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Fuel Cell Science and Engineering
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Fuel cells are expected to play a major role in the future power supply that will transform to renewable, decentralized and fluctuating primary energies. At the same time the share of electric power will continually increase at the expense of thermal and mechanical energy not just in transportation, but also in households. Hydrogen as a perfect fuel for fuel cells and an outstanding and efficient means of bulk storage for renewable energy will spearhead this development together with fuel cells. Moreover, small fuel cells hold great potential for portable devices such as gadgets and medical applications such as pacemakers. This handbook will explore specific fuel cells within and beyond the mainstream development and focuses on materials and production processes for both SOFC and lowtemperature fuel cells, analytics and diagnostics for fuel cells, modeling and simulation as well as balance of plant design and components. As fuel cells are getting increasingly sophisticated and industrially developed the issues of quality assurance and methodology of development are included in this handbook. The contributions to this book come from an international panel of experts from academia, industry, institutions and government. This handbook is oriented toward people looking for detailed information on specific fuel cell types, their materials, production processes, modeling and analytics. Overview information on the contrary on mainstream fuel cells and applications are provided in the book 'Hydrogen and Fuel Cells', published in 2010.
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Table of Contents

VOLUME 1 List of Contributors XIX Part I Technology 1 1 Technical Advancement of Fuel-Cell Research and Development 3 Bernd Emonts, Ludger Blum, Thomas Grube, Werner Lehnert, Jurgen Mergel, Martin Muller, and Ralf Peters 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Representative Research Findings for SOFCs 4 1.3 Representative Research Findings for HT-PEFCs 11 1.4 Representative Research Findings for DMFCs 12 1.5 Application and Demonstration in Transportation 17 1.6 Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications 24 1.7 Special Markets for Fuel Cells 26 1.8 Marketable Development Results 27 1.9 Conclusion 30 References 32 2 Single-Chamber Fuel Cells 43 Teko W. Napporn and Melanie Kuhn 2.1 Introduction 43 2.2 SC-SOFCs 44 2.3 SC-SOFC Systems 50 2.4 Applications of SC-SOFCs Systems 60 2.5 Conclusion 61 References 61 3 Technology and Applications of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 67 Barbara Bosio, Elisabetta Arato, and Paolo Greppi 3.1 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells overview 67 3.2 Analysis of MCFC Technology 76 3.3 Conventional and Innovative Applications 86 3.4 Conclusion 90 List of Symbols 91 References 92 4 Alkaline Fuel Cells 97 Erich Gulzow 4.1 Historical Introduction and Principle 97 4.2 Concepts of Alkaline Fuel-Cell Design Concepts 99 4.3 Electrolytes and Separators 113 4.4 Degradation 114 4.5 Carbon Dioxide Behavior 123 4.6 Conclusion 126 References 126 5 Micro Fuel Cells 131 Ulf Groos and Dietmar Gerteisen 5.1 Introduction 131 5.2 Physical Principles of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) 132 5.3 Types of Micro Fuel Cells 134 5.4 Materials and Manufacturing 137 5.5 GDL Optimization 138 5.6 Conclusion 142 References 143 6 Principles and Technology of Microbial Fuel Cells 147 Jan B.A. Arends, Joachim Desloover, Sebastia Puig, and Willy Verstraete 6.1 Introduction 147 6.2 Materials and Methods 149 6.3 Microbial Catalysts 157 6.4 Applications and Proof of Concepts 164 6.5 Modeling 173 6.6 Outlook and Conclusions 173 Acknowledgments 173 References 174 7 Micro-Reactors for Fuel Processing 185 Gunther Kolb 7.1 Introduction 185 7.2 Heat and Mass Transfer in Micro-Reactors 185 7.3 Specific Features Required from Catalyst Formulations for Microchannel Plate Heat-Exchanger Reactors 188 7.4 Heat Management of Microchannel Plate Heat-Exchanger Reactors 190 7.5 Examples of Complete Microchannel Fuel Processors 201 7.6 Fabrication of Microchannel Plate Heat-Exchanger Reactors 206 References 212 8 Regenerative Fuel Cells 219 Martin Muller 8.1 Introduction 219 8.2 Principles 220 8.3 History 222 8.4 Thermodynamics 223 8.5 Electrodes 226 8.6 Solid Oxide Electrolyte (SOE) 233 8.7 System Design and Components 234 8.8 Applications and Systems 236 8.9 Conclusion and Prospects 240 References 241 Part II Materials and Production Processes 247 9 Advances in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development Between 1995 and 2010 at Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Germany 249 Vincent Haanappel 9.1 Introduction 249 9.2 Advances in Research, Development, and Testing of Single Cells 250 9.3 Conclusions 272 Acknowledgments 272 References 272 10 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode Fabrication by Infiltration 275 Evren Gunen 10.1 Introduction 275 10.2 SOFC and Electrochemical Fundamentals 275 10.3 Current Status of Electrodes; Fabrication Methods of Electrodes 276 10.4 Electrode Materials 278 10.5 Infiltration 281 10.6 Conclusion 295 References 297 11 Sealing Technology for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 301 K. Scott Weil 11.1 Introduction 301 11.2 Sealing Techniques 306 11.3 Conclusion 328 References 329 12 Phosphoric Acid, an Electrolyte for Fuel Cells Temperature and Composition Dependence of Vapor Pressure and Proton Conductivity 335 Carsten Korte 12.1 Introduction 335 12.2 Short Overview of Basic Properties and Formal Considerations 337 12.3 Vapor Pressure of Water as a Function of Composition and Temperature 339 12.4 Proton Conductivity as a Function of Composition and Temperature 344 12.5 Equilibria between the Polyphosphoric Acid Species and Composition of Concentrated Phosphoric Acid 353 12.6 Conclusion 356 References 357 13 Materials and Coatings for Metallic Bipolar Plates in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells 361 Heli Wang and John A. Turner 13.1 Introduction 361 13.2 Metallic Bipolar Plates 363 13.3 Discussion and Perspective 370 Acknowledgments 374 References 374 14 Nanostructured Materials for Fuel Cells 379 John F. Elter 14.1 Introduction 379 14.2 The Fuel Cell and Its System 380 14.3 Triple Phase Boundary 382 14.4 Electrodes to Oxidize Hydrogen 384 14.5 Membranes to Transport Ions 388 14.6 Electrocatalysts to Reduce Oxygen 393 14.7 Catalyst Supports to Conduct Electrons 397 14.8 Future Directions 402 References 403 15 Catalysis in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells an Overview 407 Sabine Schimpf and Michael Bron 15.1 Introduction 407 15.2 Electrocatalysis in Fuel Cells 408 15.3 Electrocatalyst Degradation 421 15.4 Novel Support Materials 422 15.5 Catalyst Development, Characterization, and In Situ Studies in Fuel Cells 423 15.6 Catalysis in Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells 424 15.7 Perspective 431 References 431 Part III Analytics and Diagnostics 439 16 Impedance Spectroscopy for High-Temperature Fuel Cells 441 Ellen Ivers-Tiffee, Andre Leonide, Helge Schichlein, Volker Sonn, and Andre Weber 16.1 Introduction 441 16.2 Fundamentals 443 16.3 Experimental Examples 452 16.4 Conclusion 465 References 466 17 Post-Test Characterization of Solid Oxide Fuel-Cell Stacks 469 Norbert H. Menzler and Peter Batfalsky 17.1 Introduction 469 17.2 Stack Dissection 472 17.3 Conclusion and Outlook 489 Acknowledgments 490 References 491 18 In Situ Imaging at Large-Scale Facilities 493 Christian Toetzke, Ingo Manke, and Werner Lehnert 18.1 Introduction 493 18.2 X-Rays and Neutrons 494 18.3 Application of In Situ 2D Methods 500 18.4 Application of 3D Methods 513 18.5 Conclusion 517 References 518 19 Analytics of Physical Properties of Low-Temperature Fuel Cells 521 Jurgen Wackerl 19.1 Introduction 521 19.2 Gravimetric Properties 524 19.3 Caloric Properties 527 19.4 Structural Information: Porosity 530 19.5 Mechanical Properties 531 19.6 Conclusion 535 References 536 20 Degradation Caused by Dynamic Operation and Starvation Conditions 543 Jan Hendrik Ohs, Ulrich S. Sauter, and Sebastian Maass 20.1 Introduction 543 20.2 Measurement Techniques 546 20.3 Dynamic Operation at Standard Conditions 550 20.4 Starvation Conditions 553 20.5 Mitigation 562 20.6 Conclusion 565 References 565 Part IV Quality Assurance 571 21 Quality Assurance for Characterizing Low-Temperature Fuel Cells 573 Viktor Hacker, Eva Wallnoefer-Ogris, Georgios Tsotridis, and Thomas Malkow 21.1 Introduction 573 21.2 Test Procedures/Standardized Measurements 574 21.3 Standardized Test Cells 587 21.4 Degradation and Lifetime Investigations 587 21.5 Design of Experiments in the Field of Fuel-Cell Research 592 References 593 22 Methodologies for Fuel Cell Process Engineering 597 Remzi Can Samsun and Ralf Peters 22.1 Introduction 597 22.2 Verification Methods in Fuel-Cell Process Engineering 597 22.3 Analysis Methods in Fuel-Cell Process Engineering 628 22.4 Conclusion 641 Acknowledgments 642 References 642 VOLUME 2 List of Contributors XIX Part V Modeling and Simulation 645 23 Messages from Analytical Modeling of Fuel Cells 647 Andrei Kulikovsky 23.1 Introduction 647 23.2 Modeling of Catalyst Layer Performance 648 23.3 Polarization Curve of PEMFCs and HT-PEMFCs 658 23.4 Conclusion 665 List of Symbols 665 References 667 24 Stochastic Modeling of Fuel-Cell Components 669 Ralf Thiedmann, Gerd Gaiselmann, Werner Lehnert, and Volker Schmidt 24.1 Multi-Layer Model for Paper-Type GDLs 670 24.2 Time-Series Model for Non-Woven GDLs 676 24.3 Stochastic Network Model for the Pore Phase 677 24.4 Further Results 690 24.5 Structural Characterization of Porous GDL 692 24.6 Conclusion 698 References 699 25 Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation Using Supercomputer Calculation Capacity 703 Ralf Peters and Florian Scharf 25.1 Introduction 703 25.2 High-Performance Computing for Fuel Cells 705 25.3 HPC-Based CFD Modeling for Fuel-Cell Systems 711 25.4 CFD-Based Design 728 25.5 Conclusion and Outlook 730 Acknowledgments 731 References 731 26 Modeling Solid Oxide Fuel Cells from the Macroscale to the Nanoscale 733 Emily M. Ryan and Mohammad A. Khaleel 26.1 Introduction 733 26.2 Governing Equations of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 735 26.3 Macroscale SOFC Modeling 747 26.4 Mesoscale SOFC Modeling 758 26.5 Nanoscale SOFC Modeling 761 26.6 Conclusion 761 References 762 27 Numerical Modeling of the Thermomechanically Induced Stress in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 767 Murat Peksen 27.1 Introduction 767 27.2 Chronological Overview of Numerically Performed Thermomechanical Analyses in SOFCs 768 27.3 Mathematical Formulation of Strain and Stress Within SOFC Components 773 27.4 Effect of Geometric Design on the Stress Distribution in SOFCs 778 27.5 Conclusion 788 References 789 28 Modeling of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 791 Peter Heidebrecht, Silvia Piewek, and Kai Sundmacher 28.1 Introduction 791 28.2 Spatially Distributed MCFC Model 794 28.3 Electrode Models 804 28.4 Conclusion 811 List of Symbols 812 References 814 29 High-Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel-Cell Modeling 819 Uwe Reimer 29.1 Introduction 819 29.2 Cell-Level Modeling 821 29.3 Stack-Level Modeling 825 29.4 Phosphoric Acid as Electrolyte 827 29.5 Basic Modeling of the Polarization Curve 829 29.6 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 834 References 835 30 Modeling of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel-Cell Components 839 Yun Wang and Ken S. Chen 30.1 Introduction 839 30.2 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane 842 30.3 Catalyst Layers 845 30.4 Gas Diffusion Layers and Microporous Layers 850 30.5 Gas Flow Channels 859 30.6 Gas Diffusion Layer-Gas Flow Channel Interface 864 30.7 Bipolar Plates 868 30.8 Coolant Flow 869 30.9 Model Validation 869 30.10 Conclusion 871 List of Symbols 872 References 874 31 Modeling of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells and Stacks 879 Yun Wang and Ken S. Chen 31.1 Introduction 879 31.2 Cell-Level Modeling and Simulation 881 31.3 Stack-Level Modeling and Simulation 906 31.4 Conclusion 911 List of Symbols 912 References 913 Part VI Balance of Plant Design and Components 917 32 Principles of Systems Engineering 919 Ludger Blum, Ralf Peters, and Remzi Can Samsun 32.1 Introduction 919 32.2 Basic Engineering 920 32.3 Detailed Engineering 945 32.4 Procurement 956 32.5 Construction 956 32.6 Conclusion 957 List of Symbols and Abbreviations 958 Subscripts and Superscripts 958 References 959 33 System Technology for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 963 Nguyen Q. Minh 33.1 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Power Generation 963 33.2 Overview of SOFC Power Systems 965 33.3 Subsystem Design for SOFC Power Systems 970 33.4 SOFC Power Systems 991 Acknowledgments 1006 References 1006 34 Desulfurization for Fuel-Cell Systems 1011 Joachim Pasel and Ralf Peters 34.1 Introduction and Motivation 1011 34.2 Sulfur-Containing Molecules in Crude Oil 1011 34.3 Desulfurization in the Gas Phase 1016 34.4 Desulfurization in the Liquid Phase 1022 34.5 Application in Fuel-Cell Systems 1034 34.6 Conclusion 1038 Acknowledgments 1039 References 1039 35 Design Criteria and Components for Fuel Cell Powertrains 1045 Lutz Eckstein and Bruno Gnoerich 35.1 Introduction 1045 35.2 Vehicle Requirements 1045 35.3 Potentials and Challenges of Vehicle Powertrains 1049 35.4 Components of Fuel Cell Powertrains 1061 35.5 Conclusion 1072 Acknowledgment 1073 References 1073 36 Hybridization for Fuel Cells 1075 Joerg Wilhelm 36.1 Introduction 1075 36.2 The Fuel-Cell Hybrid 1076 36.3 Components of a Fuel-Cell Hybrid 1081 36.4 Hybridization Concepts 1085 36.5 Technical Overview 1088 36.6 Systems Analysis 1096 36.7 Conclusion 1098 References 1098 Part VII Systems Verification and Market Introduction 1105 37 Off-Grid Power Supply and Premium Power Generation 1107 Kerry-Ann Adamson 37.1 Introduction 1107 37.2 Premium Power Market Overview 1107 37.3 Off-Grid 1109 37.4 Portable Applications 1113 37.5 Discussion 1117 References 1117 38 Demonstration Projects and Market Introduction 1119 Kristin Deason 38.1 Introduction 1119 38.2 Why Demonstration? 1119 38.3 Transportation Demonstrations 1120 38.4 Stationary Power and Early Market Applications 1139 References 1146 Further Reading 1150 Part VIII Knowledge Distribution and Public Awareness 1151 39 A Sustainable Framework for International Collaboration: the IEA HIA and Its Strategic Plan for 2009 2015 1153 Mary-Rose de Valladares 39.1 Introduction 1153 39.2 The IEA HIA Strategic Framework: Overview 1154 39.3 The Work Program: Issues and Approaches 1166 39.4 IEA HIA: the Past as Prolog 1166 39.5 The 2009 2015 IEA HIA Work Program Timeline 1173 39.6 Conclusion and Final Remarks 1177 References 1179 Further Reading 1179 40 Overview of Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Organizations and Initiatives Worldwide 1181 Bernd Emonts 40.1 Introduction 1181 40.2 International Level 1181 40.3 European Level 1187 40.4 National Level 1196 40.5 Regional Level 1201 40.6 Partnerships, Initiatives, and Networks with a Specific Agenda 1204 40.7 Conclusion 1208 References 1209 41 Contributions for Education and Public Awareness 1211 Thorsteinn I. Sigfusson and Bernd Emonts 41.1 Introduction 1211 41.2 Information for Interested Laypeople 1212 41.3 Education for School Students and University Students 1213 41.4 Electrolyzers and Fuel Cells in Education and Training 1215 41.5 Training and Qualification for Trade and Industry 1216 41.6 Education and Training in the Scientific Arena 1218 41.7 Clarification Assistance in the Political Arena 1219 41.8 Analysis of Public Awareness 1220 41.9 Conclusion 1221 References 1221 Index 1223

About the Author

Prof. Detlef Stolten is the Director of the Institute of Energy Research - Fuel Cells at the Research Center Julich, Germany. Prof Stolten received his doctorate from the University of Technology at Clausthal, Germany. He served many years as a Research Scientist in the laboratories of Robert Bosch and Daimler Benz/Dornier. Since 1998 he has been holding the position of Director at the Research Center Julich. Two years later he became Professor for Fuel Cell Technology at the University of Technology (RWTH) at Aachen. Prof. Stolten's research focuses on electrochemical energy engineering including electrochemistry and energy process engineering of Electrolysis, SOFC and PEFC systems, i.e. cell and stack technology, process and systems engineering as well as systems analysis. Prof. Stolten is Chairman of the Implementing Agreement Advanced Fuel Cells, member of the board of the International Association of Hydrogen Energy (IAHE) and is on the advisory boards of the German National Organization of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (NOW), and the journal Fuel Cells. He was chairman of the World Hydrogen Energy Conference 2010 (WHEC 2010). Dr. Bernd Emonts is the Deputy Director of the Institute of Energy Research at the Julich Research Center, Germany. He received his diploma in structural engineering from the Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Germany, in 1981. He went on to specialize in the fundamentals of mechanical engineering at RWTH Aachen University, Germany and was awarded his PhD in 1989. Working as a scientist, Dr. Emonts has been involved in extensive research and development projects in the areas of catalytic combustion and energy systems with low-temperature fuel cells. Between 1991 and 1994, he concurrently worked as an R & D advisor for a German industrial enterprise in the drying and coating technologies sector. In addition to his scientific activities at Julich Research Center, Germany, Dr. Emonts lectured at Aachen University of Applied Sciences from 1999 to 2008. Dr. Emonts has published extensively in the field of Fuel Cells.

Reviews

For researchers who already have some history with fuelcells and want to maintain their knowledge of the general progressof fuel cell research this could be a useful addition toone s personal library. For those specifically interested in pgm catalysis for fuel cells, I would recommend thebook Catalysis in Electrochemistry: From Fundamentals toStrategies for Fuel Cell Development (5). (Platinum Metals Review, 1 January 2013)

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