chapters and the self-evaluation questions help focus students on the salient points of each unit. Second, the many figures help in explaining the concepts. And, third, the resources the accompanying website provides are relevant to the discussion. This up-to-date overview of functional anatomy and physiology is a good book for students interested in veterinary sciences or thinking they'd like to pursue veterinary medicine ... it provides a good starting foundation for students serious about pursuing careers in veterinary medicine, where structure and function are central to the curriculum.' Doody's, November 2017

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