Preface 1. A Basic Problem: The Uncertain Role of Intelligence in National Security 2. Pathologies of Intelligence-Policy Relations 3. Policy Oversell and Politicization 4. The Johnson Administration and the Vietnam Estimates 5. The Nixon Administration and the Soviet Strategic Threat 6. The Ford Administration and the Team B Affair 7. Intelligence, Policy, and the War in Iraq 8. Politics, Politicization, and the Need for Secrecy Appendix A: Pathologies of Intelligence-Policy Relations Appendix B: Varieties of Politicization Notes Index
Joshua Rovner is the John Goodwin Tower Professor of International Politics and National Security at Southern Methodist University, where he also serves as Director of Studies at the Tower Center for Political Studies.
"Intelligence should inform policymakers without pandering to them. In practice, it proves easy to honor either one of these aims but surprisingly hard to accomplish both at once. Joshua Rovner's careful study of the subtle dynamics of this balancing act is a model of intelligent, balanced, and policy-relevant scholarship."-Richard K. Betts, Director, Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies, Columbia University "If leaders are free to disregard unwelcome intelligence estimates, why would they pressure analysts to alter their reports? Joshua Rovner answers this question by identifying how intelligence can empower officials facing domestic political pressures and constraints. Fixing the Facts advances our theoretical and practical understanding of intelligence politicization by highlighting the politics at the heart of the intelligence-policy nexus."-James J. Wirtz, Dean of the School of International Graduate Studies, Monterey, California "Fixing the Facts is an insightful exploration of how relations between intelligence officers and policymakers too often go sour. Joshua Rovner convincingly shows that politicization has been a persistent phenomenon and that many of the best-known errors and controversies involving intelligence are rooted in politics and in efforts by leaders to sell their policies to the public."-Paul R. Pillar, Georgetown University, former senior CIA official "In this rigorous and penetrating examination of the oft-mentioned but virtually opaque mystery of how politicization affects intelligence work, Joshua Rovner accomplishes more-even furnishing a taxonomy of the genus-than anyone in decades. No interested reader or intelligence professional can afford to miss Fixing the Facts."-John Prados, author of How the Cold War Ended "Does intelligence shape policy, or do policy and politics shape intelligence? Joshua Rovner's careful theorizing and in-depth historical studies provide a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the complex relationships among intelligence, policy, and politics. Fixing the Facts is essential reading for theorists, historians, and the intelligence and policy communities."-Jack S. Levy, Board of Governors' Professor, Rutgers University