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Foundations of the Logical Theory of Scientific Knowledge (Complex Logic)
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One/the Logical Theory of Scientific Knowledge.- 1. Scientific Knowledge1.- 2. Basic Abstractions1.- 3. Three Aspects of the Investigation of Knowledge2.- 4. Intuition4.- 5. Logical Calculi4.- 6. Ordinary Language and Scientific Language5.- 7. Objectivity of Approach6.- Two/Signs.- 1. Object8.- 2. Selection8.- 3. Comparison9.- 4. Correspondence9.- 5. Sign12.- 6. Value of the Sign13.- 7. Relations Between Signs14.- 8. Simple and Complex Signs15.- 9. Meaning of the Sign17.- 10. Construction of Signs18.- 11. Categories of Signs19.- 12. Existence of Objects19.- Three/Terms.- 1. Terms21.- 2. Definitions23.- 3. Traditional Rules of Definition25.- 4. Definitions and Assertions26.- 5. Definition and Selection27.- 6. Concept28.- 7. Meaning and Context29.- 8. The Reduction Problem30.- 9. Terms of Terms31.- Four/Sentences.- 1. The Problem of Defining Sentences32.- 2. Basic Principles of the Construction of Sentences33.- 3. Sentential Operators34.- 4. Complex Terms and Sentences35.- 5. Simple and Complex Sentences36.- 6. Cognitive Activities37.- 7. The Construction of Sentences38.- 8. The Meaning of Sentences40.- 9. Definitions with Sentences41.- 10. Terms from Sentences41.- 11. Truth-Values42.- 12. Sentential Structure and Truth-Values45.- 13. The Number of Truth-Values46.- 14. Truths48.- 15. Verification49.- 16. Local and Universal Sentences50.- 17. Metasentences50.- Five/Sentential Logic.- 1. Sentential Logic52.- 2. The Meaning of Sentences52.- 3. Truth-Values55.- 4. Local and Universal Sentences57.- 5. Types of Sentences59.- 6. Truth Functions60.- 7. Truth Conditions61.- 8. The Construction of Sentences62.- 9. Terms63.- Six/the General Theory of Logical Entailment.- 1. The Problem of Logical Entailment64.- 2. Classical Theory of Entailment65.- 3. Non-Classical Theory of Entailment65.- 4. The General Theory of Logical Entailment.- 5. The Intuitive Theory of Logical Entailment69.- 6. Degenerate Entailment72.- 7. Quasi-Entailment72.- 8. Reasoning and Entailment72.- 9. Sentences about Entailment73.- Seven/Formalization of the General Theory of Logical Entailment.- 1. Strong Logical Entailment75.- 2. Another Variant of the System of Strong Entailment78.- 3. Weakened Logical Entailment81.- 4. Maximal Logical Entailment82.- 5. Converse Logical Entailment82.- 6. Degenerate Logical Entailment83.- 7. Quasi-Entailment83.- 8. Logical Entailment and Classical Sentential Calculus84.- 9. Paradoxes of Entailment84.- 10. Classical and Non-Classical Sentential Relations86.- 11. Non-Classical Cases in the General Theory of Deduction88.- 12. Expansion of the General Theory of Logical Entailment89.- Eight/Subject-Predicate Structures.- 1. Objects and Attributes90.- 2. The Most Elementary Sentences91.- 3. Extrinsic Negation94.- 4. Terms95.- 5. Definitions97.- 6. Rules of Substitution of Terms99.- 7. Individualization of Terms100.- 8. Sentences on n-Tuples of Objects100.- 9. Transformation Rules and Terms102.- 10. Definitions103.- 11. Existential Predicate103.- 12. Two Types of Objects and Attributes104.- 13. Truth-Values105.- 14. Theory of Predication107.- Nine/Empirical And Abstract Objects.- 1.Empirical Objects109.- 2. Abstract Objects110.- 3. Interpretation112.- 4. Calculus113.- 5. Empirical and Exact Sciences113.- 6. States114.- 7. Situation115.- 8. The Collection of Situations115.- 9. Derivative Sentences116.- 10. Variation118.- 11. Variation of Attributes119.- 12. Magnitude120.- 13. Range of Truth121.- Ten/Sentences with Quantifiers.- 1. Quantifiers123.- 2. The Structure of Quantified Sentences123.- 3. Indeterminacy126.- 4. Quantification of Terms126.- 5. Extrinsic Negation127.- 6. Definitions of Quantifiers128.- 7. Other Quantifiers130.- 8. A Number of Quantifiers131.- 9. Truth-Values132.- 10. Quantifiers and Existence133.- 11. Rules of Logical Entailment134.- 12. Introduction and Elimination of Quantifiers134.- 13. Quantifiers and the Signs "and" and "or"135.- 14. Syllogistics of Properties137.- 15. Implicit Quantifiers138.- 16. Terms139.- 17. Partial Quantification139.- 18. Construction of Sentences139.- 19. Definitions and Assertions143.- 20. Classical and Non-Classical Relations Between Sentences144.- Eleven/Theory of Quantifiers.- 1. Paradoxes of Theory of Quantifiers 146.- 2. Classical and Non-Classical Cases147.- 3. Restriction of the Classical Calculus of Predicates147.- 4. Classical Strong Theory of Quantifiers148.- 5. Other Systems of Classical Theory of Quantifiers152.- 6. Classical Theory of Quantifiers and Classical Predicate Calculus153.- 7. Non-Classical Theory of Quantifiers154.- 8. Intuitionist Logic and Non-Classical Theory of Quantifiers155.- 9. Weakening of Intuitive Requirements156.- Twelve/Conditional Sentences.- 1. Conditional Sentences157.- 2. The Construction of Conditional Sentences157.- 3. Truth-Values158.- 4. Logical Conditions158.- 5. Deductive Properties of Conditional Sentences159.- 6. Contrafactual Sentences161.- 7. Explanation161.- 8. Conditionality and Quantifiers161.- Thirteen/Theory of Terms.- Fourteen/Classes.- 1. Classes166.- 2. Inclusion in a Class168.- 3. Classes of Classes168.- 4. Paradox of the Class of Normal Classes170.- 5. Limitations of the Concept of Class171.- 6. Empty and Non-Empty Classes172.- 7. Universal Classes172.- 8. Derivative Classes173.- 9. Relations Between Classes174.- 10. Terms175.- 11. The Number of Elements of a Class176.- 12. Composition and Power of a Class178.- 13. Functions179.- 14. Functions with Sentences180.- 15. Definitions181.- 16. Models181.- 17. Logic of Classes182.- 18. Quasi-Classical Cases in Theory of Quantifiers184.- Fifteen/ Existential Logic.- 1. Non-Classical Cases185.- 2. Classical Cases186.- 3. Interpretation186.- Sixteen/ Modal Sentences.- 1. Events187.- 2. Basic Modalities188.- 3. Introduction of Modality189.- 4. The Logical Limits of Modality191.- 5. Prediction192.- 6. The Meaning of Modal Predicates193.- 7. The Modality of Individual and Recurrent Events195.- 8. The Logical Properties of Modal Predicates195.- 9. Randomness197.- 10. Modality and Existence197.- 11. Modality of a Higher Order198.- 12. Modality and Quantifiers199.- 13. Modality and Entailment200.- 14. Modality and Conditionality200.- 15. Linguistic Transformations201.- 16. Terms201.- 17. Truth-Values202.- 18. Probability203.- 19. The Actual and the Potential204.- 20. Basic Modal Logic204.- 21. Normative Sentences206.- 22. Modalities and Norms209.- Seventeen/ Relations.- 1. Sentences About Relations210.- 2. Logical Types of Relations211.- 3. Simple and Complex Relations211.- 4. Elementary and Derivative Relations211.- 5. Binary and n-ary Relations212.- 6. Universal and Local Relations213.- 7. Pseudorelations213.- 8. Comparison214.- 9. Relations of Order216.- 10. The Logic of Relations217.- 11. The Relation "Between"219.- 12. Interval219.- 13. Ordered Series220.- 14. The Length of an Interval and of a Series221.- 15. Structure223.- 16. Relation and Function224.- Eighteen/ Physical Entailment.- 1. Empirical Objects226.- 2. Order of Events226.- 3. Ordered Conjunctions228.- 4. Physical Entailment229.- 5. Truth-Values231.- 6. Deductive Properties of Physical Entailment232.- 7. Physical Entailment and Functions233.- 8. Two-Valued and Many-Valued Functions234.- 9. Empirical Connections235.- 10. Contrafactual Sentences237.- 11. Sentences on Connections and Individual Events238.- Nineteen/ Theories.- 1. Theory239.- 2. Theoretical Assumptions242.- 3. Properties and Relations Between Theories243.- 4. Theory and Experience245.- 5. Theory and Formal System245.- 6. Non-Deductive Principles246.- Twenty/ Logic and Ontology.- 1. Ontological Assertions in Logic247.- 2. Paradoxes of Motion248.- 3. Space and Time249.- 4. Part and Whole254.- 5. Cause255.- Twenty-One/ the Universality of Logic.- 1. Doubts About the Universality of Logic257.- 2. Examples of the "Non-Universality" of Logic258.- 3. Many-Valued Logic and the Universality of Logic260.- 4. Differences in Logical Systems261.- Conclusion.- Append.- Proof of the Basic Theorems of the Theory of Logical.- Entailment.- G. A. Smirno.- Independence in the Systems of Logical Entailment.- E. A. Sidorenko.- Some Variants of the Systems of Logical Entailment.- E. A. Sidorenko.- Completeness of the Systems of Logical Entailment.- A. M. Fedina.- Completeness of Systems of Degenerate Entailment and Quasi-Entailment.- L. A. Bobrova.- Index of Names.

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